Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations suppress STAT1 and CD8+ T cell accumulation in gliomas.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes IDH1 and IDH2 are among the first genetic alterations observed during the development of lower-grade glioma (LGG). LGG-associated IDH mutations confer gain-of-function activity by converting ?-ketoglutarate to the oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Clinical samples and gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) demonstrate reduced expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated genes and IFN-?-inducible chemokines, including CXCL10, in IDH-mutated (IDH-MUT) tumors compared with IDH-WT tumors. Given these findings, we have investigated the impact of IDH mutations on the immunological milieu in LGG. In immortalized normal human astrocytes (NHAs) and syngeneic mouse glioma models, the introduction of mutant IDH1 or treatment with 2HG reduced levels of CXCL10, which was associated with decreased production of STAT1, a regulator of CXCL10. Expression of mutant IDH1 also suppressed the accumulation of T cells in tumor sites. Reductions in CXCL10 and T cell accumulation were reversed by IDH-C35, a specific inhibitor of mutant IDH1. Furthermore, IDH-C35 enhanced the efficacy of vaccine immunotherapy in mice bearing IDH-MUT gliomas. Our findings demonstrate a mechanism of immune evasion in IDH-MUT gliomas and suggest that specific inhibitors of mutant IDH may improve the efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with IDH-MUT gliomas.
Project description:Gliomas with Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation have alterations in several enzyme activities, resulting in various metabolic changes. The aim of this study was to determine a mechanism for the better prognosis of gliomas with IDH mutation by performing metabolomic analysis. To understand the metabolic state of human gliomas, we analyzed clinical samples obtained from surgical resection of glioma patients (grades II-IV) with or without the IDH1 mutation, and compared the results with U87 glioblastoma cells overexpressing IDH1 or IDH1R132H. In clinical samples of gliomas with IDH1 mutation, levels of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG) were increased significantly compared with gliomas without IDH mutation. Gliomas with IDH mutation also showed decreased intermediates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pathways involved in the production of energy, amino acids, and nucleic acids. The marked difference in the metabolic profile in IDH mutant clinical glioma samples compared with that of mutant IDH expressing cells includes a decrease in β-oxidation due to acyl-carnitine and carnitine deficiencies. These metabolic changes may explain the lower cell division rate observed in IDH mutant gliomas and may provide a better prognosis in IDH mutant gliomas.
Project description:Background:Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) are targets of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Methods:Forty-three World Health Organization (WHO) grade II/III gliomas (39 IDH-mutant [mut], 4 IDH-wildtype [wt]) and 14 IDH-mut glioblastomas (GBM) were analyzed for TIL (CD3+; PD1+) infiltration and PD-L1 expression. Results were compared with the data of a previously published series of 117 IDH-wt glioblastomas. PD-L1 gene expression levels were evaluated in 677 diffuse gliomas grades II-IV from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Results:TIL and PD-L1 expression were observed in approximately half of WHO grade II/III gliomas. IDH-wt status was associated with significantly higher TIL infiltration and PD-L1 expression among all (grades II-IV) cases (n = 174, P < 0.001) and within the cohort of glioblastomas (n = 131, P < 0.001). In low-grade glioma (LGG) and glioblastoma cohorts of TCGA, significantly higher PD-L1 gene expression levels were evident in IDH-wt compared with IDH-mut samples (LGG: N = 516; P = 1.933e-11, GBM: N = 161; P < 0.009). Lower PD-L1 gene expression was associated with increased promoter methylation (Spearman correlation coefficient -0.36; P < 0.01) in the LGG cohort of TCGA. IDH-mut gliomas had higher PD-L1 gene promoter methylation levels than IDH-wt gliomas (P < 0.01). Conclusions:The immunological tumor microenvironment of diffuse gliomas differs in association with IDH mutation status. IDH-wt gliomas display a more prominent TIL infiltration and higher PD-L1 expression than IDH-mut cases. Mechanistically this may be at least in part due to differential PD-L1 gene promoter methylation levels. Our findings may be relevant for immune modulatory treatment strategies in glioma patients.
Project description:Point mutations of the NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) occur early in the pathogenesis of gliomas. When mutated, IDH1 and IDH2 gain the ability to produce the metabolite (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), but the downstream effects of mutant IDH1 and IDH2 proteins or of 2HG on cellular metabolism are unknown. We profiled >200 metabolites in human oligodendroglioma (HOG) cells to determine the effects of expression of IDH1 and IDH2 mutants. Levels of amino acids, glutathione metabolites, choline derivatives, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates were altered in mutant IDH1- and IDH2-expressing cells. These changes were similar to those identified after treatment of the cells with 2HG. Remarkably, N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), a common dipeptide in brain, was 50-fold reduced in cells expressing IDH1 mutants and 8.3-fold reduced in cells expressing IDH2 mutants. NAAG also was significantly lower in human glioma tissues containing IDH mutations than in gliomas without such mutations. These metabolic changes provide clues to the pathogenesis of tumors associated with IDH gene mutations.
Project description:IDH1 mutations are common in low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas and cause overproduction of (R)-2HG. (R)-2HG modulates the activity of many enzymes, including some that are linked to transformation and some that are probably bystanders. Although prior work on (R)-2HG targets focused on 2OG-dependent dioxygenases, we found that (R)-2HG potently inhibits the 2OG-dependent transaminases BCAT1 and BCAT2, likely as a bystander effect, thereby decreasing glutamate levels and increasing dependence on glutaminase for the biosynthesis of glutamate and one of its products, glutathione. Inhibiting glutaminase specifically sensitized IDH mutant glioma cells to oxidative stress in vitro and to radiation in vitro and in vivo. These findings highlight the complementary roles for BCATs and glutaminase in glutamate biosynthesis, explain the sensitivity of IDH mutant cells to glutaminase inhibitors, and suggest a strategy for maximizing the effectiveness of such inhibitors against IDH mutant gliomas.
Project description:Background:Targeting glutamine metabolism in cancer has become an increasingly vibrant area of research. Mutant IDH1 (IDH1 mut ) gliomas are considered good candidates for targeting this pathway because of the contribution of glutamine to their newly acquired function: synthesis of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Methods:We have employed a combination of 13C tracers including glutamine and glucose for investigating the metabolism of patient-derived IDH1 mut glioma cell lines through NMR and LC/MS. Additionally, genetic loss-of-function (in vitro and in vivo) approaches were performed to unravel the adaptability of these cell lines to the inhibition of glutaminase activity. Results:We report the adaptability of IDH1 mut cells' metabolism to the inhibition of glutamine/glutamate pathway. The glutaminase inhibitor CB839 generated a decrease in the production of the downstream metabolites of glutamate, including those involved in the TCA cycle and 2HG. However, this effect on metabolism was not extended to viability; rather, our patient-derived IDH1 mut cell lines display a metabolic plasticity that allows them to overcome glutaminase inhibition. Conclusions:Major metabolic adaptations involved pathways that can generate glutamate by using alternative substrates from glutamine, such as alanine or aspartate. Indeed, asparagine synthetase was upregulated both in vivo and in vitro revealing a new potential therapeutic target for a combinatory approach with CB839 against IDH1 mut gliomas.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Gliomas with mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) produce high levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) that can be quantitatively measured by 3D magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). Current glioma MRI primarily relies upon fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensity for treatment planning, although this lacks specificity for tumor cells. Here, we investigated the relationship between 2HG and FLAIR in mutant IDH glioma patients to determine whether 2HG mapping is valuable for radiotherapy planning.<h4>Methods</h4>Seventeen patients with mutant IDH1 gliomas were imaged by 3 T MRI. A 3D MRSI sequence was employed to specifically image 2HG. FLAIR imaging was performed using standard clinical protocol. Regions of interest (ROIs) were determined for FLAIR and optimally thresholded 2HG hyperintensities. The overlap, displacement, and volumes of 2HG and FLAIR ROIs were calculated.<h4>Results</h4>In 8 of 17 (47%) patients, the 2HG volume was larger than FLAIR volume. Across the entire cohort, the mean volume of 2HG was 35.3 cc (range, 5.3-92.7 cc), while the mean volume of FLAIR was 35.8 cc (range, 6.3-140.8 cc). FLAIR and 2HG ROIs had mean overlap of 0.28 (Dice coefficients range, 0.03-0.57) and mean displacement of 12.2 mm (range, 3.2-23.5 mm) between their centers of mass.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results indicate that for a substantial number of patients, the 2HG volumetric assessment of tumor burden is more extensive than FLAIR volume. In addition, there is only partial overlap and asymmetric displacement between the centers of FLAIR and 2HG ROIs. These results may have important implications for radiotherapy planning of IDH mutant glioma.
Project description:Infiltrating gliomas are devastating and incurable tumors. Amongst all gliomas, those harboring a mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation (IDH1<sup>mut</sup>) acquire a different tumor biology and clinical manifestation from those that are IDH1<sup>WT</sup>. Understanding the unique metabolic profile reprogrammed by IDH1 mutation has the potential to identify new molecular targets for glioma therapy. Herein, we uncover increased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and their phospholipids in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), generated by IDH1 mutation, that are responsible for Golgi and ER dilation. We demonstrate a direct link between the IDH1 mutation and this organelle morphology via D-2HG-induced stearyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) overexpression, the rate-limiting enzyme in MUFA biosynthesis. Inhibition of IDH1 mutation or SCD silencing restores ER and Golgi morphology, while D-2HG and oleic acid induces morphological defects in these organelles. Moreover, addition of oleic acid, which tilts the balance towards elevated levels of MUFA, produces IDH1<sup>mut</sup>-specific cellular apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that IDH1<sup>mut</sup>-induced SCD overexpression can rearrange the distribution of lipids in the organelles of glioma cells, providing new insight into the link between lipid metabolism and organelle morphology in these cells, with potential and unique therapeutic implications.
Project description:Chondrosarcomas are malignant bone tumors that produce cartilaginous matrix. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase enzymes (IDH1/2) were recently described in several cancers including chondrosarcomas. The IDH1 inhibitor AGI-5198 abrogates the ability of mutant IDH1 to produce the oncometabolite D-2 hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG) in gliomas. We sought to determine if treatment with AGI-5198 would similarly inhibit tumorigenic activity and D-2HG production in IDH1-mutant human chondrosarcoma cells. Two human chondrosarcoma cell lines, JJ012 and HT1080 with endogenous IDH1 mutations and a human chondrocyte cell line C28 with wild type IDH1 were employed in our study. Mutation analysis of IDH was performed by PCR-based DNA sequencing, and D-2HG was detected using tandem mass spectrometry. We confirmed that JJ012 and HT1080 harbor IDH1 R132G and R132C mutation, respectively, while C28 has no mutation. D-2HG was detectable in cell pellets and media of JJ012 and HT1080 cells, as well as plasma and urine from an IDH-mutant chondrosarcoma patient, which decreased after tumor resection. AGI-5198 treatment decreased D-2HG levels in JJ012 and HT1080 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and dramatically inhibited colony formation and migration, interrupted cell cycling, and induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates anti-tumor activity of a mutant IDH1 inhibitor in human chondrosarcoma cell lines, and suggests that D-2HG is a potential biomarker for IDH mutations in chondrosarcoma cells. Thus, clinical trials of mutant IDH inhibitors are warranted for patients with IDH-mutant chondrosarcomas.
Project description:Measurements of objective response rates are critical to evaluate new glioma therapies. The hallmark metabolic alteration in gliomas with mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is the overproduction of oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), which plays a key role in malignant transformation. 2HG represents an ideal biomarker to probe treatment response in IDH-mutant glioma patients, and we hypothesized a decrease in 2HG levels would be measureable by in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a result of antitumor therapy.We report a prospective longitudinal imaging study performed in 25 IDH-mutant glioma patients receiving adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. A newly developed 3D MRS imaging was used to noninvasively image 2HG. Paired Student t test was used to compare pre- and posttreatment tumor 2HG values. Test-retest measurements were performed to determine the threshold for 2HG functional spectroscopic maps (fSM). Univariate and multivariate regression were performed to correlate 2HG changes with Karnofsky performance score (KPS).We found that mean 2HG (2HG/Cre) levels decreased significantly (median = 48.1%; 95% confidence interval = 27.3%-56.5%;P= 0.007) in the posttreatment scan. The volume of decreased 2HG correlates (R(2)= 0.88,P= 0.002) with clinical status evaluated by KPS.We demonstrate that dynamic measurements of 2HG are feasible by 3D fSM, and the decrease of 2HG levels can monitor treatment response in patients with IDH-mutant gliomas. Our results indicate that quantitative in vivo 2HG imaging may be used for precision medicine and early response assessment in clinical trials of therapies targeting IDH-mutant gliomas.
Project description:Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene that are frequently observed in low-grade glioma are strongly associated with the accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), which is a valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of IDH1 mutant glioma. However, conventional MR spectroscopy (MRS)-based noninvasive detection of 2HG is challenging. In this study, we aimed to determine the additional value of other metabolites in predicting IDH1 mutations with conventional MRS.Forty-seven patients with glioma underwent conventional single voxel short echo time MRS prior to surgery. A stereotactic navigation-guided operation was performed to resect tumor tissues in the center of the MRS voxel. MRS-based measurements of metabolites were validated with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We also conducted integrated analyses of glioma cell lines and clinical samples to examine the other metabolite levels and molecular findings in IDH1 mutant gliomas.A metabolomic analysis demonstrated higher levels of 2HG in IDH1 mutant glioma cells and surgical tissues. Interestingly, glutamate levels were significantly decreased in IDH1 mutant gliomas. Through an analysis of metabolic enzyme genes in glutamine pathways, it was shown that the expressions of branched-chain amino acid transaminase 1 were reduced and glutamate dehydrogenase levels were elevated in IDH1 mutant gliomas. Conventional MRS detection of glutamate and 2HG resulted in a high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 72%, specificity 96%) for IDH1 mutant glioma.IDH1 mutations alter glutamate metabolism. Combining glutamate levels optimizes the 2HG-based monitoring of IDH1 mutations via MRS and represents a reliable clinical application for diagnosing IDH1 mutant gliomas.