Searching for the relationship between the parameters of metabolic syndrome and the rs17782313 (T>C) polymorphism of the MC4R gene in postmenopausal women.
ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is widespread in the human population, and its incidence is continuously increasing, generating serious health problems. The purpose of this study was to find the relationship between the parameters of MS and the melanocortin type 4 receptor (MC4R) gene polymorphism in postmenopausal women. The study involved 344 healthy Polish women, who had their last menstrual cycle 1 year ago or earlier. The study included blood analysis, survey, and body measurements. The mean age was 58.5±6.6 years. An increased body mass index was observed in 65.7% and abdominal obesity in 80.3% of the study population. MS was diagnosed in 40.7% of all participants, including 39.3% of women with the T/T genotype and 44.7% of those with the C/X genotype (?2 test; P>0.05). A logistic regression model showed that the probability of MS was higher in patients with the C/X genotype (odds ratio =1.25) (?2 test; P>0.05). The study concluded that MS is a very common condition among postmenopausal women. The C/X genotype of the MC4R gene seems to predispose postmenopausal women to developing some MS symptoms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diabetes is mostly assessed by the fasting glucose level. Several studies reported that serum fasting glucose levels and cardiovascular disease are associated with MC4R. METHODS:A total of 4294 subjects participated in this study. There were 1810 subjects with cardiovascular disease among the 4294 subjects. We used multivariate linear regression models and multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:Individuals with the TC/CC genotype had a 1.29-fold higher risk of diabetes than did those with the TT genotype when adjusting for age, sex, and BMI (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.04-1.60). For healthy subjects, the association was significant in women (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.01-3.93). Men with the TC/CC genotype had a 1.21-fold higher risk of cardiovascular disease than did those with the TT genotype when adjusting for age, sex, and BMI (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.04-1.41). The relationship between MC4R and cardiovascular disease was stronger in lean men (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.12-1.74, p?=?0.0028) than in overweight men. CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that the rs17782313 SNP in MC4R is related to diabetes and the SNP is also associated with cardiovascular disease in lean men.
Project description:Genetic variants of the FTO gene rs9939609 A/T and the MC4R gene rs17782313 C/T have been associated with obesity. Individuals with mutations in MC4R gene have lower blood pressure (BP), independently of obesity. This study aimed to investigate the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with anthropometric indexes, BP, and type 2 diabetes mellitus among hypertensive patients.We genotyped 217 individuals (86 men and 131 women) with hypertension (systolic or diastolic BP???140/90 mmHg or using antihypertensive drugs). Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Waist and neck circumferences (cm), Body Adiposity Index (BAI,%), Lipid Accumulation Product Index (LAP, cm.mmol.l) and body mass index (BMI, kg/m²) were analyzed using analysis of covariance or modified Poisson's regression.Rare allele frequencies were 0.40 for A for FTO rs9939609 and 0.18 for C for MC4R rs17782313. A positive association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with BMI was observed in the overall sample. Among men and women, neck circumference was associated with the FTO genotype and, for women, MC4R genotype. In contrast, in men we found a negative association of MC4R rs17782313 with diastolic BP (TT 90.1 ±12.2, TC/CC 83.2 ±12.1; P?=?0.03) and borderline association for systolic BP after controlling for age and BMI.Common genetic variants of FTO rs9939609 have positive associations with BMI and neck circumference and MC4R rs17782313 in women, but a negative association with diastolic and mean blood pressure in men with hypertension.
Project description:Overweight and obesity are strongly associated with endometrial cancer. Several independent genome-wide association studies recently identified two common polymorphisms, FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313, that are linked to increased body weight and obesity. We examined the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with endometrial cancer risk in a pooled analysis of nine case-control studies within the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2). This analysis included 3601 non-Hispanic white women with histologically-confirmed endometrial carcinoma and 5275 frequency-matched controls. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the relation of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 genotypes to the risk of endometrial cancer. Among control women, both the FTO rs9939609 A and MC4R rs17782313 C alleles were associated with a 16% increased risk of being overweight (p?=?0.001 and p?=?0.004, respectively). In case-control analyses, carriers of the FTO rs9939609 AA genotype were at increased risk of endometrial carcinoma compared to women with the TT genotype [odds ratio (OR) ?=?1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.32, p?=?0.01]. However, this association was no longer apparent after adjusting for body mass index (BMI), suggesting mediation of the gene-disease effect through body weight. The MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism was not related to endometrial cancer risk (per allele OR?=?0.98; 95% CI: 0.91-1.06; p?=?0.68). FTO rs9939609 is a susceptibility marker for white non-Hispanic women at higher risk of endometrial cancer. Although FTO rs9939609 alone might have limited clinical or public health significance for identifying women at high risk for endometrial cancer beyond that of excess body weight, further investigation of obesity-related genetic markers might help to identify the pathways that influence endometrial carcinogenesis.
Project description:Melanocortins have a crucial role in appetite and weight regulation. Although the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene has been repeatedly linked to obesity and antipsychotic-induced weight gain, the mechanism behind how it leads to this effect in still undetermined. The goal of this study was to conduct an in-depth and sophisticated analysis of MC4R polymorphisms, body mass index (BMI), eating behavior and depressed mood.We genotyped 328 individuals of European ancestry on the following MC4R markers based on the relevant literature on obesity and antipsychotic-induced weight gain: rs571312, rs17782313, rs489693, rs11872992, and rs8087522. Height and weight were measured, and information on depressed mood and overeating behaviors was obtained during the in-person assessment.BMI was associated with rs17782313 C allele; however, this finding did not survive correction for multiple testing (P = 0.018). Although rs17782313 was significantly associated with depressed mood and overeating behaviors, tests of indirect effects indicated that emotional eating and food cravings, rather than depressed mood, uniquely accounted for the effect of this marker and BMI (n = 152).To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the link between MC4R rs17782313, mood and overeating behavior, as well as to demonstrate possible mechanisms behind MC4R's influence on body weight. If replicated in a larger sample, these results may have important clinical implications, including potential for the use of MC4R agonists in the treatment of obesity and disordered eating.
Project description:Earlier GWAS has identified that rs17782313 near MC4R was associated with obesity. However, subsequent studies showed conflicting results, especially among childhood. Besides, the mechanisms underlying the association between rs17782313 and childhood obesity remain largely unexplored, and genetic and epigenetic may interact and together affect the development of childhood obesity. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to assess the association between rs17782313 and childhood obesity. MeQTL and eQTL analysis was applied to explore the effect of rs17782313 on DNA methylation and MC4R expression. We found that rs17782313 near MC4R was associated with increased childhood obesity risk and BMI z-score in several inheritable models (P < 0.05). Additionally, the similar trend was observed among subgroups of Asians, Caucasian. Furthermore, meQTL and eQTL analysis indicated that individuals carrying rs17782313 TT genotype were significantly associated with increased methylation level of cg10097150 located in MC4R promoter and decreased expression of MC4R than those with CT/CC genotype (P = 1.7 × 10-4 and P = 1.9 × 10-3 respectively). Our results strongly confirmed that rs17782313 was associated with increased risk of childhood obesity. Furthermore, rs17782313 T allele was correlated with promoter hypermethylation and decreased expression of MC4R, thus involved in the development of childhood obesity.
Project description:The C/T polymorphism (rs17782313) mapped 188 kb downstream of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) shows a strong relationship with an increased body mass index (BMI) and the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the information on polymorphism's potential modifying effect on obesity- and metabolic-related traits achieved through training is still unknown. Therefore, we decided to check if selected body measurements observed in physically active participants would be modulated by the genotype. The genotype distribution was examined in a group of 201 Polish women measured for chosen traits before and after the completion of a 12 week moderate-intensive aerobic training program. A statistically significant relationship between the glucose level and the genotype was identified (p = 0.046). Participants with CC and CT genotypes had a higher glucose level during the entire study period compared with the TT genotype. However, our results did not confirm the relationship between the C allele and an increased BMI or other obesity-related traits. Additionally, we did not observe a near MC4R C/T polymorphism x physical activity interaction. However, our results revealed that majority of obesity-related variables changed significantly during the 12 week training program. The effect sizes (d) of these changes ranged from small to medium (d = 0.11-0.80), whereas the largest effect (d = 0.80; i.e. medium) was reported for the fat mass content (FM). We found a relationship between the near MC4R C/T polymorphism and an increased glucose level, and it is thus a candidate to influence type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, after the 12 week training program, participants with the C (risk) allele with fasting hyperglycemia had a normal glucose level. Although, this change was not statistically significant, it shows an important trend which needs further investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder causing infertility in reproductive-age women. The cause of PCOS is not fully understood but it is thought to be influenced by environmental and genetic factors. Obesity is greatly related to PCOS and its reduction is one of the major aims in treating PCOS. Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene polymorphisms were detected to be associated with different levels of obesity. Therefore, we aimed to determine the genotype and allele frequency of MC4R variants rs12970134 (A/G) and rs17782313 (C/T) in PCOS and investigate their association with PCOS and its clinical variables. METHODS:A case-control study was conducted on 189 women, consisting of 95 PCOS cases and 94 controls. Genotyping was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using TaqMan™ Genotyping assays. Quantitative data were presented as (median ± interquartile range (IQR) whereas qualitative data were presented as frequencies. The chi-squared test was used to observe the difference between SNPs within the study groups (PCOS and control subjects). Multinomial logistic regression was used to test the risk of obesity and development of PCOS considering p < 0.05 is statistically significant. RESULTS:Rs12970134 and rs17782313 are significantly associated with body mass index (BMI, kg/m2, p < 0.0001) in PCOS women but not associated with PCOS itself. Risk alleles in our population are A in rs12970134 and C in rs17782313 that are associated with high BMI (> 30 kg/m2) in obese women with PCOS (OR = 1.348, p = 0.002 and OR = 1.364, p = 0.002 respectively) in the homozygous state. In addition, we found that the other genotypes for non-obese PCOS group, AG/GG for rs12970134 and CT/TT for rs17782313, are associated with hirsutism, loss of hair, hyperandrogenism and anti-Müllerian hormone in PCOS. CONCLUSIONS:These findings demonstrate that MC4R single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs12970134 and rs17782313, are correlated with elevated BMI in PCOS but are not causative factors for PCOS among women in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the reverse genotypes are associated with major clinical variants in non-obese (< 30 kg/m2) PCOS patients may demonstrate a poor prognosis for this group.
Project description:The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) regulates metabolism by modulating eating behavior and MC4R variants (rs17782313 and rs571312) are associated with obesity in Asians and Caucasians. However, the impact of their interactions with nutritional and lifestyle factors on obesity are poorly described. Therefore, we investigated the interaction of MC4R variants and dietary patterns on the risk of obesity in Korean middle-aged adults.Data collected included, genetic variations, anthropometric and biochemical measurements, dietary and lifestyle habits, and food intake. Data were obtained from the 8830 adults aged 40-69 years in the Ansung and Ansan cohort of the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study.The MC4R rs18882313 minor allele had a higher frequency in the obese group (P < 0.01). MC4R genotypes were not associated with differences in daily energy and macronutrient intakes. However, the intakes of processed foods and fat (as percentages of energy) were significantly higher and intake of fruits were significantly lower in subjects with MC4R minor alleles (P < 0.05). Interestingly, there was a positive interaction between MC4R variants and mental stress levels that were associated with the risk of obesity after adjusting for age, gender, residence area, daily energy intake, smoking status and physical activity (interaction P = 0.0384). Only in subjects with high stress were MC4R minor alleles associated with higher BMIs after adjusting for confounders. The association was present without modulating energy and nutrient intake. In the group with energy intakes higher than estimated energy requirement (EER), subjects with MC4R minor alleles had higher BMIs than those with the major alleles (P < 0.001).The interactions of mental stress and energy intakes with the MC4R minor allele genotype might be associated with increased risk of obesity in Korean adults. This research might identify subjects with a specific MC4R minor alleles as a human subset of people with a low metabolic tolerance for excessive energy intake, especially when under stress.
Project description:Objectives:Obesity is a significant risk factor for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Obesity usually results from a combination of causes and contributing factors, including genetics and lifestyle choices. Many studies have shown an association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) and the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) genes with body mass index (BMI). Therefore, recognizing the main genes and their relevant genetic variants will aid prediction of obesity risk. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency of rs9939609 and rs17782313 polymorphisms in FTO and MC4R genes in an Iranian population. Methods:We enrolled 130 obese patients and 83 healthy weight controls and calculated their BMI. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and the frequency of rs9939609 and rs17782313 polymorphisms in FTO and MC4R genes was determined using the tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). Results:Significant associations were found between FTO rs9939609 and BMI. Where homozygous risk allele carriers (A-A) have significant higher odds ratio (OR) of being obese than individuals with normal BMI (OR = 6.927, p < 0.005, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.48-13.78). No significant correlation between MC4R rs17782313 and obesity were observed when compared to healthy weight individuals. Although subjects with C-C genotype had higher odds of obesity (OR = 1.889, p = 0.077, 95%CI: 0.92-3.84). Conclusions:This study shows a relationship between FTO polymorphism and increased BMI, therefore, SNP in the FTO gene influence changes in BMI and can be considered a prognostic marker of obesity risk.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Genetic variants of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R), agouti related protein (AGRP) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) are reported to be associated with obesity. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine MC4R rs17782313, MC4R rs17700633, AGRP rs3412352 and POMCrs1042571 for any association with obesity in North Indian subjects. METHODS:The variants were investigated for association in 300 individuals with BMI ?30 kg/m(2) and 300 healthy non-obese individuals BMI <30 kg/m(2.) The genotyping were analyzed by Taqman probes. The statistical analysis was performed by the SPSS software, ver.19 and p?0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS:The genotypes of MC4R rs17782313 and POMC rs1042571 were significantly associated with obesity (C), (p=0.02; OR=1.7 and p=0.01; OR=1.6, respectively); however, MC4Rrs17700633 (p=0.001; OR=0.55) was associated with low risk. In addition, AGRPrs3412352 (p=0.93; OR=0.96) showed no association with obesity (BMI ?30 kg/m(2)) in North Indian subjects. CONCLUSION:This study provides the report about the significant association of MC4R (rs17782313) and POMC (rs1042571) with morbid obesity (BMI ?30 kg/m(2)), but MC4R (rs17700633) and AGRP (rs34123523) did not show any association with obesity in the studied North Indian population.