Effects of aquatic exercise on physical function and fitness among people with spinal cord injury: A systematic review.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this review is to synthesize the evidence on the effects of aquatic exercise interventions on physical function and fitness among people with spinal cord injury.Six major databases were searched from inception till June 2015: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychInfo, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Center Register of Controlled Trials.Two reviewers independently rated methodological quality using the modified Downs and Black Scale and extracted and synthesized key findings (i.e., participant characteristics, study design, physical function and fitness outcomes, and adverse events).Eight of 276 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which none showed high research quality. Four studies assessed physical function outcomes and 4 studies evaluated aerobic fitness as outcome measures. Significant improvements on these 2 outcomes were generally found. Other physical or fitness outcomes including body composition, muscular strength, and balance were rarely reported.There is weak evidence supporting aquatic exercise training to improve physical function and aerobic fitness among adults with spinal cord injury. Suggestions for future research include reporting details of exercise interventions, evaluating other physical or fitness outcomes, and improving methodological quality.
Project description:Study Design:A quasi-experimental single-blinded study. Purpose:To investigate the effects of 'graded exercise integrated with education' on physical fitness, exercise self-efficacy (ESE), and physical activity (PA) levels among subacute and chronic wheelchair-dependent paraplegia patients. Overview of Literature:Most of the chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients had low physical fitness due to a sedentary lifestyle and lack of ESE after discharge from a rehabilitation program. Education may encourage them to engage with exercise to regain and maintain their physical fitness. However, there is a lack of research to support the effects of exercise integrated with education after an SCI. Methods:A total of 44 participants will be assigned to either the experimental group (graded exercise integrated with education) or active control (conventional physical therapy). The experimental group will receive graded strength and aerobic exercise training according to their progression criteria. They will attend an education program during and after the rehabilitation program. The control group will only receive conventional physical therapy during their in-rehabilitation program. This study will be conducted during a period of 16 weeks, consisting of 8 weeks of in-rehabilitation and 8 weeks post-rehabilitation. Statistical analysis will be performed using the IBM SPSS ver. 21.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) at a significance level of p?0.05. Results:The primary outcome measures will be upper-limb isokinetic strength, isometric grip strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness. The secondary outcomes will be ESE and PA levels. Conclusions:An intervention that combines exercise training and education may be warranted to enhance the physical fitness, ESE, and PA levels in SCI patients. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03420170).
Project description:To compare the effectiveness of 2 home-based behavioral interventions for wheelchair users to promote exercise adoption and maintenance over 12 months.Randomized controlled trial, with participants stratified into groups based on disability type (stable, episodic, progressive) and support partner availability.Exercise occurred in participant-preferred locations (eg, home, recreation center), with physiological data collected at a university-based exercise laboratory.Inactive wheelchair users (N=128; 64 women) with sufficient upper arm mobility for arm-based exercise were enrolled. Participants on average were 45 years of age and lived with their impairment for 22 years, with spinal cord injury (46.1%) most commonly reported as causing mobility impairment.Both groups received home-based exercise interventions. The staff-supported group (n=69) received intensive exercise support, while the self-guided group (n=59) received minimal support. Both received exercise information, resistance bands, instructions to self-monitor exercise, regularly scheduled phone calls, and handwritten cards.The primary outcome derived from weekly self-reported exercise. Secondary outcomes included physical fitness (aerobic/muscular) and predictors of exercise participation.The staff-supported group reported significantly greater exercise (?17min/wk) than the self-guided group over the year (t=10.6, P=.00), with no significant between-group difference in aerobic capacity (t=.76, P=.45) and strength (t=1.5, P=.14).Although the staff-supported group reported only moderately more exercise, the difference is potentially clinically significant because they also exercised more frequently. The staff-supported approach holds promise for encouraging exercise among wheelchair users, yet additional support may be necessary to achieve more exercise to meet national recommendations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exercise is an effective strategy to improve quality of life and physical fitness in breast cancer survivors; however, few studies have focused on the early survivorship period, minorities, physically inactive and obese women, or tested a combined exercise program and measured bone health. Here, we report the effects of a 16-week aerobic and resistance exercise intervention on patient-reported outcomes, physical fitness, and bone health in ethnically diverse, physically inactive, overweight or obese breast cancer survivors. METHODS:One hundred breast cancer survivors within 6 months of completing adjuvant treatment were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up (exercise group only) for physical fitness, bone mineral density, serum concentrations of bone biomarkers, and quality of life. The exercise intervention consisted of moderate-vigorous (65-85% heart rate maximum) aerobic and resistance exercise thrice weekly for 16 weeks. Differences in mean changes for outcomes were evaluated using mixed-model repeated measure analysis. RESULTS:At post-intervention, the exercise group was superior to usual care for quality of life (between group difference: 14.7, 95% CI: 18.2, 9.7; p?<?0.001), fatigue (p?<?0.001), depression (p?<?0.001), estimated VO2max (p?<?0.001), muscular strength (p?<?0.001), osteocalcin (p?=?0.01), and BSAP (p?=?0.001). At 3-month follow-up, all patient-reported outcomes and physical fitness variables remained significantly improved compared to baseline in the exercise group (p?<?0.01). CONCLUSIONS:A 16-week combined aerobic and resistance exercise program designed to address metabolic syndrome in ethnically-diverse overweight or obese breast cancer survivors also significantly improved quality of life and physical fitness. Our findings further support the inclusion of supervised clinical exercise programs into breast cancer treatment and care. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01140282 as of June 9, 2010.
Project description:To determine whether there is sufficient evidence to conclude that exercise interventions are more effective than no exercise control and to compare the effectiveness of different exercise interventions in relieving pain and improving function in patients with lower limb osteoarthritis.Nine electronic databases searched from inception to March 2012.Randomised controlled trials comparing exercise interventions with each other or with no exercise control for adults with knee or hip osteoarthritis.Two reviewers evaluated eligibility and methodological quality. Main outcomes extracted were pain intensity and limitation of function. Trial sequential analysis was used to investigate reliability and conclusiveness of available evidence for exercise interventions. Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to combine both direct (within trial) and indirect (between trial) evidence on treatment effectiveness.60 trials (44 knee, two hip, 14 mixed) covering 12 exercise interventions and with 8218 patients met inclusion criteria. Sequential analysis showed that as of 2002 sufficient evidence had been accrued to show significant benefit of exercise interventions over no exercise control. For pain relief, strengthening, flexibility plus strengthening, flexibility plus strengthening plus aerobic, aquatic strengthening, and aquatic strengthening plus flexibility, exercises were significantly more effective than no exercise control. A combined intervention of strengthening, flexibility, and aerobic exercise was also significantly more effective than no exercise control for improving limitation in function (standardised mean difference -0.63, 95% credible interval -1.16 to -0.10).As of 2002 sufficient evidence had accumulated to show significant benefit of exercise over no exercise in patients with osteoarthritis, and further trials are unlikely to overturn this result. An approach combining exercises to increase strength, flexibility, and aerobic capacity is likely to be most effective in the management of lower limb osteoarthritis. The evidence is largely from trials in patients with knee osteoarthritis.PROSPERO (www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/) No CRD42012002267.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases are a growing concern for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Physical inactivity contributes to cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality in the SCI population. However, previous studies have shown mixed results regarding the effects of exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with SCI. This discrepancy could be influenced by insufficient exercise stimuli. Recent guidelines recommend 30 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise, three times per week, for improvement in cardiometabolic health in individuals with SCI. However, to date, no studies have implemented an exercise intervention matching the new recommendations to examine the effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to determine the effects of 12 weeks of wheelchair user-modified upper-body rowing exercise on both traditional (constituents of the metabolic syndrome) and novel (eg, vascular structure and function) cardiometabolic risk factors in manual wheelchair users with SCI. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:A randomised controlled trial will compare 12 weeks of upper-body rowing exercise, 30 min three times per week, with a control group continuing their normal lifestyle. Outcome measurements will be performed immediately before (baseline), after 6 weeks (halfway), 12 weeks of training (post) and 6 months after the termination of the intervention period (follow-up). Outcomes will include inflammatory (eg, C reactive protein) and metabolic biomarkers determined from venous blood (with serum fasting insulin as primary outcome), body composition, arterial blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness level, brachial artery vascular structure and function and autonomic nervous system function. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This trial is reported to the Danish Data Protection Agency (J.nr. 2019-899/10-0406) and approved by the Committees on Health Research Ethics in The North Denmark Region on 12 December 2019 (J.nr. N-20190053). The principal investigator will collect written informed consent from all participants prior to inclusion. Irrespective of study outcomes, the results will be submitted to peer-reviewed scientific journals for publication. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT04390087.
Project description:Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57-83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-? (A?40 and A?42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p=0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p=0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p=0.01). For A?42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p=0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline.
Project description:Exercise has favorable effects on biomarkers associated with a lower risk of breast cancer, however it is unclear if higher doses of exercise provide additional effects. No clinical trial has systematically examined how different exercise volumes influence the mechanisms underlying breast cancer etiology. The Breast Cancer and Exercise Trial in Alberta (BETA) - a follow-up study to the Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer Prevention (ALPHA) Trial - is examining how a one-year, high versus moderate volume aerobic exercise intervention influences several biomechanisms hypothesized to influence breast cancer risk in a group of postmenopausal women. Secondary aims are to compare intervention effects on psychosocial and quality of life outcomes as well as understand exercise adherence at 12 and 24 months, and maintenance of all study outcomes at 24 months.The BETA Trial is a two-center, two-armed randomized controlled exercise intervention trial conducted in 400 previously inactive, postmenopausal women aged 50-74 years, in Alberta, Canada. Participants were randomly assigned to a one-year aerobic exercise intervention of either high volume (300 minutes/week) or moderate volume (150 minutes/week). Blood draws and accelerometry were performed at baseline, six and 12 months. Baseline and 12-month measurements were taken of adiposity (including dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography scans), physical fitness, dietary intake, self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior, quality of life, perceived stress, happiness, sleep, and determinants of exercise adherence. Exercise maintenance was assessed and all study measurements were repeated at 24 months. Blood will be analyzed for endogenous estrogens, insulin resistance indicators, and inflammatory markers.The BETA Trial will compare the impact of a high versus moderate volume of aerobic exercise on a variety of biological, physiological, and psychological outcomes of relevance to postmenopausal women. A tightly controlled exercise intervention and objective outcome measurements are methodological strengths. The BETA Trial will inform future prevention initiatives by assessing adherence to a high volume of exercise over 12 months by postmenopausal women, and the ability of these women to maintain activity over the longer-term. The ultimate objective is to inform public health guidelines for reducing breast cancer risk through physical activity.NCT01435005.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Physical exercise training may form an important part of regular care for people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects of physical exercise training on exercise capacity by peak oxygen consumption, pulmonary function by forced expiratory volume in one second, health-related quality of life and further important patient-relevant outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. SEARCH METHODS:We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 04 May 2017.We searched ongoing trials registers (clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP). Date of most recent search: 10 August 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA:All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials comparing exercise training of any type and a minimum duration of two weeks with conventional care (no training) in people with cystic fibrosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. MAIN RESULTS:Of the 83 studies identified, 15 studies which included 487 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The numbers in each study ranged from nine up to 72 participants; two studies were in adults, seven were in children and adolescents and six studies included all age ranges. Four studies of hospitalised participants lasted less than one month and 11 studies were outpatient-based, lasting between two months and three years. The studies included participants with a wide range of disease severity and employed differing levels of supervision with a mixture of types of training. There was also wide variation in the quality of the included studies.This systematic review shows very low- to low-quality evidence from both short- and long-term studies that in people with cystic fibrosis aerobic or anaerobic physical exercise training (or a combination of both) has a positive effect on aerobic exercise capacity, pulmonary function and health-related quality of life. No study reported on mortality; two studies reported on adverse events (moderate-quality evidence); one of each study reported on pulmonary exacerbations (low-quality evidence) and diabetic control (very low-quality evidence). Although improvements were not consistent between studies and ranged from no effects to clearly positive effects, the most consistent effects of the heterogeneous exercise training modalities and durations were found for maximal aerobic exercise capacity (in four out of seven studies) with unclear effects on forced expiratory volume in one second (in two out of 11 studies) and health-related quality of life (in two out of seven studies). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Evidence about the efficacy of physical exercise training in cystic fibrosis from 15 small studies with low to moderate methodological quality is limited. Exercise training is already part of regular outpatient care offered to most people with cystic fibrosis, and since there is some evidence for beneficial effects on aerobic fitness and no negative side effects exist, there is no reason to actively discourage this. The benefits from including physical exercise training in an individual's regular care may be influenced by the type and duration of the training programme. High-quality randomised controlled trials are needed to comprehensively assess the benefits of exercise programmes in people with cystic fibrosis and the relative benefits of the addition of aerobic versus anaerobic versus a combination of both types of physical exercise training to the care of people with cystic fibrosis.
Project description:The impact of sickle cell anemia (SCA) and its complications on physical functioning and cardiopulmonary/aerobic fitness in affected individuals is significant. Although limited data support the safety of maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) for children and adults with SCA, the safety of submaximal moderate and high intensity, and longer duration, exercise in this population is not clear. The Sickle Cell Pro-Inflammatory Response to Interval Testing Study (SPRINTS) is a multicenter, randomized, prospective trial. SPRINTS leverages unique collaborations between investigators in pediatric hematology and exercise science to evaluate the impact of exercise intensity on the acute phase inflammatory response to exercise and changes in airway dynamics in children and young adults with SCA. Here we describe the study design and methodological strategies employed in SPRINTS, including an exercise challenge that mimics real-life patterns of childhood physical activity, characterized by multiple moderate and high intensity brief bouts of exercise interspersed with rest periods. Primary outcomes comprise pre- and post-exercise biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction and spirometry. Secondary outcomes include assessment of physical activity and functioning, genomic studies and near-infrared spectroscopy measurements to assess tissue oxygenation status during exercise. SPRINTS aims to enroll 70 subjects with SCA and 70 matched, healthy controls. We anticipate that data from SPRINTS will address gaps in our understanding of exercise responses and safety in SCA and support the future development of evidence-based, exercise prescription guidelines in this population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Understanding the longer-term exercise behavior of patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy is important to promote sustained exercise. The purpose of the current study was to report the longer-term patterns and predictors of exercise behavior in patients with breast cancer who exercised during chemotherapy. METHODS:In the Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise (CARE) Trial, 301 patients with breast cancer were randomized to three different exercise prescriptions during chemotherapy. Exercise behaviors after chemotherapy were self-reported at 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up. Exercise patterns were identified by categorizing patients according to which exercise guideline they were meeting (neither, aerobic only, resistance only, or combined) at each of the three follow-up timepoints (64 possible patterns). Predictors of longer-term exercise behavior included physical fitness, patient-reported outcomes, and motivational variables from the theory of planned behavior assessed at postintervention (postchemotherapy). Univariate and multivariate stepwise multinomial logistic regression and linear regression were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS:A total of 264 (88%) participants completed all three follow-up exercise behavior assessments and exhibited 50 different exercise patterns. Postintervention aerobic fitness was the most consistent predictor of longer-term exercise behavior at all three timepoints. For example, higher aerobic fitness (per 1?ml/kg/min) predicted better adherence to the "aerobic only" (OR?=?1.09; p?=?0.005) and "combined" (OR?=?1.12; p?<?0.001) guidelines compared to "neither" guideline at 6-month follow-up. Additionally, higher postintervention muscular strength (per 1?kg) was associated with better adherence to the "resistance only" (OR?=?1.07; p?=?0.025) and "combined" (OR?=?1.08; p?<?0.001) guidelines compared to "neither" guideline at 24-month follow-up. Finally, lower perceived difficulty (per 1 scale point) was associated with better adherence to the "combined" (OR?=?0.62; p?=?0.010) and "aerobic only" (OR?=?0.58; p?=?0.002) guideline compared to the "neither" guideline at the 24-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Our study is the first to show that the longer-term exercise patterns of patients with breast cancer who exercised during chemotherapy are diverse and predicted by physical fitness and motivational variables after chemotherapy. Our novel implications are that improving physical fitness during chemotherapy and applying motivational counseling after chemotherapy may improve longer-term exercise behavior in patients with breast cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION:(NCT00249015).