BCG vaccination induces HIV target cell activation in HIV-exposed infants in a randomized trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is administered at birth to protect infants against tuberculosis throughout Africa, where most perinatal HIV-1 transmission occurs. We examined whether BCG vaccination alters the levels of activated HIV target T cells in HIV-exposed South African infants. METHODS. HIV-exposed infants were randomized to receive routine (at birth) or delayed (at 8 weeks) BCG vaccination. Activated and CCR5-expressing peripheral blood CD4+ T cell, monocyte, and NK cell frequencies were evaluated by flow cytometry and immune gene expression via PCR using Biomark (Fluidigm). RESULTS. Of 149 infants randomized, 92% (n = 137) were retained at 6 weeks: 71 in the routine BCG arm and 66 in the delayed arm. Routine BCG vaccination led to a 3-fold increase in systemic activation of HIV target CD4+CCR5+ T cells (HLA-DR+CD38+) at 6 weeks (0.25% at birth versus 0.08% in delayed vaccination groups; P = 0.029), which persisted until 8 weeks of age when the delayed arm was vaccinated. Vaccination of the infants in the delayed arm at 8 weeks resulted in a similar increase in activated CD4+CCR5+ T cells. The increase in activated T cells was associated with increased levels of MHC class II transactivator (CIITA), IL12RB1, and IFN-?1 transcripts within peripheral blood mononuclear cells but minimal changes in innate cells. CONCLUSION. BCG vaccination induces immune changes in HIV-exposed infants, including an increase in the proportion of activated CCR5+CD4+ HIV target cells. These findings provide insight into optimal BCG vaccine timing to minimize the risks of HIV transmissions to exposed infants while preserving potential benefits conferred by BCG vaccination. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02062580. FUNDING. This trial was sponsored by the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (MV-00-9-900-01871-0-00) and the Thrasher Foundation (NR-0095); for details, see Acknowledgments.
Project description:BCG vaccination prevents disseminated tuberculosis in children, but it is contraindicated for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection because it can result in severe disease in this population. In tuberculosis-endemic regions, BCG vaccine is administered soon after birth, before in utero and peripartum HIV infection is excluded. We therefore assessed the immunogenicity of BCG vaccine in HIV-exposed infants who received BCG at birth or at 8 weeks of age.HIV-exposed, uninfected infants were randomly assigned to receive BCG vaccination at birth (the early vaccination arm) or 8 weeks of age (the delayed vaccination arm). BCG-specific proliferative and intracellular cytokine responses were assessed in 28 infants per arm at 6, 8, and 14 weeks of life.There was no difference in BCG-specific T-cell proliferation between the study arms 6 weeks after vaccination. However, at 14 weeks of age, the frequency of interferon γ-expressing CD4(+) T cells and multifunctional BCG-specific responses in the delayed vaccinated arm were significantly higher than those in the early vaccination arm (P = .021 and P = .011, respectively).The immunogenicity of BCG vaccination in HIV-exposed, uninfected infants is not compromised when delayed until 8 weeks of age and results in robust BCG-specific T-cell responses at 14 weeks of age. These findings support further evaluation of this modified BCG vaccination strategy for HIV-exposed infants.NCT02062580.
Project description:Background:Vaccination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected infants with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is contraindicated. HIV-exposed newborns need a new tuberculosis vaccination strategy that protects against tuberculosis early in life and avoids the potential risk of BCG disease until after HIV infection has been excluded. Methods:This double-blind, randomized, controlled trial compared newborn MVA85A prime vaccination (1 × 108 PFU) vs Candin® control, followed by selective, deferred BCG vaccination at age 8 weeks for HIV-uninfected infants and 12 months follow-up for safety and immunogenicity. Results:A total of 248 HIV-exposed infants were enrolled. More frequent mild-moderate reactogenicity events were seen after newborn MVA85A vaccination. However, no significant difference was observed in the rate of severe or serious adverse events, HIV acquisition (n = 1 per arm), or incident tuberculosis disease (n = 5 MVA85A; n = 3 control) compared to the control arm. MVA85A vaccination induced modest but significantly higher Ag85A-specific interferon gamma (IFN?)+ CD4+ T cells compared to control at weeks 4 and 8 (P < .0001). BCG did not further boost this response in MVA85A vaccinees. The BCG-induced Ag85A-specific IFN?+ CD4+ T-cell response at weeks 16 and 52 was of similar magnitude in the control arm compared to the MVA85A arm at all time points. Proliferative capacity, functional profiles, and memory phenotype of BCG-specific CD4 responses were similar across study arms. Conclusions:MVA85A prime vaccination of HIV-exposed newborns was safe and induced an early modest antigen-specific immune response that did not interfere with, or enhance, immunogenicity of subsequent BCG vaccination. New protein-subunit and viral-vectored tuberculosis vaccine candidates should be tested in HIV-exposed newborns. Clinical Trials Registration:NCT01650389.
Project description:Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is effective in preventing disseminated tuberculosis (TB) in children but may also have non-specific benefits, and is thought to improve immunity to unrelated antigens through trained innate immunity. In HIV-infected infants, there is a risk of BCG-associated adverse events. We aimed to explore whether delaying BCG vaccination by 8 weeks, in utero or perinatal HIV infection is excluded, affected T-cell responses to B. pertussis (BP) and tetanus toxoid (TT), in HIV-exposed, uninfected infants.Infants were randomized to receive BCG vaccination at birth or 8 weeks of age. At 8 and 14 weeks, T cell proliferation and intracellular cytokine (IL-2, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-?) expression was analyzed in response to BP, TT and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) antigens.Delaying BCG vaccination did not alter T-cell proliferation to BP or TT antigens. Infants immunized with BCG at birth had higher CD4+ T cell proliferation to SEB at 14 weeks of age (p=0.018). Birth-vaccinated infants had increased CD8+ IL-2 expression in response to BP, but not TT or SEB, at 8 weeks. Infants vaccinated with BCG at 8 weeks had significantly lower IL-13 expression by BP-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at 14 weeks (p=0.032 and p=0.0035, respectively). There were no observed differences in multifunctional cytokine response to TT, BP or SEB between infants vaccinated with BCG at birth versus 8 weeks of age.Delaying BCG vaccination until 8 weeks of age results in robust T-cellular responses to BP and TT in HIV-exposed infants.NCT02062580.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In most tuberculosis (TB) endemic countries, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is usually given around birth to prevent severe TB in infants. The neonatal immune system is immature. Our hypothesis was that delaying BCG vaccination from birth to 10 weeks of age would enhance the vaccine-induced immune response. METHODS:In a randomized clinical trial, BCG was administered intradermally either at birth (n=25) or at 10 weeks of age (n=21). Ten weeks after vaccination, and at 1 year of age, vaccine-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses were measured with a whole blood intracellular cytokine assay. RESULTS:Infants who received delayed BCG vaccination demonstrated higher frequencies of BCG-specific CD4 T cells, particularly polyfunctional T cells co-expressing IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-2, and most strikingly at 1 year of age. CONCLUSIONS:Delaying BCG vaccination from birth to 10 weeks of age enhances the quantitative and qualitative BCG-specific T cell response, when measured at 1 year of age.
Project description:The objective of this study is to assess the effect of maternal HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection on cellular responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunization.A mother-infant cohort study.Samples were collected from mother-infant pairs at delivery. Infants were BCG-vaccinated at 6 weeks of age and a repeat blood sample was collected from infants at 16 weeks of age. BCG-specific T-cell proliferation and intracellular cytokine expression were measured by flow cytometry. Secreted cytokines and chemokines in cell culture supernatants were analysed using a Multiplex assay.One hundred and nine (47 HIV-exposed and 62 HIV-unexposed) mother-infants pairs were recruited after delivery and followed longitudinally. At birth, proportions of mycobacteria-specific proliferating T cells were not associated with either in-utero HIV exposure or maternal Mtb sensitization. However, in-utero HIV exposure affected infant-specific T-cell subsets [tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) single positive proliferating CD4? T cells and interferon-gamma (IFN-?), TNF-? dual-positive CD4? T cells]. Levels of TNF-? protein in cell culture supernatants were also significantly higher in HIV-exposed infants born to Mtb-sensitized mothers. In the presence of maternal Mtb sensitization, frequencies of maternal and newborn BCG-specific proliferating CD4? T cells were positively correlated. Following BCG vaccination, there was no demonstrable effect of HIV exposure or maternal Mtb infection on infant BCG-specific T-cell proliferative responses or concentrations of secreted cytokines and chemokines.Effects of maternal HIV and Mtb infection on infant immune profiles at birth are transient only, and HIV-exposed, noninfected infants have the same potential to respond to and be protected by BCG vaccination as HIV-unexposed infants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Uganda, the tuberculosis vaccine BCG is administered on the first day of life. Infants delivered at home receive BCG vaccine at their first healthcare facility visit at 6 weeks of age. Our aim was to determine the effect of this delay in BCG vaccination on the induced immune response. METHODS:We assessed CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses with a 12-hour whole-blood intracellular cytokine/cytotoxic marker assay, and with a 6-day proliferation assay. RESULTS:We enrolled 92 infants: 50 had received BCG vaccine at birth and 42 at 6 weeks of age. Birth vaccination was associated with (1) greater induction of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing either interferon γ (IFN-γ) alone or IFN-γ together with perforin and (2) induction of proliferating cells that had greater capacity to produce IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin 2 together, compared with delayed vaccination. CONCLUSIONS:Distinct patterns of T-cell induction occurred when BCG vaccine was given at birth and at 6 weeks of age. We propose that this diversity might impact protection against tuberculosis. Our results differ from those of studies of delayed BCG vaccination in South Africa and the Gambia, suggesting that geographical and population heterogeneity may affect the BCG vaccine-induced T-cell response.
Project description:Worldwide, most infants born to mothers infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receive bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. Tuberculosis is a major cause of death among infants infected with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, and it should be prevented. However, BCG may itself cause disease (known as "BCGosis") in these infants. Information regarding the immunogenicity of BCG is imperative for the risk/benefit assessment of BCG vaccination in HIV-infected infants; however, no such data exist.We compared BCG-induced CD4 and CD8 T cell responses, as assessed by flow cytometry, in HIV-infected (n=20), HIV-exposed but uninfected (n=25), and HIV-unexposed (n=23) infants, during their first year of life.BCG vaccination of the 2 HIV-uninfected groups induced a robust response, which was characterized by CD4 T cells expressing interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and/or interleukin (IL)-2. In contrast, HIV-infected infants demonstrated a markedly lower response throughout the first year of life. These infants also had significantly reduced numbers of polyfunctional CD4 T cells coexpressing IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-2, a finding that is thought to indicate T cell quality.Infection with HIV severely impairs the BCG-specific T cell response during the first year of life. BCG may therefore provide little, if any, vaccine-induced benefit in HIV-infected infants. Considering the significant risk of BCGosis, these data strongly support not giving BCG to HIV-infected infants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may have nonspecific effects, i.e., effects on childhood morbidity and mortality that go beyond its effect on the risk of childhood tuberculosis (TB). Though the available scientific literature is mostly from observational studies, and is fraught with controversy, BCG vaccination at birth may protect infants in high-mortality populations against serious infections other than TB. Yet, other studies indicate that giving BCG later in infancy may modify immune responses to non-TB antigens and potentially enhance immunity, potentially also against tuberculosis (TB). It is unclear whether BCG vaccination very early in life offers adequate protection against TB and other infections among HIV-1-exposed children because even those who remain uninfected with HIV-1 show signs of impaired immunocompetence early in infancy. This study will compare BCG vaccination at birth with BCG vaccination at 14 weeks of age in HIV-1-exposed infants. METHODS:This is an individually randomized controlled trial in 2200 HIV-1-exposed infants. The intervention is BCG vaccination within 24 h of birth while the comparator is BCG given at 14 weeks of age. The study co-primary outcomes are severe illness in the first 14 weeks of life, and production of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6 and interferon-? in response to mycobacterial and nonmycobacterial antigens. The study is being conducted in three health centers in Uganda. DISCUSSION:A well-timed BCG vaccination could have important nonspecific effects in HIV-1-exposed infants. This trial could inform the development of appropriate timing of BCG vaccination for HIV-1-exposed infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02606526 . Registered on 12 November 2015.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We aimed to describe the mechanisms of immunological recovery and the effects of blocking CCR5 in patients starting ART with advanced HIV-infection. METHODS:This was a sub-study of a 48 week double-blind, clinical trial where patients starting ART with CD4+ cell counts <100 cells/uL were randomized to receive maraviroc or a placebo. CD4+ and CD8+ cell maturation phenotypes, expression of PD-1 and CCR5, and activation indices were measured at weeks 0, 4, 12, 24, and 48. The reactivity of CD4+ and CD8+cells with peptides of CMV and MTb, and with Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) was assessed by intracellular expression of IFN?, TNF?, and CD40 ligand at weeks 0, 4, and 12 of ART. RESULTS:Forty patients were included in the study (Maraviroc = 22; placebo = 18). Sustained increases in CD8+ cells and in proportions of CCR5+ CD4+ and CD8+ cells were observed in the maraviroc arm. Early increases in the proportions of activated (CD38+, HLA-DR+), PD-1+ CD4+, and CD8+ cells and more matured CD8+ cells, were observed in the maraviroc arm. T cell responses to CMV, MTb, and SEB did not differ by treatment arms. CONCLUSIONS:During antiretroviral therapy in advanced HIV infection, maraviroc retains mature, activated CCR5+ cells in circulation without impact on CD4+ T cell recovery or T cell reactivity to antigen or superantigen.
Project description:Among infants exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1, mixed breastfeeding is associated with higher postnatal HIV-1 transmission than exclusive breastfeeding, but the mechanisms of this differential risk are uncertain.HIV-1-exposed Ugandan infants were prospectively assessed during the first year of life for feeding practices and T-cell maturation, intestinal homing (?7hi), activation, and HIV-1 coreceptor (CCR5) expression in peripheral blood. Infants receiving only breast milk and those with introduction of other foods before 6 months were categorized as exclusive and nonexclusive, respectively.Among CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, the expression of memory, activation, and CCR5 markers increased rapidly from birth to week 2, peaking at week 6, whereas cells expressing the intestinal homing marker increased steadily in the central memory (CM) and effector memory T cells over 48 weeks. At 24 weeks, when feeding practices had diverged, nonexclusively breastfed infants showed increased frequencies and absolute counts of ?7hi CM CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, including the HIV-1-targeted cells with CD4+?7hi/CCR5+ coexpression, as well as increased activation.The T-cell phenotype associated with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection (CCR5+, gut-homing, CM CD4+ T cells) was preferentially expressed in nonexclusively breastfed infants, a group of infants at increased risk for HIV-1 acquisition.