Clinical potential of SLAMF7 antibodies - focus on elotuzumab in multiple myeloma.
ABSTRACT: Elotuzumab is one of the first monoclonal antibodies to be approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma. It is a humanized immunoglobulin G kappa (IgGκ) antibody that targets signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 7 (SLAMF7), a surface marker that is highly expressed on normal and malignant plasma cells. This review summarizes the preclinical and clinical data that led to the approval of elotuzumab, along with a discussion on the ongoing and future clinical investigations.
Project description:Elotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the extracellular domain of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule F7 (SLAMF7) highly expressed in multiple myeloma cells. Upon binding to myeloma cells, elotuzumab exerts its cytotoxic effects through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, the antibody-induced selective lysis of tumor cells by activated natural killer (NK) cells. Furthermore, elotuzumab has been shown to directly induce NK-cell activation by binding to SLAMF7 expressed on NK cells and to indirectly modulate T-cell function by promoting the secretion of cytokines from NK cells. In combination with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone, elotuzumab has shown remarkable effects in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. In these patients, the risk of disease progression or death was significantly reduced by 30% on elotuzumab. Currently, elotuzumab is being evaluated in various myeloma patient populations and combination regimens. This review discusses the use of elotuzumab as an antimultiple myeloma agent and provides an update on the results of recent clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of elotuzumab for the treatment of multiple myeloma.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is a bone marrow plasma cell neoplasm and is the second most-common hematologic malignancy. Despite advances in therapy, MM remains largely incurable. Elotuzumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting SLAMF7, which is highly expressed on myeloma cells, and the antibody is approved for the treatment of relapsed and/or refractory (RR) MM in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. Elotuzumab can stimulate robust antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) through engaging with Fc?RIIIA (CD16) on NK cells and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) by macrophages. Interestingly, SLAMF7 is also expressed on cytolytic NK cells, which also express the requisite adaptor protein, EAT-2, to mediate activation signaling. Accumulating evidence indicates that antibody crosslinking of SLAMF7 on human and mouse NK cells can stimulate EAT-2-dependent activation of PLC?, ERK, and intracellular calcium mobilization. The binding of SLAMF7 by elotuzumab can directly induce signal transduction in human NK cells, including co-stimulation of the calcium signaling triggered through other surface receptors, such as NKp46 and NKG2D. In RRMM patients, elotuzumab monotherapy did not produce objective responses, but did enhance the activity of approved standard of care therapies, including lenalidomide or bortezomib, which are known to enhance anti-tumor responses by NK cells. Taken together, these preclinical results and accumulating experience in the clinic provide compelling evidence that the mechanism of action of elotuzumab in MM patients involves the activation of NK cells through both CD16-mediated ADCC and direct co-stimulation via engagement with SLAMF7, as well as promoting ADCP by macrophages. We review the current understanding of how elotuzumab utilizes multiple mechanisms to facilitate immune-mediated attack of myeloma cells, as well as outline goals for future research.
Project description:Treatment options for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have increased during the past decade. Despite the significant advances, challenges remain on which combination strategies will provide the optimal response for any given patient. Defining optimal combination strategies and corresponding companion diagnostics, that will guide clinical decisions are required to target relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) in order to improve disease progression, survival and quality of life for patients with MM. Elotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets signaling lymphocytic activation molecule F7 (SLAMF7), approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2015 and the European Medicines Agency in 2016 for the treatment of MM. SLAMF7 is expressed in normal and malignant plasma cells and has lower expression on natural killer (NK) cells. Experimental evidence indicates that elotuzumab exhibits anti-myeloma activity through 1) antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, 2) enhancing NK cells cytotoxicity and 3) interfering with adhesion of MM cells to bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). Although elotuzumab has no single agent activity in patients with RRMM who have received one to three prior therapies, the combination of elotuzumab with anti-myeloma agents, such as immunomodulatory drugs-lenalidomide, or proteasome inhibitors (PIs)-bortezomib, remarkably improved the overall response rates and progression-free survival in MM patients with only minimal incremental toxicity. In brief, the clinical data for elotuzumab indicate that targeting SLAMF7 in combination with the use of conventional therapies is feasible and effective with a tolerable safety profile for the treatment of RRMM.
Project description:Elotuzumab is a humanized therapeutic monoclonal antibody directed to the surface glycoprotein SLAMF7 (CS1, CRACC, CD319), which is highly expressed on multiple myeloma (MM) tumor cells. Improved clinical outcomes have been observed following treatment of MM patients with elotuzumab in combination with lenalidomide or bortezomib. Previous work showed that elotuzumab stimulates NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), via Fc-domain engagement with Fc?RIIIa (CD16). SLAMF7 is also expressed on NK cells, where it can transmit stimulatory signals. We tested whether elotuzumab can directly activate NK cells via ligation with SLAMF7 on NK cells in addition to targeting ADCC through CD16. We show that elotuzumab strongly promoted degranulation and activation of NK cells in a CD16-dependent manner, and a non-fucosylated form of elotuzumab with higher affinity to CD16 exhibited enhanced potency. Using F(ab')2 or Fc-mutant forms of the antibody, the direct binding of elotuzumab to SLAMF7 alone could not stimulate measurable CD69 expression or degranulation of NK cells. However, the addition of soluble elotuzumab could costimulate calcium signaling responses triggered by multimeric engagement of NKp46 and NKG2D in a CD16-independent manner. Thus, while elotuzumab primarily stimulates NK cells through CD16, it can also transduce effective "trans"-costimulatory signals upon direct engagement with SLAMF7, since these responses did not require direct co-engagement with the activating receptors. Trans-costimulation by elotuzumab has potential to reduce activation thresholds of other NK cell receptors engaging with their ligands on myeloma target cell surfaces, thereby potentially further increasing NK cell responsiveness in patients.
Project description:Elotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-F7 (SLAMF7, also known as CS1, CD319, or CRACC) that enhances natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of SLAMF7-expressing myeloma cells. This study explored the mechanisms underlying enhanced myeloma cell killing with elotuzumab as a single agent and in combination with lenalidomide, to support ongoing phase III trials in patients with relapsed/refractory or newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). An in vitro peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL)/myeloma cell co-culture model was developed to evaluate the combination of elotuzumab and lenalidomide. Expression of activation markers and adhesion receptors was evaluated by flow cytometry, cytokine expression by Luminex and ELISPOT assays, and cytotoxicity by myeloma cell counts. Elotuzumab activated NK cells and promoted myeloma cell death in PBL/myeloma cell co-cultures. The combination of elotuzumab plus lenalidomide demonstrated superior anti-myeloma activity on established MM xenografts in vivo and in PBL/myeloma cell co-cultures in vitro than either agent alone. The combination enhanced myeloma cell killing by modulating NK cell function that coincided with the upregulation of adhesion and activation markers, including interleukin (IL)-2R? expression, IL-2 production by CD3(+)CD56(+) lymphocytes, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production. In co-culture assays, TNF-? directly increased NK cell activation and myeloma cell death with elotuzumab or elotuzumab plus lenalidomide, and neutralizing TNF-? decreased NK cell activation and myeloma cell death with elotuzumab. These results demonstrate that elotuzumab activates NK cells and induces myeloma cell death via NK cell-mediated ADCC, which is further enhanced when combined with lenalidomide.
Project description:Elotuzumab, targeting signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family 7 (SLAMF7), has been approved in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (ELd) for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM) based on the findings of the phase III randomized trial ELOQUENT-2 (NCT01239797). Four-year follow-up analyses of ELOQUENT-2 have demonstrated that progression-free survival was 21% in ELd versus 14% in Ld. Elotuzumab binds a unique epitope on the membrane IgC2 domain of SLAMF7, exhibiting a dual mechanism of action: natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and enhancement of NK cell activity. The ADCC is mediated through engagement between Fc portion of elotuzumab and FcgRIIIa/CD16 on NK cells. Enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity results from phosphorylation of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) that is induced via elotuzumab binding and recruits the SLAM-associated adaptor protein EAT-2. The coupling of EAT-2 to the phospholipase Cg enzymes SH2 domain leads to enhanced Ca2+ influx and MAPK/Erk pathway activation, resulting in granule polarization and enhanced exocytosis in NK cells. Elotuzumab does not stimulate the proliferation of MM cells due to a lack of EAT-2. The inhibitory effects of elotuzumab on MM cell growth are not induced by the lack of CD45, even though SHP-2, SHP-1, SHIP-1, and Csk may be recruited to phosphorylated ITSM of SLAMF7. ELd improves PFS in patients with high-risk cytogenetics, i.e. t(4;14), del(17p), and 1q21 gain/amplification. Since the immune state is paralytic in advanced MM, the efficacy of ELd with minimal toxicity may bring forward for consideration of its use in the early stages of the disease.
Project description:Elotuzumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against the SLAMF7 receptor, expressed on normal and malignant plasma cells with a lower expression on other lymphoid cells such as natural killer (NK) cells. Elotuzumab has no significant antimyeloma activity when given as a single agent to patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). However, when combined with other antimyeloma agents, it results in improved response and outcome. Owing to the results from the landmark ELOQUENT-2 phase III clinical trial, which compared lenalidomide and dexamethasone with or without elotuzumab in patients with RRMM, elotuzumab in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone was approved by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in November 2015 for multiple myeloma (MM) patients who received one to three prior lines of therapy. This review will give a brief description of the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family receptors, the unique SLAMF7 receptor and the mechanism of action of elotuzumab. Thereafter, we will give an overview on its antimyeloma activity in preclinical and clinical trials, including its toxicity profile and management thereof.
Project description:Although the introduction of novel drugs has improved outcome significantly in multiple myeloma (MM), many patients still eventually relapse. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting MM-related antigens can complement currently available therapies. CS1 (also known as CD2 subunit 1, SLAMF7, CD319, and CRACC), a cell surface glycoprotein receptor that is a member of the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family, is highly and nearly uniformly expressed in myeloma cells at the gene and protein level, but not expressed in other tissues, including hematopoietic stem cells, making CS1 a compelling target for the design of immunotherapies directed at MM. Elotuzumab (formerly HuLuc63), which is a humanized IgG1 mAb recognizing the extracellular region of human CS1, has been shown to be effective in preclinical and early stage clinical investigations, and its efficacy and safety will be further validated in ongoing Phase III trials. Integration of elotuzumab into multidrug therapeutic paradigms seems logical, as elotuzumab is more effective when combined with other agents, such as immunomodulatory drugs or proteasome inhibitors. The functional role of CS1 in MM pathogenesis and the consequences of elotuzumab on normal immune cells should be further investigated. Identification of potential biomarkers and exploration of resistance mechanisms are important issues for elotuzumab-based therapies, as is determining the best clinical placement of elotuzumab, not only in the relapsed/refractory setting but also in upfront therapy for high-risk frank MM, smoldering MM at high-risk of progression, and in maintenance regimens. This review will cover the biological characteristics of CS1 in normal immune cells and MM cells, the efficacy profile and mechanisms of action of elotuzumab from preclinical and clinical investigations, and its potential impact on the treatment of MM.
Project description:The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family (SLAMF7; also known as CS1 or CD319) is highly expressed on plasma cells from multiple myeloma (MM) as well as natural killer (NK) cells and is a well-known therapeutic target of elotuzumab. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of serum soluble SLAMF7 (sSLAMF7) levels in patients with MM (n=103) and furthermore the impact of sSLMF7 on the antitumor activity of anti-SLAMF7 antibody. Thirty-one percent of MM patients, but not patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and healthy controls, had detectable levels of serum sSLAMF7, which were significantly increased in advanced MM patients. Further, MM in sSLAMF7-postive patients exhibited aggressive clinical characteristics with shorter progression-free survival times in comparison with sSLAMF7-negative patients. In responders to MM therapy, the levels of sSLAMF7 were undetectable or decreased compared with those before treatment. In addition, the anti-SLAMF7 antibody-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of NK cells against MM cell lines was inhibited by recombinant SLAMF7 protein. Thus, our findings suggest that high concentrations of sSLAMF7, which could transiently suppress the therapeutic effects of elotuzumab, may be a useful indicator of disease progression in MM patients.
Project description:Elotuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds human signaling lymphocytic activation molecule F7 (hSLAMF7) on myeloma cells, was developed to treat patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Elotuzumab has a dual mechanism of action that includes the direct activation of natural killer (NK) cells and the induction of NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. This study aimed to characterize the effects of elotuzumab on NK cells in vitro and in patients with MM and to determine whether elotuzumab antitumor activity was improved by programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) blockade. Elotuzumab promoted NK cell activation when added to a coculture of human NK cells and SLAMF7-expressing myeloma cells. An increased frequency of activated NK cells was observed in bone marrow aspirates from elotuzumab-treated patients. In mouse tumor models expressing hSLAMF7, maximal antitumor efficacy of a murine immunoglobulin G2a version of elotuzumab (elotuzumab-g2a) required both Fc? receptor-expressing NK cells and CD8+ T cells and was significantly enhanced by coadministration of anti-PD-1 antibody. In these mouse models, elotuzumab-g2a and anti-PD-1 combination treatment promoted tumor-infiltrating NK and CD8+ T-cell activation, as well as increased intratumoral cytokine and chemokine release. These observations support the rationale for clinical investigation of elotuzumab/anti-PD-1 combination therapy in patients with MM.