DNA methylation mediates genotype and smoking interaction in the development of anti-citrullinated peptide antibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis.
ABSTRACT: Multiple factors, including interactions between genetic and environmental risks, are important in susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether DNA methylation can mediate the interaction between genotype and smoking in the development of anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA)-positive RA.We investigated the gene-smoking interactions in DNA methylation using 393 individuals from the Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA). The interaction between rs6933349 and smoking in the risk of developing ACPA-positive RA was further evaluated in a larger portion of the EIRA (1119 controls and 944 ACPA-positive patients with RA), and in the Malaysian Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (MyEIRA) (1556 controls and 792 ACPA-positive patients with RA). Finally, mediation analysis was performed to investigate whether DNA methylation of cg21325723 mediates this gene-environment interaction on the risk of developing of ACPA-positive RA.We identified and replicated one significant gene-environment interaction between rs6933349 and smoking in DNA methylation of cg21325723. This gene-smoking interaction is a novel interaction in the risk of developing ACPA-positive in both Caucasian (multiplicative P value?=?0.056; additive P value?=?0.016) and Asian populations (multiplicative P value?=?0.035; additive P value?=?0.00027), and it is mediated through DNA methylation of cg21325723.We showed that DNA methylation of cg21325723 can mediate the gene-environment interaction between rs6933349 and smoking, impacting the risk of developing ACPA-positive RA, thus being a potential regulator that integrates both internal genetic and external environmental risk factors.
Project description:To develop and validate rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk models based on family history, epidemiologic factors and known genetic risk factors.We developed and validated models for RA based on known RA risk factors, among women in two cohorts: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 381 RA cases and 410 controls) and the Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA, 1244 RA cases and 971 controls). Model discrimination was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) in logistic regression models for the study population and for those with positive family history. The joint effect of family history with genetics, smoking and body mass index (BMI) was evaluated using logistic regression models to estimate ORs for RA.The complete model including family history, epidemiologic risk factors and genetics demonstrated AUCs of 0.74 for seropositive RA in NHS and 0.77 for anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive RA in EIRA. Among women with positive family history, discrimination was excellent for complete models for seropositive RA in NHS (AUC 0.82) and ACPA-positive RA in EIRA (AUC 0.83). Positive family history, high genetic susceptibility, smoking and increased BMI had an OR of 21.73 for ACPA-positive RA.We developed models for seropositive and seronegative RA phenotypes based on family history, epidemiological and genetic factors. Among those with positive family history, models using epidemiologic and genetic factors were highly discriminatory for seropositive and seronegative RA. Assessing epidemiological and genetic factors among those with positive family history may identify individuals suitable for RA prevention strategies.
Project description:Infection by common viruses has long been discussed in the aetiology of a number of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, studies investigating this hypothesis in RA show conflicting results. These studies often lack well-matched control populations, and many do not include data on autoantibodies, genetic risk factors and other environmental factors, which are known to contribute to disease only in subgroups of patients. In the present study, we have therefore examined the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and parvovirus B19 (B19) in RA aetiology, by analysing anti-viral antibodies in relation to anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), smoking, HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles, and clinical parameters, in both RA patients and matched controls.Anti-viral antibodies were measured by ELISA in serum samples from 990 RA patients and 700 controls from the Swedish population-based Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA) cohort. Data on ACPA, smoking, SE, inflammation (C-reactive protein) and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) was obtained from the EIRA database. Fisher's exact test, the chi-squared test, and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to calculate differences in anti-viral antibody frequencies and levels; unconditional logistic regression was used to determine the association of anti-viral antibodies with different RA subsets.Antibodies against all viruses were highly prevalent in EIRA, with no major differences detected between ACPA-positive RA, ACPA-negative RA and controls. However, both anti-B19 and anti-EBV IgG levels were significantly lower in ACPA-positive RA compared to controls, and there were significant interactions between low levels of anti-B19 and anti-EBV antibodies and SE in the development of ACPA-positive RA.We could not detect an association between RA and elevated anti-viral antibody levels, for any of the three common viruses, EBV, CMV or B19. On the contrary, our study demonstrated association between low anti-EBV/anti-B19 antibody levels and ACPA-positive RA, in particular when HLA-DRB1 SE was present. These data could potentially suggest that high anti-viral antibody levels would be protective against ACPA-positive RA. Further investigations are required to address the mechanisms behind these findings.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The possible hypothesis of a link between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), specifically anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positive RA, prompted us to investigate the prevalence of periodontitis in the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA), a well-characterised population-based RA case-control cohort. METHODS:Periodontal status of 2,740 RA cases and 3,942 matched controls was retrieved through linking EIRA with the National Dental Health Registry (DHR), where dental diagnostic- and treatment codes on the adult Swedish population have been registered. Dental records from 100 cases and controls were reviewed to validate the periodontal diagnostic codes in DHR. RESULTS:The reviewed dental records confirmed 90% of the periodontitis diagnoses in DHR among RA cases, and 88% among controls. We found the positive predictive value of periodontitis diagnoses in the DHR to be 89% (95% CI 78 to 95%) with a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI: 65 to 86%). In total, 86% of EIRA participants were identified in DHR. The risk for periodontitis increased by age and current smoking status in both cases as well as controls. No significant differences in prevalence of periodontal disease in terms of gingivitis, periodontitis, peri-implantitis or increased risk for periodontitis or peri-implantitis were observed between RA cases and controls. In addition, there was no difference on the basis of seropositivity, ACPA or rheumatoid factor (RF), among patients with RA. CONCLUSIONS:Our data verify that smoking and ageing are risk factors for periodontitis, both in RA and controls. We found no evidence of an increased prevalence of periodontitis in patients with established RA compared to healthy controls, and no differences based on ACPA or RF status among RA subjects.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:In anti-citrullinated protein antibody positive rheumatoid arthritis (ACPA-positive RA), a particular subset of HLA-DRB1 alleles, called shared epitope (SE) alleles, is a highly influential genetic risk factor. Here, we investigated whether non-HLA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), conferring low disease risk on their own, interact with SE alleles more frequently than expected by chance and if such genetic interactions influence the HLA-DRB1 SE effect concerning risk to ACPA-positive RA. METHODS:We computed the attributable proportion (AP) due to additive interaction at genome-wide level for two independent ACPA-positive RA cohorts: the Swedish epidemiological investigation of rheumatoid arthritis (EIRA) and the North American rheumatoid arthritis consortium (NARAC). Then, we tested for differences in the AP p value distributions observed for two groups of SNPs, non-associated and associated with disease. We also evaluated whether the SNPs in interaction with HLA-DRB1 were cis-eQTLs in the SE alleles context in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with ACPA-positive RA (SE-eQTLs). RESULTS:We found a strong enrichment of significant interactions (AP p<0.05) between the HLA-DRB1 SE alleles and the group of SNPs associated with ACPA-positive RA in both cohorts (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test D=0.35 for EIRA and D=0.25 for NARAC, p<2.2e-16 for both). Interestingly, 564 out of 1492 SNPs in consistent interaction for both cohorts were significant SE-eQTLs. Finally, we observed that the effect size of HLA-DRB1 SE alleles for disease decreases from 5.2 to 2.5 after removal of the risk alleles of the two top interacting SNPs (rs2476601 and rs10739581). CONCLUSION:Our data demonstrate that there are massive genetic interactions between the HLA-DRB1 SE alleles and non-HLA genetic variants in ACPA-positive RA.
Project description:To investigate the role of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis in the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by analyzing the antibody response to the P gingivalis virulence factor arginine gingipain type B (RgpB) in relation to anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs), smoking, and HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles in patients with periodontitis, patients with RA, and controls.Anti-RgpB IgG was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 65 periodontitis patients and 59 controls without periodontitis, and in 1,974 RA patients and 377 controls without RA from the Swedish population-based case-control Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA) study. Autoantibody status, smoking habits, and genetic data were retrieved from the EIRA database. Differences in antibody levels were examined using the Mann-Whitney U test. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association of anti-RgpB IgG with different subsets of RA patients.Anti-RgpB antibody levels were significantly elevated in periodontitis patients compared to controls without periodontitis, in RA patients compared to controls without RA, and in ACPA-positive RA patients compared to ACPA-negative RA patients. There was a significant association between anti-RgpB IgG and RA (OR 2.96 [95% CI 2.00, 4.37]), which was even stronger than the association between smoking and RA (OR 1.37 [95% CI 1.07, 1.74]), and in ACPA-positive RA there were interactions between anti-RgpB antibodies and both smoking and the HLA-DRB1 SE.Our study suggests that the previously reported link between periodontitis and RA could be accounted for by P gingivalis infection, and we conclude that P gingivalis is a credible candidate for triggering and/or driving autoimmunity and autoimmune disease in a subset of RA patients.
Project description:To identify additional variants in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region that independently contribute to risk in 2 disease subsets of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) defined according to the presence or absence of antibodies to citrullinated protein antigens (ACPAs).In a multistep analytical strategy using unmatched as well as matched analyses to adjust for HLA-DRB1 genotype, we analyzed 2,221 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning 10.7 Mb, from 6p22.2 to 6p21.31, across the MHC. For ACPA-positive RA, we analyzed samples from the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA) and the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium (NARAC) studies (totaling 1,255 cases and 1,719 controls). For ACPA-negative RA, we used samples from the EIRA study (640 cases and 670 controls). Plink and SAS statistical packages were used to conduct all statistical analyses.A total of 299 SNPs reached locus-wide significance (P<2.3x10(-5)) for ACPA-positive RA, whereas surprisingly, no SNPs reached this significance for ACPA-negative RA. For ACPA-positive RA, we adjusted for known DRB1 risk alleles and identified additional independent associations with SNPs near HLA-DPB1 (rs3117213; odds ratio 1.42 [95% confidence interval 1.17-1.73], Pcombined=0.0003 for the strongest association).There are distinct genetic patterns of MHC associations in the 2 disease subsets of RA defined according to ACPA status. HLA-DPB1 is an independent risk locus for ACPA-positive RA. We did not identify any associations with SNPs within the MHC for ACPA-negative RA.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have provided inconsistent results on whether variants in the MBL2 gene, coding for the complement-activating mannan-binding lectin (MBL) protein, associate with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We re-evaluated this in context of the main environmental and genetic risk factors (smoking, HLA-DRB1 'shared epitope' (SE), PTPN22*620W), which predispose to rheumatoid factor (RF) and/or anti-citrullinated-protein antibody (ACPA)-positive RA. METHODS: In this population-based EIRA study, rheumatoid factor (RF), ACPA, smoking, SE and PTPN22*620W status was determined in incident RA cases and matched controls. MBL-high (n = 1330) and MBL-low (n = 1257) genotypes predicting MBL levels were constructed from four promoter and exon-1 polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval (OR, 95% CI) were calculated by logistic regression. In extended families (n = 316), previously reported data were re-analyzed, considering RF and smoking. RESULTS: MBL-high genotypes tended to be associated with RF-negative (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 0.96-1.51) but not RF-positive (OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.83-1.20) RA. Results divided by ACPA status did not differ. When stratified for smoking, MBL-high genotype was strongly associated with RF-negative RA in never smokers (OR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.24-2.69) but not in ever smokers (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.73-1.30). In never smokers, the association was observed in both the RF-negative/ACPA-negative (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.10-2.55) and RF-negative/ACPA-positive subgroups (OR = 3.07, 95% CI 1.37-6.89), and remained on an SE/PTPN22*620W negative background. In the extended families, the reported association between high MBL and RA was in fact confined to never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: High MBL may predispose to RF-negative RA but only in individuals who have never smoked. This illustrates the importance of phenotypic subgrouping in genetic studies.
Project description:In addition to anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs), antibodies targeting carbamylated (i.e., homocitrullinated) proteins (anti-CarP antibodies) have been described in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the extent to which anti-CarP antibodies are truly distinct from ACPA remains unclear, and few studies have focused on specific autoantigens. Here, we examine cross-reactivity between ACPA and anti-CarP antibodies, in the context of the candidate autoantigen α-enolase.Cross-reactivity was examined by immunoblotting of citrullinated and carbamylated proteins using purified ACPA; and by peptide absorption experiments, using the citrullinated α-enolase peptide CEP-1 and a homocitrulline-containing version (carb-CEP-1) in ELISA. The population-based case-control cohort EIRA (n = 2836 RA; 373 controls) was screened for reactivity with CEP-1 and carb-CEP-1, using the ISAC multiplex array. Associations between anti-CarP antibodies, smoking and genetic risk factors were analysed using unconditional logistic regression models. Differences in antibody levels were investigated using the Mann-Whitney U test.Affinity-purified ACPA was found to bind carbamylated proteins and homocitrulline-containing peptides, demonstrating definitive cross-reactivity between ACPA and anti-CarP antibodies. Anti-carb-CEP-1 reactivity in EIRA was almost exclusively confined to the CEP-1-positive subset, and this group of RA patients (21 %) displayed a particularly strong ACPA response with marked epitope spreading. The small RA subset (3 %) with homocitrulline reactivity in the absence of citrulline reactivity did not associate with smoking or risk genes, and importantly had significantly lower anti-carb-CEP-1 antibody levels.Our data presented herein cast doubt on the specificity of anti-CarP antibodies in RA, which we posit may be a subset of cross-reactive ACPA.
Project description:Although susceptibility genes for anti-citrullinated peptide/protein antibodies (ACPA)-positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been successfully discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), little is known about the genetic background of ACPA-negative RA. We intended to elucidate genetic background of ACPA-negative RA.We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS comprising 670 ACPA-negative RA and 16,891 controls for 1,948,138 markers, followed by a replication study of the top 35 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using 916 cases and 3,764 controls. Inverse-variance method was applied to assess overall effects. To assess overlap of susceptibility loci between ACPA-positive and -negative RA, odds ratios (ORs) of the 21 susceptibility markers to RA in Japanese were compared between the two subsets. In addition, SNPs were stratified by the p-values in GWAS meta-analysis for either ACPA-positive RA or ACPA-negative RA to address the question whether weakly-associated genes were also shared. The correlations between ACPA-positive RA and the subpopulations of ACPA-negative RA (rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive and RF-negative subsets) were also addressed.Rs6904716 in LEMD2 of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus showed a borderline association with ACPA-negative RA (overall p = 5.7 × 10(-8)), followed by rs6986423 in CSMD1 (p = 2.4 × 10(-6)) and rs17727339 in FCRL3 (p = 1.4 × 10(-5)). ACPA-negative RA showed significant correlations of ORs with ACPA-positive RA for the 21 susceptibility SNPs and non-HLA SNPs with p-values far from significance. These significant correlations with ACPA-positive RA were true for ACPA-negative RF-positive and ACPA-negative RF-negative RA. On the contrary, positive correlations were not observed between the ACPA-negative two subpopulations.Many of the susceptibility loci were shared between ACPA-positive and -negative RA.
Project description:The Mediterranean diet has been associated with lower mortality and lower risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Although its components have been analysed in several studies, only one study has specifically investigated the association between Mediterranean diet and risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and reported no association.Data on 1721 patients with incident RA (cases) and 3667 controls, matched on age, gender and residential area, from the Swedish epidemiological investigation of RA (EIRA), a population-based case-control study, were analysed using conditional logistic regression. The Mediterranean diet score, ranging from 0 to 9, was calculated from a 124-item food frequency questionnaire.In the EIRA study (median age of participants 53 years), 24.1% of the patients and 28.2% of the controls had high adherence to the Mediterranean diet (a score between 6 and 9). After adjustments for body mass index, educational level, physical activity, use of dietary supplements, energy intake, and smoking, high adherence reduced the odds of developing RA by 21% (OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.65-0.96) as compared to low adherence (a score between 0 and 2). The OR was even lower among men (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.33-0.73), but no significant association was found among women (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.74-1.18). An association between high diet score and low risk of RA was observed in rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.54-0.88), but not RF-negative RA (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.68-1.34), and in RA characterised by presence of antibodies to citrullinated peptides (ACPA), but not in ACPA-negative RA.In this large population-based case-control study, the Mediterranean diet score was inversely associated with risk of RA. However, an association was only found among men and only in seropositive RA.