Simultaneous Determination of Multi-Mycotoxins in Cereal Grains Collected from South Korea by LC/MS/MS.
ABSTRACT: An improved analytical method compared with conventional ones was developed for simultaneous determination of 13 mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, 3-acetylnivalenol, aflatoxin B?, aflatoxin B?, aflatoxin G?, aflatoxin G?, fumonisin B?, fumonisin B?, T-2, HT-2, zearalenone, and ochratoxin A) in cereal grains by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) after a single immunoaffinity column clean-up. The method showed a good linearity, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in mycotoxin determination by LC/MS/MS. The levels of 13 mycotoxins in 5 types of commercial grains (brown rice, maize, millet, sorghum, and mixed cereal) from South Korea were determined in a total of 507 cereal grains. Mycotoxins produced from Fusarium sp. (fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and zearalenone) were more frequently (more than 5%) and concurrently detected in all cereal grains along with higher mean levels (4.3-161.0 ng/g) in positive samples than other toxins such as aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (less than 9% and below 5.2 ng/g in positive samples) from other fungal species.
Project description:This study investigated the distribution of twelve mycotoxins (aflatoxins B?, B?, G?, and G?; ochratoxin A; fumonisins B? and B?; deoxynivalenol; nivalenol; zearalenone; T-2 toxin; and HT-2 toxin) in corn and corn by-products (corn bran, cornstarch, corn gluten, corn gluten feed, corn germ, light steep water, and corn steep liquor) produced by wet-milling in Korea. Fifty-two samples were collected from three factories producing cornstarch and other corn by-products. The samples were pretreated on an immunoaffinity column (IAC), and then the levels of the 12 mycotoxins were analyzed simultaneously by liquid chromatography-coupled triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fusarium mycotoxins were mainly found in raw corn and corn gluten feed samples. Other mycotoxins-such as aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and HT-2 toxin-were detected in tiny amounts below the limit of quantification (LOQ) in cornstarch, corn germ, and corn bran. Ochratoxin A and nivalenol were mainly carried over into cornstarch. Aflatoxin B?, deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and the fumonisins were concentrated in corn gluten feed. Zearalenone was evenly distributed in all corn by-products except cornstarch during the milling process.
Project description:Consumption of fruit juice is becoming trendy for consumers seeking freshness and high vitamin and low caloric intake. Mycotoxigenic moulds may infect fruits during crop growth, harvest, and storage leading to mycotoxin production. Many mycotoxins are resistant to food processing, which make their presence in the final juice product very likely expected. In this way, the presence of 30 mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2), alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), Ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), enniatin A (ENNA), enniatin A1 (ENNA1), enniatin B (ENNB), enniatin B1 (ENNB1), beauvericin (BEA), sterigmatocystin (STG), zearalenone (ZEA), ?-zearalanol (?-ZAL), ?-zearalanol (?-ZAL), ?-zearalenol (?-ZOL), ?-zearalenol (?-ZOL), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), nivalenol (NIV), fusarenon-X (FUS-X), neosolaniol (NEO), patulin (PAT), T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin was evaluated in 80 juice samples collected from Valencia retail Market. An efficient Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction method (DLLME) was carried out before their trace level determination by chromatographic techniques coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The results obtained revealed the presence of nine mycotoxins namely AOH, AME, PAT, OTA, AFB1, AFB2, AFG2, ?-ZAL, and HT2 in the analyzed samples, with incidences ranging from 3 to 29% and mean contents between 0.14 and 59.52 µg/L. Considerable percentages of TDIs were reached by children when 200 mL was considered as daily fruit juice intake.
Project description:Veterinary diets are intended for diseased animals and may contain cereal grains, mainly maize and/or wheat. These, in turn, are often infected with pathogens of the Fusarium genus, which are able to produce numerous harmful mycotoxins. Forty-two samples of veterinary diets for dogs and cats were analyzed for the presence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins. Species were identified using molecular methods and the ergosterol and mycotoxins (fumonisin B?, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone) were quantified using HPLC methods. Two Fusarium species were identified: Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium verticillioides. The highest concentrations of fumonisin B?, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone were 74.83, 2318.05, 190.90, and 45.84 ng/g, respectively. Only 9.5% of the samples were free from Fusarium mycotoxins. The acceptable limits of mycotoxin content in animal feed, specified by the EU regulations, were not exceeded in any of the samples tested. The mean mycotoxin content in veterinary diets for cats was lower than for dogs. Thus, it is recommended that veterinary diets are examined, since the mycotoxin contamination pose additional risk to animal health. The knowledge on Fusarium occurrence in veterinary diets is scarce and as far as we are aware this is the first report concerning the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and their important secondary metabolites-mycotoxins-in different types of veterinary diets for companion animals in Poland.
Project description:A survey on 120 cereal samples (barley, maize, rice and wheat) from Algerian markets has been carried out to evaluate the presence of 15 mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1 and B2, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, zearalenone, fusarenon X, citrinin, sterigmatocystin, enniatins A, A1, B and B1, and beauvericin). With this purpose, a QuEChERS-based extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) were used. Analytical results showed that 78 cereal samples (65%) were contaminated with at least one toxin, while 50% were contaminated with three to nine mycotoxins. T-2 toxin, citrinin, beauvericin and deoxynivalenol were the most commonly found mycotoxins (frequency of 50%, 41.6%, 40.8% and 33.3%, respectively). Fumonisins (B1 + B2), enniatins B and B1, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone registered high concentrations (289-48878 µg/kg, 1.2-5288 µg/kg, 15-4569 µg/kg, 48-2055 µg/kg and 10.4-579 µg/kg, respectively). Furthermore, concentrations higher than those allowed by the European Union (EU) were observed in 21, 8 and 1 samples for fumonisins, zearalenone and deoxinivalenol, respectively. As a conclusion, the high levels of fumonisins (B1 + B2) in maize and deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and HT-2 + T-2 toxins in wheat, represent a health risk for the average adult consumer in Algeria. These results pointed out the necessity of a consistent control and the definition of maximum allowed levels for mycotoxins in Algerian foodstuffs.
Project description:A high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 20 Fusarium toxins (nivalenol, fusarenon-X, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, neosolaniol, diacetoxyscirpenol, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, fumonisin B3, fumonisin A1, fumonisin A2, fumonisin A3, zearalenone, ?-zearalenol, ?-zearalenol, ?-zearalanol, and ?-zearalanol) in cereals. The separation of 20 Fusarium toxins with good peak shapes was achieved using a pentafluorophenyl column, and Orbitrap MS was able to detect accurately from cereal matrix components within ±0.77 ppm. The samples were prepared using a QuEChERS kit for extraction and a multifunctional cartridge for purification. The linearity, repeatability, and recovery of the method were >0.9964, 0.8%-14.7%, and 71%-106%, respectively. Using this method, an analysis of 34 commercially available cereals detected the presence of deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, fumonisin B3, fumonisn A1, fumonisin A2, fumonisin A3, and zearalenone in corn samples with high concentration and frequency. Trichothecenes was detected from wheat samples with high frequency; in particular, the concentration of deoxynivalenol was high. Conversely, ?-zearalenol, ?-zearalenol, ?-zearalanol, and ?-zearalanol were not detected in any of the samples.
Project description:Forages are important components of dairy cattle rations but might harbor a plethora of mycotoxins. Ruminants are considered to be less susceptible to the adverse health effects of mycotoxins, mainly because the ruminal microflora degrades certain mycotoxins. Yet, impairment of the ruminal degradation capacity or high ruminal stability of toxins can entail that the intestinal epithelium is exposed to significant mycotoxin amounts. The aims of our study were to assess i) the mycotoxin occurrence in maize silage and ii) the cytotoxicity of relevant mycotoxins on bovine intestinal cells. In total, 158 maize silage samples were collected from European dairy cattle farms. LC-MS/MS-based analysis of 61 mycotoxins revealed the presence of emerging mycotoxins (e.g. emodin, culmorin, enniatin B1, enniatin B, and beauvericin) in more than 70% of samples. Among the regulated mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were most frequently detected (67.7%). Overall, 87% of maize silages contained more than five mycotoxins. Using an in vitro model with calf small intestinal epithelial cells B, the cytotoxicity of deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fumonisin B1 and enniatin B was evaluated (0-200 µM). Absolute IC50 values varied in dependence of employed assay and were 1.2-3.6 µM, 0.8-1.0 µM, 8.6-18.3 µM, and 4.0-6.7 µM for deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, fumonisin B1, and enniatin B, respectively. Results highlight the potential relevance of mycotoxins for bovine gut health, a previously neglected target in ruminants.
Project description:In this study, 120 silage samples collected in 2015 from farms in Poland were analysed by a multimycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The study included toxins which are regulated within the European Union (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, T-2/HT-2 toxins, ochratoxin A and zearalenone) and non-regulated mycotoxins (enniatins, beauvericin, 8-ketotrichothecenes, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone derivatives). All silage samples were positive for at least one mycotoxin, and 61% of samples contained five or more mycotoxins simultaneously. The most frequently detected toxins were deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, enniatins and beauvericin, although the levels of these toxins were relatively low. The mean concentration of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon was 406 and 80.6 μg/kg, respectively, and two toxins were positive-correlated. This is the first study that provides information about emerging mycotoxins contaminating silage in Poland.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the potential accumulation of mycotoxins in the lesser mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus, LMW) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF) larvae. Feed was spiked with aflatoxin B?, deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A or zearalenone, and as a mixture of mycotoxins, to concentrations of 1, 10, and 25 times the maximum limits set by the European Commission for complete feed. This maximum limit is 0.02 mg/kg for aflatoxin B?, 5 mg/kg for DON, 0.5 mg/kg for zearalenone and 0.1 mg/kg for ochratoxin A. The mycotoxins and some of their metabolites were analysed in the larvae and residual material using a validated and accredited LC-MS/MS-based method. Metabolites considered were aflatoxicol, aflatoxin P?, aflatoxin Q?, and aflatoxin M?, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON and DON-3-glycoside, and ?- and ?-zearalenol. No differences were observed between larvae reared on mycotoxins individually or as a mixture with regards to both larvae development and mycotoxin accumulation/excretion. None of the mycotoxins accumulated in the larvae and were only detected in BSF larvae several orders of magnitude lower than the concentration in feed. Mass balance calculations showed that BSF and LMW larvae metabolized the four mycotoxins to different extents. Metabolites accounted for minimal amounts of the mass balance, except for zearalenone metabolites in the BSF treatments, which accounted for an average maximum of 86% of the overall mass balance. Both insect species showed to excrete or metabolize the four mycotoxins present in their feed. Hence, safe limits for these mycotoxins in substrates to be used for these two insect species possibly could be higher than for production animals. However, additional analytical and toxicological research to fully understand the safe limits of mycotoxins in insect feed, and thus the safety of the insects, is required.
Project description:A wide range of pet food types are available on the market; the dominant type is dry food formulated in croquets. One of the most common ingredients of dry food are cereals-vectors of harmful mycotoxins posing the risk to pet health. In this study, 38 cat and dog dry food samples available on the Polish market were investigated. Morphological and molecular methods were applied to identify fungal genera present in pet food. Quantification of ergosterol and Fusarium mycotoxins: Fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and zearalenone were performed using high performance liquid chromatography. Obtained results indicated five genera of mycotoxigenic fungi: Alternaria sp., Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Penicillium sp., and Fusarium sp., including Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum. Ergosterol and mycotoxins of interest were detected in both cat and dog food samples in the amounts ranging from 0.31 to 4.05 µg/g for ergosterol and 0.3-30.3, 1.2-618.4, 29.6-299.0, and 12.3-53.0 ng/g for zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and fumonisin B1, respectively. The conclusion is the presence of mycotoxins in levels much lower than recommended by EU regulations does not eliminate the risk and caution is advised concerning that long-term daily intake of even small doses of mycotoxins can slowly damage pet's health.
Project description:Fumonisin is one of the most prevalent mycotoxins in maize, causing substantial economic losses and potential health risks in human and animals. In the present study, in-house polyclonal IgY antibody against fumonisin group B (FB) was applied for the development of a competitive lateral flow immunoassay detecting these mycotoxins in maize grains with the limit of detection of 4000 µg/kg, which corresponds to the maximum residue limit adopted by The International Codex Alimentarius Commission. To this end, factors affecting the test performance including nitrocellulose membrane type, dilution factor of maize homogenates in running buffer, amount of detection conjugate, and incubation time between detection conjugate and samples were optimized. Under the optimal condition (UniSart ® CN140 nitrocellulose membrane, FB 1-BSA immobilized at 1 µg/cm, 1:10 dilution factor, 436 ng of gold nanoparticle conjugate, 30 minutes of incubation), the developed test could detect both FB 1 and FB 2 in maize with limit of detection of 4000 µg/kg, and showed no cross-reactivity to deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone. When applied to detect FB 1 and FB 2 in naturally contaminated maize samples, results obtained from the developed assay were in good agreement with those from the high-performance liquid chromatography method. This lateral flow immunoassay is particularly suitable for screening of fumonisins in maize because of its simplicity and cost-effectiveness.