Impact of Exercise and Aging on Rat Urine and Blood Metabolome. An LC-MS Based Metabolomics Longitudinal Study.
ABSTRACT: Aging is an inevitable condition leading to health deterioration and death. Regular physical exercise can moderate the metabolic phenotype changes of aging. However, only a small number of metabolomics-based studies provide data on the effect of exercise along with aging. Here, urine and whole blood samples from Wistar rats were analyzed in a longitudinal study to explore metabolic alterations due to exercise and aging. The study comprised three different programs of exercises, including a life-long protocol which started at the age of 5 months and ended at the age of 21 months. An acute exercise session was also evaluated. Urine and whole blood samples were collected at different time points and were analyzed by LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry). Based on their metabolic profiles, samples from trained and sedentary rats were differentiated. The impact on the metabolome was found to depend on the length of exercise period with acute exercise also showing significant changes. Metabolic alterations due to aging were equally pronounced in sedentary and trained rats in both urine and blood analyzed samples.
Project description:Exercise late in life mitigates skeletal muscle epigenetic aging, providing evidence that physical activity is a "fountain of youth". Overall design: TA muscle from 5 young sedentary mice, 5 24 month old sedentary mice, and 5 aged mice exercise trained from 22-24 months were analyzed for DNA methylation via RRBS and DNAge.
Project description:Background:Metabolic Syndrom has become a public health problem. It mainly results from the increased consumption of fat and sugar. In this context, the benefits of personalized moderate exercise training were investigated on a metabolic syndrome male wistar rat model food with fructose drinking water (20-25% w/v). Different markers including body weight, metabolic measurements, blood biochemistry related to metabolic syndrome complications have been evaluated. Methods:Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to 4 groups: control (sedentary (C, n?=?8) and exercise trained (Ex, n?=?8)), fructose fed (sedentary (FF, n?=?8) and exercise trained fructose fed rats (ExFF, n?=?10)). ExFF and Ex rats were trained at moderate intensity during the last 6 weeks of the 12 weeks-long protocol of fructose enriched water. Metabolic control was determined by measuring body weight, fasting blood glucose, HOMA 2-IR, HIRI, MISI, leptin, adiponectin, triglyceridemia and hepatic dysfunction. Results:After 12 weeks of fructose enriched diet, rats displayed on elevated fasting glycaemia and insulin resistance. A reduced food intake, as well as increased body weight, total calorie intake and heart weight were also observed in FF group. Concerning biochemical markers, theoretical creatinine clearance, TG levels and ASAT/ALAT ratio were also affected, without hepatic steatosis. Six weeks of 300 min/week of moderate exercise training have significantly improved overweight, fasting glycaemia, HOMA 2-IR, MISI without modify HIRI. Exercise also decreased the plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin and the ratio leptin/adiponectin. Regarding liver function and dyslipidemia, the results were less clear as the effects of exercise and fructose-enriched water interact together, and, sometimes counteract each other. Conclusion:Our results indicated that positive health effects were achieved through a personalized moderate training of 300 min per week (1 h/day and 5 days/week) for 6 weeks. Therefore, regular practice of aerobic physical exercise is an essential triggering factor to attenuate MetS disorders induced by excessive fructose consumption.
Project description:Introduction:The effects of exercise on the heart and its resistance to disease are well-documented. Recent studies have identified that exercise-induced resistance to arrhythmia is due to the preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Objectives:To identify novel metabolic changes that occur parallel to these mitochondrial alterations, we performed non-targeted metabolomics analysis on hearts from sedentary and exercise-trained rats challenged with isolated heart ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). Methods:Eight-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were treadmill trained 5 days/week for 6 weeks (exercise duration and intensity progressively increased to 1 h at 30 m/min up a 10.5% incline, 75-80% VO2max). The recovery of pre-ischemic function for sedentary rat hearts was 28.8 ± 5.4% (N = 12) compared to exercise trained hearts, which recovered 51.9% ± 5.7 (N = 14) (p < 0.001). Results:Non-targeted GC-MS metabolomics analysis of (1) sedentary rat hearts; (2) exercise-trained rat hearts; (3) sedentary rat hearts challenged with global ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury; and (4) exercise-trained rat hearts challenged with global I/R (10/group) revealed 15 statistically significant metabolites between groups by ANOVA using Metaboanalyst (p < 0.001). Enrichment analysis of these metabolites for pathway-associated metabolic sets indicated a > 10-fold enrichment for ammonia recycling and protein biosynthesis. Subsequent comparison of the sedentary hearts post-I/R and exercise-trained hearts post-I/R further identified significant differences in three metabolites (oleic acid, pantothenic acid, and campesterol) related to pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis (p ? 1.24E-05, FDR ? 5.07E-4). Conclusions:These studies shed light on novel mechanisms in which exercise-induced cardioprotection occurs in I/R that complement both the mitochondrial stabilization and antioxidant mechanisms recently described. These findings also link protein synthesis and protein degradation (protein quality control mechanisms) with exercise-linked cardioprotection and mitochondrial susceptibility for the first time in cardiac I/R.
Project description:PURPOSE:Exercise training increases aerobic capacity and is beneficial for health, whereas low aerobic exercise capacity is a strong independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and premature death. The purpose of the present study was to determine the metabolic profiles in a rat model of inborn low versus high capacity runners (LCR/HCR) and to determine the effect of inborn aerobic capacity, aging, and exercise training on skeletal muscle metabolic profile. METHODS:LCR/HCR rats were randomized to high intensity low volume interval treadmill training twice a week or sedentary control for 3 or 11 months before they were sacrificed, at 9 and 18 months of age, respectively. Magnetic resonance spectra were acquired from soleus muscle extracts, and partial least square discriminative analysis was used to determine the differences in metabolic profile. RESULTS:Sedentary HCR rats had 54% and 30% higher VO2max compared to sedentary LCR rats at 9 months and 18 months, respectively. In HCR, exercise increased running speed significantly, and VO2max was higher at age of 9 months, compared to sedentary counterparts. In LCR, changes were small and did not reach the level of significance. The metabolic profile was significantly different in the LCR sedentary group compared to the HCR sedentary group at the age of 9 and 18 months, with higher glutamine and glutamate levels (9 months) and lower lactate level (18 months) in HCR. Irrespective of fitness level, aging was associated with increased soleus muscle concentrations of glycerophosphocholine and glucose. Interval training did not influence metabolic profiles in LCR or HCR rats at any age. CONCLUSION:Differences in inborn aerobic capacity gave the most marked contrasts in metabolic profile, there were also some changes with ageing. Low volume high intensity interval training twice a week had no detectable effect on metabolic profile.
Project description:Exercise has multi-systemic benefits and attenuates the physiological impairments associated with aging. Emerging evidence suggests that circulating exosomes mediate some of the beneficial effects of exercise via the transfer of microRNAs between tissues. However, the impact of regular exercise and acute exercise on circulating exosomal microRNAs (exomiRs) in older populations remains unknown. In the present study, we analyzed circulating exomiR expression in endurance-trained elderly men and age-matched sedentary males at baseline (Pre), immediately after a forty minute bout of aerobic exercise on a cycle ergometer (Post), and three hours after this acute exercise (3hPost). Plasma exosomes were isolated, characterized, and exomiR levels were determined by sequencing. The effect of regular exercise on circulating exomiRs was assessed using paired t-tests of baseline expression levels in the trained and sedentary groups. The effect of acute exercise was determined by comparing baseline and post-training expression levels in each group. Regular exercise resulted in significantly increased baseline expression of three exomiRs (miR-486-5p, miR-215-5p, miR-941) and decreased expression of one exomiR (miR-151b). Acute exercise altered circulating exomiR expression in both groups. However, exomiRs regulated by acute exercise in the trained group (7 miRNAs at Post and 8 at 3hPost) were distinct from those in the sedentary group (9 at Post and 4 at 3hPost). Pathway analysis prediction and reported target validation experiments revealed that the majority of exercise-regulated exomiRs are targeting genes that are related to IGF-1 signaling, a pathway involved in exercise-induced muscle and cardiac hypertrophy. The immediately post-acute exercise exomiR signature in the trained group correlates with activation of IGF-1 signaling, whereas in the sedentary group it is associated with inhibition of IGF-1 signaling. These results suggest that training status may counteract age-related anabolic resistance by modulating circulating exomiR profiles both at baseline and in response to acute exercise. Overall design: Sequencing was performed on circulating exosome-derived small RNA samples isolated from 10 elderly individuals (5 endurance-trained and 5 sedentary subjects) at 3 time points: before acute exercise (Pre), immediately after acute exercise (Post), and 3h after acute exercise (3hPost).
Project description:Mitochondrial respiratory complexes become assembled into supercomplexes (SC) under physiological conditions. One of the functional roles of these entities is the limitation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by complex I (CI) of the respiratory chain. We sought to determine whether the systemic antioxidant effect of exercise is mediated by the assembly of mitochondrial CIs into SCs in rats. Male Wistar rats were exercise trained or remained sedentary for ten weeks; then, blood samples were collected, and the gastrocnemius muscle was isolated. The assembly of mitochondrial SCs and the lipid peroxidation of the mitochondrial and plasmatic fractions were assessed. Our results demonstrate that exercise induced the assembly of CI into SCs in the gastrocnemius and induced a systemic decrease in lipid peroxidation. We also found an inverse association between the superassembly of CIs and mitochondrial lipid peroxidation (p < 0.01) and protein carbonyls (p < 0.05). We conclude that exercise induces the chronic assembly of CIs into SCs, which provide mitochondrial protection against oxidative damage, at least in the studied muscle. Given the relevant role that mitochondria play in health and disease, these findings should help to elucidate the role of exercise as a therapeutic approach for metabolic diseases.
Project description:Exercise has multi-systemic benefits and attenuates the physiological impairments associated with aging. Emerging evidence suggests that circulating exosomes mediate some of the beneficial effects of exercise via the transfer of microRNAs between tissues. However, the impact of regular exercise and acute exercise on circulating exosomal microRNAs (exomiRs) in older populations remains unknown. In the present study, we analyzed circulating exomiR expression in endurance-trained elderly men (n = 5) and age-matched sedentary males (n = 5) at baseline (Pre), immediately after a forty minute bout of aerobic exercise on a cycle ergometer (Post), and three hours after this acute exercise (3hPost). Following the isolation and enrichment of exosomes from plasma, exosome-enriched preparations were characterized and exomiR levels were determined by sequencing. The effect of regular exercise on circulating exomiRs was assessed by comparing the baseline expression levels in the trained and sedentary groups. The effect of acute exercise was determined by comparing baseline and post-training expression levels in each group. Regular exercise resulted in significantly increased baseline expression of three exomiRs (miR-486-5p, miR-215-5p, miR-941) and decreased expression of one exomiR (miR-151b). Acute exercise altered circulating exomiR expression in both groups. However, exomiRs regulated by acute exercise in the trained group (7 miRNAs at Post and 8 at 3hPost) were distinct from those in the sedentary group (9 at Post and 4 at 3hPost). Pathway analysis prediction and reported target validation experiments revealed that the majority of exercise-regulated exomiRs are targeting genes that are related to IGF-1 signaling, a pathway involved in exercise-induced muscle and cardiac hypertrophy. The immediately post-acute exercise exomiR signature in the trained group correlates with activation of IGF-1 signaling, whereas in the sedentary group it is associated with inhibition of IGF-1 signaling. While further validation is needed, including measurements of IGF-1/IGF-1 signaling in blood or skeletal muscle, our results suggest that training status may counteract age-related anabolic resistance by modulating circulating exomiR profiles both at baseline and in response to acute exercise.
Project description:Aging is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. We conducted a study to determine the role of long-term vigorous endurance exercise on age-related changes in insulin sensitivity and various indices of mitochondrial functions. Experiment Overall Design: Skeletal muscle transcript profiling was done using Vastus Lateralis muscle biopsy samples from 10 young sedentary (YS), 10 older sedentary (OS), 10 young trained (YT) and 10 older trained (OT) men and women. Note that YT2, YS1, and OT1 didn't pass the Quality Control Step of dChip (high array/single outliers). Sedentary subjects exercised less than 30 min/day, twice per week. Trained subjects performed ≥ 1 hour cycling or running 6 days/week over the past 4 years.
Project description:Introduction:Menopause increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in women. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of swimming training on cardiac histology and expression of miR-29 and IGF-1 in the ovariectomized rats. Materials and methods:Thirty female Wistar rats were divided into sham and ovariectomized groups: sedentary control (OVX) and trained with 8 weeks exercise (OVX.E). On 57th day, blood was collected and used for lipid profile measurement. In addition, heart tissue was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for IGF-1 mRNA and miR-29, and studied for histopathological changes. Results:Ovariectomy significantly decreased miR-29 and IGF-1 expression in the heart compared to sham animals group (p<0.05). Exercise training increased miR-29 and IGF-1 expression in the trained rats and improved histology and lipid profile compared with OVX group (p<0.05). Conclusion:Estrogen deficiency could lead to cardiac fibrosis through deregulation miR-29 and IGF-1 expression. The findings of the current study suggests a protective effect of exercise on heart against fibrotic changes in ovariectomized rats and support a potential preventive value of exercise in improving cardiac function after menopause.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is known that bioenergetics of aerobic and resistance exercise are not the same but both can effectively improve depression. However, it is not clear whether and how different types of exercise can influence depression through the same metabolic regulatory system. Metabolomics provides a way to study the correlation between metabolites and changes in exercise and/or diseases through the quantitative analysis of all metabolites in the organism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic and resistance training on urinary metabolites by metabolomics analysis in a rodent model of depression. METHODS:Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for eight weeks. The validity of the modeling was assessed by behavioral indices. After four weeks of CUMS, the rats that developed depression were randomly divided into a depression control group, an aerobic training group and a resistance training group. There was also a normal control group. From week 5, the rats in the exercise groups were trained for 30 min per day, five days per week, for four weeks. The urine samples were collected pre and post the training program, and analyzed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. RESULTS:Both types of training improved depression-like behavior in CUMS rats. Compared with normal control, 21 potential biomarkers were identified in the urine of CUMS rats, mainly involved in energy, amino acids and intestinal microbial metabolic pathways. Common responses to the training were found in the two exercise groups that the levels of glutamine, acetone and creatine were significantly recalled (all P<0.05) Aerobic training also resulted in changes in pyruvate and trigonelline, while resistance training modified ?-Oxoglutarate, citric acid, and trimethylamine oxide (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Aerobic and resistance training resulted in common effects on the metabolic pathways of alanine-aspartate-glutamate, TCA cycle, and butyric acid. Aerobic training also had effects on glycolysis or gluconeogenesis and pyruvate metabolism, while resistance training had additional effect on intestinal microbial metabolism.