Gene Expression Profiles of Human Phosphotyrosine Phosphatases Consequent to Th1 Polarisation and Effector Function.
ABSTRACT: Phosphotyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) constitute a complex family of enzymes that control the balance of intracellular phosphorylation levels to allow cell responses while avoiding the development of diseases. Despite the relevance of CD4 T cell polarisation and effector function in human autoimmune diseases, the expression profile of PTPs during T helper polarisation and restimulation at inflammatory sites has not been assessed. Here, a systematic analysis of the expression profile of PTPs has been carried out during Th1-polarising conditions and upon PKC activation and intracellular raise of Ca2+ in effector cells. Changes in gene expression levels suggest a previously nonnoted regulatory role of several PTPs in Th1 polarisation and effector function. A substantial change in the spatial compartmentalisation of ERK during T cell responses is proposed based on changes in the dose of cytoplasmic and nuclear MAPK phosphatases. Our study also suggests a regulatory role of autoimmune-related PTPs in controlling T helper polarisation in humans. We expect that those PTPs that regulate T helper polarisation will constitute potential targets for intervening CD4 T cell immune responses in order to generate new therapies for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
Project description:T cell activation and effector function is mediated by the formation of a long-lasting interaction established between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) called immunological synapse (IS). During T cell activation, different signaling molecules as well as the cytoskeleton and the endosomal compartment are polarized to the IS. This molecular dynamics is tightly regulated by phosphorylation networks, which are controlled by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). While some PTPs are known to be important regulators of adhesion, ligand discrimination or the stimulation threshold, there is still little information about the regulatory role of PTPs in cytoskeleton rearrangements and endosomal compartment dynamics. Besides, spatial and temporal regulation of PTPs and substrates at the IS is only barely known. Consistent with an important role of PTPs in T cell activation, multiple mutations as well as altered expression levels or dynamic behaviors have been associated with autoimmune diseases. However, the precise mechanism for the regulation of T cell activation and effector function by PTPs in health and autoimmunity is not fully understood. Herein, we review the current knowledge about the regulatory role of PTPs in CD4+ T cell activation, IS assembly and effector function. The potential molecular mechanisms mediating the action of these enzymes in autoimmune disorders are discussed.
Project description:Due to their capacity to skew T cell responses towards Th1 oriented immunity, oligonucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs (CpG) have emerged as interesting adjuvants for vaccination. Whereas the signalling pathways in response to CpG mediated TLR9 activation have been extensively documented at the level of the individual cell, little is however known on the precise identity of the innate immune cells that govern T cell priming and polarisation to CpG adjuvanted protein antigens in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that optimal induction of Th1 oriented immunity to CpG adjuvanted protein vaccines requires the coordinated actions of conventional DCs and of monocytes. Whilst conventional DCs were required for antigen presentation and initial T cell priming, monocytes constitute the main source of the Th1 polarising cytokine IL-12.
Project description:Autoimmune diseases are characterized by impaired immune tolerance towards self-antigens, leading to enhanced immunity to self by dysfunctional B cells and/or T cells. The activation of these cells is controlled by non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs), which are critical mediators of antigen receptor and cytokine receptor signaling pathways. NRTKs transduce, amplify and sustain activating signals that contribute to autoimmunity, and are counter-regulated by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). The function of and interaction between NRTKs and PTPs during the development of autoimmunity could be key points of therapeutic interference against autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of the functions of NRTKs and PTPs involved in B cell receptor (BCR), T cell receptor (TCR), and cytokine receptor signaling pathways that contribute to autoimmunity, and discuss their targeting for therapeutic approaches against autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATs) is an important transcription factor for T cell activation and proliferation. Recent studies have highlighted the role of NFATs in regulating the differentiation of effector CD4 T helper (Th) subsets including Th1 and Th17 cells. Because controlling the effector T cell function is important for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, regulation of NFAT functions in T cells would be an important strategy to control the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Here, we demonstrated that an NFAT inhibitory peptide, VIVIT conjugated to dNP2 (dNP2-VIVIT), a blood-brain barrier-permeable peptide, ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 cells, but not regulatory T (Treg) cells. dNP2-VIVIT negatively regulated spinal cord-infiltrating interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and interferon (IFN)-?-producing CD4+ T cells without affecting the number of Foxp3+ CD4+ Treg cells, whereas dNP2-VEET or 11R-VIVIT could not significantly inhibit EAE. In comparison with cyclosporin A (CsA), dNP2-VIVIT selectively inhibited Th1 and Th17 differentiation, whereas CsA inhibited the differentiation of all T cell subsets including that of Th2 and Treg cells. Collectively, this study demonstrated the role of dNP2-VIVIT as a novel agent for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis by regulating the functions of Th1 and Th17 cells.
Project description:The propagation and regulation of an immune response is driven by a network of effector and regulatory T (Treg) cells. The interplay of effector T and Treg cells determines the direction of the immune response towards inflammation or its resolution in an autoimmune disease setting. In autoimmune diseases, this interplay shifts the balance in favor of the development of autoreactive effector T cells, resulting in inflammatory pathology. The objective of an effective therapeutic approach for autoimmune disease is to restore this balance. In this review, we describe the characteristics and development of pathogenic T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 cells and the beneficial Treg cells in autoimmune diseases and the crucial roles of the cytokine milieu in influencing the balance of these T-cell subsets. Given the importance of cytokines, we discuss current immunotherapeutic strategies using cytokine or cytokine receptor antibodies for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are a large family of 107 signaling enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic removal of phosphate groups from tyrosine residues in a target protein. The phosphorylation status of tyrosine residues on proteins serve as a ubiquitous mechanism for cellular signal transduction. Aberrant function of PTPs can lead to many human diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. As the number of disease relevant PTPs increases, there is urgency in developing highly potent inhibitors that are selective towards specific PTPs. Most current efforts have been devoted to the development of active site-directed and reversible inhibitors for PTPs. This review summarizes recent progress made in the field of covalent inhibitors to target PTPs. Here, we discuss the in vivo and in vitro inactivation of various PTPs by small molecule-containing electrophiles, such as Michael acceptors, ?-halo ketones, epoxides, and isothiocyanates, etc. as well as oxidizing agents. We also suggest potential strategies to transform these electrophiles into isozyme selective covalent PTP inhibitors.
Project description:T helper 17 (Th17) cells belong to a recently identified T helper subset, in addition to the traditional Th1 and Th2 subsets. These cells are characterized as preferential producers of interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22. Th17 cells and their effector cytokines mediate host defensive mechanisms to various infections, especially extracellular bacteria infections, and are involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. The receptors for IL-17 and IL-22 are broadly expressed on various epithelial tissues. The effector cytokines of Th17 cells, therefore, mediate the crucial crosstalk between immune system and tissues, and play indispensable roles in tissue immunity.
Project description:Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) exhibit plasticity, which dictates their function. Secretion of the inflammatory cytokine IFN?, together with the acquisition of a T helper 1 (Th1)-like effector phenotype as observed in cancer, infection, and autoimmune diseases, is associated with loss of Treg suppressor function through an unknown mechanism. Here, we describe the signaling events driving the generation of human Th1-Tregs. Using a genome-wide gene expression approach and pathway analysis, we identify the PI3K/AKT/Foxo1/3 signaling cascade as the major pathway involved in IFN? secretion by human Tregs. Furthermore, we describe the opposing roles of AKT isoforms in Th1-Treg generation ex vivo Finally, we employ multiple sclerosis as an in vivo model with increased but functionally defective Th1-Tregs. We show that the PI3K/AKT/Foxo1/3 pathway is activated in ex vivo-isolated Tregs from untreated relapsing-remitting MS patients and that blockade of the pathway inhibits IFN? secretion and restores the immune suppressive function of Tregs. These data define a fundamental pathway regulating the function of human Tregs and suggest a novel treatment paradigm for autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Cellular polarity is a general feature of animal development. However, the mechanisms that establish and maintain polarity in a field of cells or even in the whole embryo remain elusive. Here we provide evidence that in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo, the descendants of P1, the posterior blastomere of the 2-cell stage, constitute a polarising centre that orients the cell divisions of most of the embryo. This polarisation depends on a MOM-2/Wnt signal originating from the P1 descendants. Furthermore, we show that the MOM-2/Wnt signal is transduced from cell to cell by a relay mechanism. Our findings suggest how polarity is first established and then maintained in a field of cells. According to this model, the relay mechanism constantly orients the polarity of all cells towards the polarising centre, thus organising the whole embryo. This model may also apply to other systems such as Drosophila and vertebrates.
Project description:Macrophage polarization is increasingly recognised as an important pathogenetic factor in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages promote T helper (Th) 1 responses and show tumoricidal activity. M2 macrophages contribute to tissue repair and promote Th2 responses. CD68 and CD163 are used to identify macrophages in tissue sections. However, characterisation of polarised macrophages in situ has remained difficult. Macrophage polarisation is regulated by transcription factors, pSTAT1 and RBP-J for M1, and CMAF for M2. We reasoned that double-labelling immunohistochemistry for the detection of macrophage markers together with transcription factors may be suitable to characterise macrophage polarisation in situ. To test this hypothesis, we have studied conditions associated with Th1- and Th2-predominant immune responses: infectious mononucleosis and Crohn's disease for Th1 and allergic nasal polyps, oxyuriasis, wound healing and foreign body granulomas for predominant Th2 response. In all situations, CD163+ cells usually outnumbered CD68+ cells. Moreover, CD163+ cells, usually considered as M2 macrophages, co-expressing pSTAT1 and RBP-J were found in all conditions examined. The numbers of putative M1 macrophages were higher in Th1- than in Th2-associated diseases, while more M2 macrophages were seen in Th2- than in Th1 related disorders. In most Th1-related diseases, the balance of M1 over M2 cells was shifted towards M1 cells, while the reverse was observed for Th2-related conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: cluster I included Th1 diseases together with cases with high numbers of CD163+pSTAT1+, CD68+pSTAT1+, CD163+RBP-J+ and CD68+RBP-J+ macrophages; cluster II comprised Th2 conditions together with cases displaying high numbers of CD163+CMAF+ and CD68+CMAF+ macrophages. These results suggest that the detection of pSTAT1, RBP-J, and CMAF in the context of CD68 or CD163 expression is a suitable tool for the characterisation of macrophage polarisation in situ. Furthermore, CD163 cannot be considered a reliable M2 marker when used on its own.