Nursing Home Stakeholder Views of Resident Involvement in Medical Care Decisions.
ABSTRACT: Demand by nursing home residents for involvement in their medical care, or, patient-centered care, is expected to increase as baby boomers begin seeking long-term care for their chronic illnesses. To explore the needs in meeting this proposed demand, we used a qualitative descriptive method with content analysis to obtain the joint perspective of key stakeholders on the current state of person-centered medical care in the nursing home. We interviewed 31 nursing home stakeholders: 5 residents, 7 family members, 8 advanced practice registered nurses, 5 physicians, and 6 administrators. Our findings revealed constraints placed by the long-term care system limited medical involvement opportunities and created conflicting goals for patient-centered medical care. Resident participation in medical care was perceived as low, but important. The creation of supportive educational programs for all stakeholders to facilitate a common goal for nursing home admission and to provide assistance through the long-term care system was encouraged.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Nursing home residents typically have greater needs for medical care than community-dwelling elderly. However, restricted cognitive abilities and limited mobility may impede their access to general practitioners and medical specialists. The provision of medical care in nursing homes may therefore be inappropriate in some areas of medical care. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to systematically assess, evaluate and explain met and unmet medical care needs in German nursing homes and to develop solutions where medical care is found to be inappropriate. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:First, statutory health insurance claims data are analysed to identify differences in the utilisation of medical care between nursing home residents and community-dwelling elderly with and without need for long-term care. Second, the health status and medical care of 500 nursing home residents are assessed and evaluated to quantify met and unmet medical care needs. Third, qualitative expert interviews and case conferences and, fourth, quantitative analyses of linked data are used to provide structural, case-specific and generalisable explanations of inappropriate medical care among nursing home residents. Fifth, a modified Delphi study is employed to develop pilot projects aiming to improve medical care in nursing homes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Bremen on 23 November 2017. Research findings are disseminated through presentations at national and international conferences and publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:DRKS00012383.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Care homes provide nursing and social care for older people who can no longer live independently at home. In the UK, there is no consistent approach to how information about residents' medical history, care needs and preferences are collected and shared. This limits opportunities to understand the care home population, have a systematic approach to assessment and documentation of care, identifiy care home residents at risk of deterioration and review care. Countries with standardised approaches to residents' assessment, care planning and review (eg, minimum data sets (MDS)) use the data to understand the care home population, guide resource allocation, monitor services delivery and for research. The aim of this realist review is to develop a theory-driven understanding of how care home staff implement and use MDS to plan and deliver care of individual residents. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:A realist review will be conducted in three research stages.Stage 1 will scope the literature and develop candidate programme theories of what ensures effective uptake and sustained implementation of an MDS.Stage2 will test and refine these theories through further iterative searches of the evidence from the literature to establish how effective uptake of an MDS can be achieved.Stage 3 will consult with relevant stakeholders to test or refine the programme theory (theories) of how an MDS works at the resident level of care for different stakeholders and in what circumstances. Data synthesis will use realist logic to align data from each eligible article with possible context-mechanism-outcome configurations or specific elements that answer the research questions. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The University of Hertfordshire Ethics Committee has approved this study (HSK/SF/UH/04169). Findings will be disseminated through briefings with stakeholders, conference presentations, a national consultation on the use of an MDS in UK long-term care settings, publications in peer-reviewed journals and in print and social media publications accessible to residents, relatives and care home staff. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42020171323; this review protocol is registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews.
Project description:Background: The culture change from task-centered care to person- and relationship-centered care has resulted in the resident’s voice gaining importance when assessing experienced quality of care in nursing homes. This review aimed to identify which factors contribute to experienced quality of care in nursing homes worldwide from the resident’s perspective. Method: A systematic literature review and thematic data synthesis were performed. The databases PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycInfo, and Business Source Complete were searched to identify qualitative studies aimed at retrieving factors related to residents’ experienced quality of care in nursing homes. Only studies in which residents themselves were interviewed were included. Results: This literature review included 27 publications covering 14 countries. Thematic analysis revealed three overarching themes related to residents’ care experiences: (a) The nursing home environment consisted of the physical environment and caring environment, (b) individual aspects of living in the nursing home consisted of personhood and coping with change, and (c) social engagement consisted of meaningful relationships and care provision. Discussion: To achieve high experienced quality of care in nursing homes, residents’ care experiences need to be assessed and used in quality management.
Project description:The care in nursing homes was examined based on scientific studies. The analysis focuses on dementia and type II diabetes. There is evidence for deficits in the supply of medical specialist attendance to nursing home residents with these diseases in Germany. Compared with corresponding guidelines the medical care for nursing home residents may be too low or inadequate.
Project description:Post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) is a common consequence of stroke. Epidemiological evidence indicates that, with an ageing population, stroke and PSCI are likely to increase in the coming decades. This may have considerable implications for the demand for nursing home placement. As prevalence estimates of both cognitive impairment and dementia on admission to nursing home among residents with and without stroke have not yet been compared, they were estimated and compared in this study. We performed a cross-sectional survey to establish the admission characteristics of 643 residents in 13 randomly selected nursing homes in Ireland. The survey collected data on resident's stroke and cognitive status at the time of nursing home admission. The survey found, among nursing home residents that experienced stroke prior to admission, prevalence estimates for cognitive impairment (83.8%; 95% CI = 76.9-90.6%) and dementia (66.7%; 95% CI = 57.9-75.4%) were significantly higher compared to residents that had not experienced stroke prior to admission (cognitive impairment: 56.6%; 95% CI = 52.4-60.8%; X2 (1) = 28.64; p < 0.001; dementia: 49.8%; 95% CI = 45.6-54.1%; X2 (1) = 10.47; p < 0.01). Since the prevalence of PSCI is likely to increase in the coming decades, the findings highlight an urgent need for health service planning for this increased demand for nursing home care to meet the care needs of these stroke survivors.
Project description:To compare the probability of experiencing a potentially preventable hospitalization (PPH) between older dual eligible Medicaid home and community-based service (HCBS) users and nursing home residents.Three years of Medicaid and Medicare claims data (2003-2005) from seven states, linked to area characteristics from the Area Resource File.A primary diagnosis of an ambulatory care sensitive condition on the inpatient hospital claim was used to identify PPHs. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting to mitigate the potential selection of HCBS versus nursing home use.The most frequent conditions accounting for PPHs were the same among the HCBS users and nursing home residents and included congestive heart failure, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, urinary tract infection, and dehydration. Compared to nursing home residents, elderly HCBS users had an increased probability of experiencing both a PPH and a non-PPH.HCBS users' increased probability for potentially and non-PPHs suggests a need for more proactive integration of medical and long-term care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Germany, up to 50% of nursing home residents are admitted to a hospital at least once a year. It is often unclear whether this is beneficial or even harmful. Successful interprofessional collaboration and communication involving general practitioners (GPs) and nurses may improve medical care of nursing home residents. In the previous interprof study, the six-component intervention package interprof ACT was developed to facilitate collaboration of GPs and nurses in nursing homes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the interprof ACT intervention. METHODS:This multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial compares nursing homes receiving the interprof ACT intervention package for a duration of 12?months (e.g. comprising appointment of mutual contact persons, shared goal setting, standardised GPs' home visits) with a control group (care as usual). A total of 34 nursing homes are randomised, and overall 680 residents recruited. The intervention package is presented in a kick-off meeting to GPs, nurses, residents/relatives or their representatives. Nursing home nurses act as change agents to support local adaption and implementation of the intervention measures. Primary outcome is the cumulative incidence of hospitalisation within 12?months. Secondary outcomes include admissions to hospital, days admitted to hospital, use of other medical services, prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication and quality of life. Additionally, health economic and a mixed methods process evaluation will be performed. DISCUSSION:This study investigates a complex intervention tailored to local needs of nursing homes. Outcomes reflect the healthcare and health of nursing home residents, as well as the feasibility of the intervention package and its impact on interprofessional communication and collaboration. Because of its systematic development and its flexible nature, interprof ACT is expected to be viable for large-scale implementation in routine care services regardless of local organisational conditions and resources available for medical care for nursing home residents on a regular basis. Recommendations will be made for an improved organisation of primary care for nursing home residents. In addition, the results may provide important knowledge and data for the development and evaluation of further strategies to improve outpatient care for elderly care-receivers. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03426475 . Initially registered on 7 February 2018.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Elderly in need of long-term care tend to have worse health and have higher need of medical care than elderly without need for long-term care. Yet, characteristics associated with long-term care need can impede health care access: Higher levels of long-term care need come with physical and cognitive decline such as frailty and memory loss. Yet, it has not been investigated whether level of long-term care need is related to medical care utilization. METHODS:We investigated the association between the level of long-term care and medical specialist utilization among nursing home residents and home care recipients. We applied zero-inflated Poisson regression with robust standard errors based on a sample of statutory health insurance members. The sample consisted of 100.000 elderly over age 60. We controlled for age, gender, morbidity and mortality, residential density, and general practitioner utilization. RESULTS:We found a strong gradient effect of the level of long-term care for 9 out of 12 medical specialties: A higher level of long-term care need was associated with a lower probability of having a medical specialist visit. Yet, we did not find clear effects of the level of long-term care need on the intensity of medical specialist care. These findings were similar for both the nursing home and home care setting. CONCLUSION:The findings indicate that inequalities in medical specialist utilization exist between elderly with differing levels of long-term care need because differences in morbidity were controlled for. Elderly with higher need of long-term care might face more access barriers to specialist medical care.
Project description:To investigate patterns in prevalences of chronic medical conditions over the age span of long-term stay nursing home residents and between the sexes with data from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS).Retrospective, cross-sectional study.U.S. nursing homes.Nationally representative sample comprising 11,788 long-term stay residents (3,003 (25%) men, 8,785 (75%) women) aged 65 and older.Clinical Classifications Software was used to group International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes to identify the 20 most-prevalent chronic medical conditions. SAS survey procedures were used to account for design effects of stratification and clustering to generate nationally representative estimates of prevalences of medical conditions.Average age was 84, with women older than men (85 vs 81, P = .02) and 67% of women aged 80 to 95. Women required more assistance with activities of daily living. The most frequent chronic medical conditions were hypertension (men 53%, women 56%), dementia (men 45%, women 52%), depression (men 31%, women 37%), arthritis (men 26%, women 35%), diabetes mellitus (men 26%, women 23%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (men 23%, women 23%), atherosclerosis (men 24%, women 20%), congestive heart failure (CHF) (men 18%, women 21%), cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (men 24%, women 19%), and anemia (men 17%, women 20%). Sex differences in prevalences existed for all but constipation, GERD, and hypertension. Diabetes mellitus, CVD, and lipid disorders decreased with age in men and women. Atrial fibrillation, anemia, arthritis, CHF, dementia, and thyroid disease increased with age in men and women. Age-related patterns differed between the sexes for diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and Parkinson's disease.The profile of chronic medical conditions varies over the age span of nursing home residents and differs between men and women. This knowledge should guide educational and care efforts in long-term care.
Project description:Advance care planning (ACP) has been identified as particularly relevant for nursing home residents, but it remains unclear how or under what circumstances ACP works and can best be implemented in such settings. We aimed to develop a theory that outlines the hypothetical causal pathway of ACP in nursing homes, i.e. what changes are expected, by means of which processes and under what circumstances.The Theory of Change approach is a participatory method of programme design and evaluation whose underlying intention is to improve understanding of how and why a programme works. It results in a Theory of Change map that visually represents how, why and under what circumstances ACP is expected to work in nursing home settings in Belgium. Using this approach, we integrated the results of two workshops with stakeholders (n?=?27) with the results of a contextual analysis and a systematic literature review.We identified two long-term outcomes that ACP can achieve: to improve the correspondence between residents’ wishes and the care/treatment they receive and to make sure residents and their family feel involved in planning their future care and are confident their care will be according to their wishes. Besides willingness on the part of nursing home management to implement ACP and act accordingly, other necessary preconditions are identified and put in chronological order. These preconditions serve as precursors to, or requirements for, accomplishing successful ACP. Nine original key intervention components with specific rationales are identified at several levels (resident/family, staff or nursing home) to target the preconditions: selection of a trainer, ensuring engagement by management, training ACP reference persons, in-service education for healthcare staff, information for staff, general practitioners, residents and their family, ACP conversations and documentation, regular reflection sessions, multidisciplinary meetings, and formal monitoring.The Theory of Change map presented here illustrates a theory of how ACP is expected to work in order to achieve its desired long-term outcomes while highlighting organisational factors that potentially facilitate the implementation and sustainability of ACP. We provide the first comprehensive rationale of how ACP is expected to work in nursing homes, something that has been called for repeatedly.