TT-seq captures enhancer landscapes immediately after T-cell stimulation.
ABSTRACT: To monitor transcriptional regulation in human cells, rapid changes in enhancer and promoter activity must be captured with high sensitivity and temporal resolution. Here, we show that the recently established protocol TT-seq ("transient transcriptome sequencing") can monitor rapid changes in transcription from enhancers and promoters during the immediate response of T cells to ionomycin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). TT-seq maps eRNAs and mRNAs every 5 min after T-cell stimulation with high sensitivity and identifies many new primary response genes. TT-seq reveals that the synthesis of 1,601 eRNAs and 650 mRNAs changes significantly within only 15 min after stimulation, when standard RNA-seq does not detect differentially expressed genes. Transcription of enhancers that are primed for activation by nucleosome depletion can occur immediately and simultaneously with transcription of target gene promoters. Our results indicate that enhancer transcription is a good proxy for enhancer regulatory activity in target gene activation, and establish TT-seq as a tool for monitoring the dynamics of enhancer landscapes and transcription programs during cellular responses and differentiation.
Project description:Enhancers are intergenic DNA elements that regulate the transcription of target genes in response to signaling pathways by interacting with promoters over large genomic distances. Recent studies have revealed that enhancers are bi-directionally transcribed into enhancer RNAs (eRNAs). Using single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH), we investigated the eRNA-mediated regulation of transcription during estrogen induction in MCF-7 cells. We demonstrate that eRNAs are localized exclusively in the nucleus and are induced with similar kinetics as target mRNAs. However, eRNAs are mostly nascent at enhancers and their steady-state levels remain lower than those of their cognate mRNAs. Surprisingly, at the single-allele level, eRNAs are rarely co-expressed with their target loci, demonstrating that active gene transcription does not require the continuous transcription of eRNAs or their accumulation at enhancers. When co-expressed, sub-diffraction distance measurements between nascent mRNA and eRNA signals reveal that co-transcription of eRNAs and mRNAs rarely occurs within closed enhancer-promoter loops. Lastly, basal eRNA transcription at enhancers, but not E2-induced transcription, is maintained upon depletion of MLL1 and ER?, suggesting some degree of chromatin accessibility prior to signal-dependent activation of transcription. Together, our findings suggest that eRNA accumulation at enhancer-promoter loops is not required to sustain target gene transcription.
Project description:Rev-Erba and Rev-Erbb are nuclear receptors that regulate the expression of genes involved in the control of circadian rhythm, metabolism, and inflammatory responses. Rev-Erbs function as transcriptional repressors by recruiting NCoR/HDAC3 co-repressor complexes to Rev-Erb response elements in enhancers and promoters of target genes, but the molecular basis for cell-specific programs of repression is not known. Here, we present evidence that in macrophages, Rev-Erbs regulate target gene expression by inhibiting the functions of distal enhancers that are selected by macrophage lineage-determining factors, thereby establishing a macrophage-specific program of repression. Remarkably, the repressive functions of Rev-Erbs are associated with their ability to inhibit the transcription of enhancer-derived RNAs (eRNAs). Furthermore, targeted degradation of eRNAs at two enhancers subject to negative regulation by Rev-Erbs resulted in reduced expression of nearby mRNAs, implying a direct role of these eRNAs in enhancer function. By precisely defining eRNA start sites using a method that quantifies nascent 5' ends (5'-GRO-Seq), we show that transfer of full enhancer activity to a target promoter requires both the sequences mediating transcription factor binding and the specific sequences encoding the eRNA transcript. These studies provide evidence for direct roles of eRNAs in contributing to enhancer functions and suggest that Rev-Erbs act to suppress gene expression at a distance by repressing eRNA transcription. Using ChIPseq, GRO-seq, and 5'GRO-seq to determine mechanism of RevErb in transcriptional regulation in macrophages
Project description:Active enhancers of the human genome generate long noncoding transcripts known as enhancer RNAs (eRNAs). How dynamic transcriptional changes of eRNAs are physically and functionally linked with target gene transcription remains unclear. To investigate the dynamic functional relationships among eRNAs and target promoters, we obtained a dense time series of GRO-seq and ChIP-seq data to generate a time-resolved enhancer activity map of a cell undergoing an innate antiviral immune response. Dynamic changes in eRNA and pre-mRNA transcription activities suggest distinct regulatory roles of enhancers. Using a criterion based on proximity and transcriptional inducibility, we identified 123 highly confident pairs of virus-inducible enhancers and their target genes. These enhancers interact with their target promoters transiently and concurrently at the peak of gene activation. Accordingly, their physical disassociation from the promoters is likely involved in post-induction repression. Functional assessments further establish that these eRNAs are necessary for full induction of the target genes and that a complement of inducible eRNAs functions together to achieve full activation. Lastly, we demonstrate the potential for eRNA-targeted transcriptional reprogramming through targeted reduction of eRNAs for a clinically relevant gene, TNFSF10, resulting in a selective control of interferon-induced apoptosis.
Project description:Gene regulatory programs in different cell types are largely defined through cell-specific enhancers activity. The histone variant H2A.Z has been shown to play important roles in transcription mainly by controlling proximal promoters, but its effect on enhancer functions remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate by genome-wide approaches that H2A.Z is present at a subset of active enhancers bound by the estrogen receptor alpha (ER?). We also determine that H2A.Z does not influence the local nucleosome positioning around ER?-enhancers using ChIP-sequencing at nucleosomal resolution and unsupervised pattern discovery. We further highlight that H2A.Z-enriched enhancers are associated with chromatin accessibility, H3K122ac enrichment and hypomethylated DNA. Moreover, upon estrogen stimulation, the enhancers occupied by H2A.Z produce enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), and recruit RNA polymerase II as well as RAD21, a member of the cohesin complex involved in chromatin interactions between enhancers and promoters. Importantly, their recruitment and eRNAs production are abolished by H2A.Z depletion, thereby revealing a novel functional link between H2A.Z occupancy and enhancer activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that H2A.Z acts as an important player for enhancer functions by establishing and maintaining a chromatin environment required for RNA polymerase II recruitment, eRNAs transcription and enhancer-promoters interactions, all essential attributes of enhancer activity. The MNase ChIP-seqs in this study measure the genome-wide binding landscape of H2A.Z, H3K4me1, H3K27ac and H3K4me3 in MCF-7 cells in the absence or presence of E2. Two biological replicates were done for each ChIP-seq experiment and for each condition, as well as, control input.
Project description:Gene regulatory programs in different cell types are largely defined through cell-specific enhancers activity. The histone variant H2A.Z has been shown to play important roles in transcription mainly by controlling proximal promoters, but its effect on enhancer functions remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate by genome-wide approaches that H2A.Z is present at a subset of active enhancers bound by the estrogen receptor alpha (ER?). We also determine that H2A.Z does not influence the local nucleosome positioning around ER? enhancers using ChIP sequencing at nucleosomal resolution and unsupervised pattern discovery. We further highlight that H2A.Z-enriched enhancers are associated with chromatin accessibility, H3K122ac enrichment and hypomethylated DNA. Moreover, upon estrogen stimulation, the enhancers occupied by H2A.Z produce enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), and recruit RNA polymerase II as well as RAD21, a member of the cohesin complex involved in chromatin interactions between enhancers and promoters. Importantly, their recruitment and eRNAs production are abolished by H2A.Z depletion, thereby revealing a novel functional link between H2A.Z occupancy and enhancer activity. Taken together, our findings suggest that H2A.Z acts as an important player for enhancer functions by establishing and maintaining a chromatin environment required for RNA polymerase II recruitment, eRNAs transcription and enhancer-promoters interactions, all essential attributes of enhancer activity.
Project description:The functional importance of gene enhancers in regulated gene expression is well established. In addition to widespread transcription of long non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcripts in mammalian cells, bidirectional ncRNAs referred to as eRNAs are present on enhancers. However, it has remained unclear whether these eRNAs are functional, or merely a reflection of enhancer activation. Here, we report that 17 ?-estradiol (E2)-bound estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) on enhancers causes a global increase in eRNA transcription on enhancers adjacent to E2 upregulated coding genes. These induced eRNAs, as functional transcripts, appear to exert important roles for the observed ligand-dependent induction of target coding genes, causing an increased strength of specific enhancer:promoter looping initiated by ER? binding. Cohesin, present on many ER?-regulated enhancers even prior to ligand treatment, apparently contributes to E2-dependent gene activation by stabilizing E2/ER?/eRNA-induced enhancer:promoter looping. Our data indicate that eRNAs are likely to exert important functions in many regulated programs of gene transcription. The ChIP-seqs in this study measure the binding landscape of master transcription regulator of estrogen signaling - ER?, together with common histone marks including H3K27ac and H3K4me1 in MCF7 cells. These data serve as the basis to understand the enhancer map and subsequent analysis of eRNA expression using GRO-seq. The GRO-seq measures the trancription of nascent RNAs in the genome. From MCF7 cells treated with veichle or estrodial, we could identify estrogen-regulated eRNAs and subsequently could study their functions.
Project description:Genomic enhancer elements regulate gene expression programs important for neuronal fate and function and are implicated in brain disease states. Enhancers undergo bidirectional transcription to generate non-coding enhancer RNAs (eRNAs). However, eRNA function remains controversial. Here, we combined Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin using Sequencing (ATAC-Seq) and RNA-Seq datasets from three distinct neuronal culture systems in two activity states, enabling genome-wide enhancer identification and prediction of putative enhancer-gene pairs based on correlation of transcriptional output. Notably, stimulus-dependent enhancer transcription preceded mRNA induction, and CRISPR-based activation of eRNA synthesis increased mRNA at paired genes, functionally validating enhancer-gene predictions. Focusing on enhancers surrounding the Fos gene, we report that targeted eRNA manipulation bidirectionally modulates Fos mRNA, and that Fos eRNAs directly interact with the histone acetyltransferase domain of the enhancer-linked transcriptional co-activator CREB-binding protein (CBP). Together, these results highlight the unique role of eRNAs in neuronal gene regulation and demonstrate that eRNAs can be used to identify putative target genes.
Project description:Enhancers can act as cis-regulatory elements to control transcriptional regulation by recruiting transcription factors (TFs) in a distance and orientation-independent manner. However, it is still unclear how p53 participates in the enhancer network as TF in hepatic carcinoma under the condition of DNA damage. A total of 14,286 active enhancers were identified through the integration of stable and unstable enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) captured by CAGE and GRO-seq, respectively. Furthermore, 218 p53-bound enhancers (Enhp53) were identified by analyzing p53 ChIP-seq in HepG2 cells after DNA damage. The results showed that the enhancer expression and histone markers of enhancers (H3K4me1, H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K9ac, and H3K27ac) revealed significantly higher level on Enhp53 than Enhno-p53 which suggested that p53 participated in regulating enhancer activity and chromatin structure. By analyzing 124 TFs ChIP-seq from ENCODE, 93 TFs were found significantly enriched on Enhp53 such as GATA4, YY1, and CTCF, indicating p53 may co-regulate enhancers with TFs participation. Moreover, significantly differentially expressed 438 miRNAs and 1,264 mRNAs were identified by analyzing small RNA-seq and RNA-seq, and 26 Enhp53-miRNAs and 145 Enhp53-mRNA interactions were identified by the integration of 3D genome data and genomic distance. The functional enrichment analysis showed that these miRNA targets and mRNAs were significantly involved in tumor biological processes and signaling pathways such as DNA replication, p53 signaling pathway, hepatitis B, focal adhesion, etc. The above results indicated that p53 participated in regulating enhancer network in hepatic carcinoma and Enhp53 exhibited significantly different characteristics with Enhno-p53.
Project description:Enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) are a class of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) expressed from active enhancers, whose function and action mechanism are yet to be firmly established. Here we show that eRNAs facilitate the transition of paused RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) into productive elongation by acting as a decoy for the negative elongation factor (NELF) complex upon induction of immediate early genes (IEGs) in neurons. eRNAs are synthesized prior to the culmination of target gene transcription and interact with the NELF complex. Knockdown of eRNAs expressed at neuronal enhancers impairs transient release of NELF from the specific target promoters during transcriptional activation, coinciding with a decrease in target mRNA induction. The enhancer-promoter interaction was unaffected by eRNA knockdown. Instead, chromatin looping might enable eRNAs to act locally at a specific promoter. Our findings highlight the spatiotemporally regulated action mechanism of eRNAs during early transcriptional elongation.
Project description:We have integrated and analyzed a large number of data sets from a variety of genomic assays using a novel computational pipeline to provide a global view of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1; a.k.a. ER?) enhancers in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Using this approach, we have defined a class of primary transcripts (eRNAs) that are transcribed uni- or bidirectionally from estrogen receptor binding sites (ERBSs) with an average transcription unit length of ?3-5 kb. The majority are up-regulated by short treatments with estradiol (i.e., 10, 25, or 40 min) with kinetics that precede or match the induction of the target genes. The production of eRNAs at ERBSs is strongly correlated with the enrichment of a number of genomic features that are associated with enhancers (e.g., H3K4me1, H3K27ac, EP300/CREBBP, RNA polymerase II, open chromatin architecture), as well as enhancer looping to target gene promoters. In the absence of eRNA production, strong enrichment of these features is not observed, even though ESR1 binding is evident. We find that flavopiridol, a CDK9 inhibitor that blocks transcription elongation, inhibits eRNA production but does not affect other molecular indicators of enhancer activity, suggesting that eRNA production occurs after the assembly of active enhancers. Finally, we show that an enhancer transcription "signature" based on GRO-seq data can be used for de novo enhancer prediction across cell types. Together, our studies shed new light on the activity of ESR1 at its enhancer sites and provide new insights about enhancer function.