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Impact of lopinavir-ritonavir exposure in HIV-1 infected children and adolescents in Madrid, Spain during 2000-2014.


ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The most-used protease-inhibitor in children is Lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r), which provides durable suppression of viral load and increases CD4+T-counts. This study describes the virological outcome of the HIV-1-infected paediatric population exposed to LPV/r during 15 years in Spain. METHODOLOGY:Patients from the Madrid Cohort of HIV-1-infected-children and adolescents exposed to LPV/r as different line therapy during 2000-2014 were selected. The baseline epidemiological-clinical features, viral suppression, changes in CD4+T-CD8+T cell counts and drug susceptibility were recorded before and during LPV/r exposure. Drug resistance mutations (DRM) were identified in viruses from samples collected until 2011. We predicted drug susceptibility to 19 antiretrovirals among those carrying DRM using the Stanford's HIVdb Algorithm. RESULTS:A total of 199 (37.3%) of the 534 patients from the cohort were exposed to LPV/r during 2000-2014 in first (group 1), second (group 2) or more line-therapies (group 3). Patients were mainly Spaniards (81.9%), perinatally infected (96.5%) with subtype-B (65.3%) and HIV-diagnosed before year 2000 (67.8%). The mean age at first LPV/r exposure was 9.7 years. After protease-inhibitor exposure, viral suppression was higher in groups 1 and 2 than in group 3. Viral suppression occurred in 87.5%, 68.6% and 64.8% patients from groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Among the 64 patients with available resistance data during LPV/r treatment, 27(42.3%) carried DRM to protease-inhibitor, 28 (58.3%) to reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors and 21 (43.7%) to non-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors. Darunavir/ritonavir, atazanavir-ritonavir and tipranavir/ritonavir presented the highest susceptibility and nelfinavir the lowest. CONCLUSIONS:A better lymphocyte recovering occurred when protease-inhibitor was taken as part of a first-line regimen and a higher number of patients reached viral suppression. The least compromised antiretrovirals for rescue antiretroviral regimens, according to DRM in the LPV/r-exposed-paediatric cohort, were mainly the new protease inhibitors.

SUBMITTER: Rojas Sanchez P 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5369685 | BioStudies | 2017-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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