Clinical impact of postoperative loss in psoas major muscle and nutrition index after radical cystectomy for patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
ABSTRACT: Although the significance of preoperative nutritional status has been investigated, there is no report regarding the relationship of their postoperative changes on outcomes in patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. Here, we report the clinical impact of the change, from baseline, in nutritional status and volume of abdominal skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue after radical cystetomy.A retrospective analysis of 89 patients with bladder cancer, who underwent curative radical cystectomy, was conducted to assess the time course of change, from baseline, in body composition and nutritional status at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, after surgery. Skeletal muscle mass and abdominal adipose tissue mass were quantified by unenhanced computed tomography images. Two different nutritional indices, the Prognostic Nutritional Index and the Controlling Nutritional Status score were calculated from laboratory blood tests. We evaluated the prognostic value of the rate of change in the body composition and nutritional status after radical cystectomy.The cross-sectional area at the level of the third lumbar vertebra of the psoas major muscle and nutritional indices showed a transient deterioration at 1 and 3 months after radical cystectomy, with a return to baseline values from 6 to 24 months. A ? -10% loss in the area of the psoas muscle was associated with a shorter overall survival, compared to those with a > -10 change [hazard ratio (HR) 2.2, P = 0.02]. Multivariate analyzes identified sarcopenia status at baseline (HR 2.2, P = 0.03) and a ? -10% loss in the psoas muscle (HR 2.4, P = 0.02) were identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival. A subanalysis of patients without sarcopenia identified a worse survival outcome for patients with a ? -10% loss in the psoas muscle (HR 2.6, P = 0.03) and ? - 5 change in the Prognostic Nutritional Index (HR 3.6, P = 0.01).Further research is required to establish appropriate rehabilitation protocols and nutritional interventions after radical cystectomy for maintaining skeletal muscle mass and nutrition status which could counteract physical deterioration and improve outcomes.
Project description:Sarcopenia is a muscle loss syndrome known as a risk factor of various carcinomas. The impact of sarcopenia and sarcopenia-related inflammatory/nutritional markers in metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) treated with pembrolizumab was unknown, so this retrospective study of 27 patients was performed. Psoas muscle mass index (PMI) was calculated by bilateral psoas major muscle area at the L3 with computed tomography. The cut-off PMI value for sarcopenia was defined as ?6.36 cm2/m2 for men and ?3.92 cm2/m2 for women. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) ? 4.0 and sarcopenia correlated with significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (hazard ratio (HR) 3.81, p = 0.020; and HR 2.99, p = 0.027, respectively). Multivariate analyses identified NLR ? 4.0 and sarcopenia as independent predictors for PFS (HR 2.89, p = 0.025; and HR 2.79, p = 0.030, respectively). Prognostic nutrition index < 45, NLR ? 4.0 and sarcopenia were correlated with significantly worse for overall survival (OS) (HR 3.44, p = 0.046; HR 4.26, p = 0.024; and HR 3.92, p = 0.012, respectively). Multivariate analyses identified sarcopenia as an independent predictor for OS (HR 4.00, p = 0.026). Furthermore, a decrease in PMI ? 5% in a month was an independent predictor of PFS and OS (HR 12.8, p = 0.008; and HR 6.21, p = 0.036, respectively). Evaluation of sarcopenia and inflammatory/nutritional markers may help in the management of mUC with pembrolizumab.
Project description:We assess the impact of obesity, as measured conventionally by body mass index vs excess adiposity as measured by fat mass index, on mortality after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer, adjusting for the presence of skeletal muscle wasting.This retrospective cohort study included 262 patients treated with radical cystectomy for bladder cancer between 2000 and 2008 at the Mayo Clinic. Lumbar skeletal muscle and adipose compartment areas were measured on preoperative imaging. Overall survival was compared according to gender specific consensus fat mass index and skeletal muscle index thresholds as well as conventional body mass index based criteria. Predictors of all cause mortality were assessed by multivariable modeling.Increasing body mass index correlated with improved overall survival (p=0.03) while fat mass index based obesity did not (p=0.08). After stratification by sarcopenia, no obesity related 5-year overall survival benefit was observed (68% vs 51.4%, p=0.2 obese vs normal and 40% vs 37.4%, p=0.7 sarcopenia vs sarcopenic/obese). On multivariable analysis class I obesity according to body mass index (HR 0.79, p=0.33) or fat mass index criteria (HR 0.85, p=0.45) was not independently associated with all cause mortality after adjusting for sarcopenia (HR 1.7, p=0.01) as well as age, performance status, pTN stage and smoking status. However, in patients with normal lean muscle mass each 1 kg/m(2) increase in weight or adipose mass was associated with a 7% to 14% decrease in all cause mortality.After adjusting for lean muscle wasting, neither measurements of obesity nor adiposity were significantly associated with all cause mortality in patients treated with radical cystectomy, although subanalyses suggest a potential benefit among those with normal lean muscle mass.
Project description:To evaluate the impact of preoperative chronic kidney disease (CKD) on oncologic outcomes in muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients who underwent radical cystectomy.A total of 581 patients who underwent radical cystectomy at four medical centers between January 1995 and February 2017 were examined retrospectively. We investigated oncologic outcomes, including progression-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival (PFS, CSS, and OS, respectively) stratified by preoperative CKD status (pre-CKD vs. non-CKD). We performed a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to evaluate the impact of preoperative CKD on prognosis and developed the prognostic factor-based risk stratification nomogram.Of the 581 patients, 215 (37%) were diagnosed with CKD before radical cystectomy. Before the background adjustment, PFS, CSS, and OS after radical cystectomy were significantly lower in the pre-CKD group compared to the non-CKD group. Background-adjusted IPTW analysis showed that preoperative CKD was significantly associated with poor PFS, CSS, and OS after radical cystectomy. The nomogram for predicting 5-year PFS and OS probability showed significant correlation with actual PFS and OS (c-index = 0.73 and 0.77, respectively).Muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients with preoperative CKD had a significantly lower survival probability than those without CKD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sarcopenia is defined as a low skeletal muscle volume. Recent studies have reported that sarcopenia is associated with a poor prognosis in various cancers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the psoas muscle volume and recurrence-free survival in patients with localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). METHODS:A total of 316 male patients with localized ccRCC who underwent radical nephrectomy at Yokohama City University Hospital (Yokohama, JAPAN) and Kanagawa Cancer Center (Yokohama, JAPAN) between 2002 and 2018 were enrolled in this study. The psoas muscle index (PMI) was calculated by normalizing the psoas muscle area on the contralateral side of the tumor on axial CT, which was calculated at the level of L4 (mm2) divided by the square of the body height (m2). We divided patients into two groups based on the median PMI (409.64mm2/m2). RESULTS:The lower PMI group showed poorer recurrence-free survival (RFS) than the higher PMI group (p = 0.030). Regarding 5-year RFS, a lower PMI was a significant predictor of recurrence (p = 0.022, hazard ratio (HR): 2.306) and a multivariate analysis revealed that a lower PMI (<median, p = 0.035, HR: 2.167), tumor size >4 cm (p = 0.044, HR: 2.341), and pathological stage >2 (p<0.001, HR: 3.660) were independent risk factors for poor RFS. CONCLUSIONS:The presence of sarcopenia (lower PMI) was found to be associated with poor RFS in male ccRCC patients. The PMI might serve as a measure of patient frailty and might be useful for prognostic risk stratification in ccRCC.
Project description:To examine the usefulness of various receptor tyrosine kinase expressions as prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in muscle invasive urothelial cancer (UC) patients.We retrospectively analyzed the data of 98 patients with muscle invasive UC who underwent radical cystectomy between 2005 and 2010 in Yonsei Cancer Center. Using formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues of primary tumors, immunohistochemical staining was done for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3).There were 41 (41.8%), 44 (44.9%), and 14 (14.2%) patients who have over-expressed HER2, FGFR1, and FGFR3, respectively. In univariate analysis, significantly shorter median time to recurrence (TTR) (12.9 months vs. 49.0 months; p=0.008) and overall survival (OS) (22.3 months vs. 52.7 months; p=0.006) was found in patients with FGFR1 overexpression. By contrast, there was no difference in TTR or OS according to the HER2 and FGFR3 expression status. FGFR1 remained as a significant prognostic factor for OS with hazard ratio of 2.23 (95% confidence interval: 1.27-3.90, p=0.006) in multivariate analysis.Our result showed that FGFR1 expression, but not FGFR3, is an adverse prognostic factor in muscle invasive UC patients after radical cystectomy. FGFR1 might be feasible for prognosis prediction and a potential therapeutic target after thorough validation in muscle invasive UC.
Project description:Background: Platinum-based pre-operative chemotherapy (POC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) increases the complete pathological response rate at cystectomy and improves overall survival. However, 60% of MIBC patients still has muscle-invasive disease at cystectomy despite POC. Therefore, accurate prediction of response to POC is an important clinical need. We hypothesized that an elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) corresponds with adverse outcome in patients undergoing POC and radical cystectomy. Objective: To explore the correlation between the NLR and outcome in MIBC patients treated by POC and radical cystectomy. Methods: In 123 MIBC patients (urothelial carcinoma) who were treated by platinum-based POC and radical cystectomy, the derived NLR (dNLR) was retrospectively calculated by dividing the neutrophil count by the difference between leukocytes and neutrophil counts, prior to the start of chemotherapy. The correlation of the dNLR with pathological response at cystectomy and survival was analyzed by logistic regression analysis or the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The complete pathological response (ypT0N0Mx) rate was 28.5%, 8.9% obtained a partial response (ypTa/T1/TisN0Mx), and 62.6% were non-responders (stage ? ypT2 and/or N+). An elevated dNLR (>2.21) correlated with non-response to POC (OR 2.70, 95% confidence interval: 1.15-6.38, p?=?0.02) but this effect was nullified when corrected for clinically node-positive disease and clinical T stage. Patients with an elevated dNLR had shorter progression-free and overall survival albeit non-significant (p?=?0.42, and p?=?0.45, respectively). Conclusions: An elevated dNLR corresponded with poor outcome in terms of survival and non-response to POC in MIBC patients undergoing radical surgery. However, after correction for well-known prognostic factors, such as positive lymph node status at diagnostic imaging and clinical T stage, the correlation for the dNLR was nullified. Therefore, we conclude that the dNLR is insufficient to predict response to POC in this heterogeneous patient population.
Project description:PURPOSE:We report pathological, functional and oncologic outcomes in patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy following radical cystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We identified patients who underwent radical cystectomy and then radical nephroureterectomy for metachronous urothelial recurrence at our institution between January 1995 and December 2014. Univariable Cox regression was used to assess the association between overall survival and age, grade, stage, lymph node metastasis and radiographic findings. RESULTS:Of the 3,173 patients treated with radical cystectomy 64 underwent subsequent radical nephroureterectomy for metachronous urothelial recurrence. Median age at radical cystectomy was 66 years (IQR 61-74). In the 64 patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy median time from radical cystectomy to radical nephroureterectomy was 2.7 years (IQR 1.4-4.6). Among 37 patients who underwent ureteroscopy prior to radical nephroureterectomy 29 (78%) had a positive biopsy. Radical nephroureterectomy pathology findings revealed locally advanced disease (pT3/pT4) in 39% of cases and positive node status in 11% compared with locally advanced disease in 17% and positive node status in 6% on radical cystectomy pathology findings. The post-radical nephroureterectomy estimated glomerular filtration rate was less than 60 and less than 30 ml/minute/1.73 m2 in 96% and 40% of patients, respectively. Median overall survival after radical nephroureterectomy was 3.1 years (95% CI 2.4-4.3). Only lymph node involvement at radical nephroureterectomy was significantly associated with worse overall mortality (HR 2.73, 95% CI 1.04-7.15, p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS:The prognosis is poor in patients with panurothelial carcinoma treated with nephroureterectomy following cystectomy with locally advanced disease in a large proportion. Renal function after these procedures diminished and almost all patients were ineligible for cisplatin based chemotherapy.
Project description:PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature to appraise the prognostic value of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in radical cystectomy specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following the PRISMA statement, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and SCOPUS database were searched from the respective dates of inception until June 2013. RESULTS: A total of 21 articles met the eligibility criteria for this systematic review, which included a total of 12,527 patients ranging from 57 to 4,257 per study. LVI was detected in 34.6% in radical cystectomy specimens. LVI was associated with higher pathological T stage and tumor grade, as well as lymph node metastasis. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) was statistically significant for recurrence-free survival (pooled HR, 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.06), cancer-specific survival (pooled HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.38-2.01), and overall survival (pooled HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.38-2.01), despite the heterogeneity among included studies. On sensitivity analysis, the pooled HRs and 95% CIs were not significantly altered when any one study was omitted. The funnel plot for overall survival demonstrated a certain degree of asymmetry, which showed slight publication bias. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis indicates that LVI is significantly associated with poor outcome in patients with bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy. Adequately designed prospective studies are required to provide the precise prognostic significance of LVI in bladder cancer.
Project description:The purpose of this case report is to discuss the positive impact of a multimodal prehabilitation program on postoperative recovery of a frail patient undergoing radical cystectomy. An 85-year-old man with significant history for poorly controlled type II diabetes, anemia, chronic renal failure, and glaucoma was found to have muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder with hydronephrosis. He was scheduled for elective radical cystoprostatectomy and ileal conduit diversion. He was enrolled in a multimodal prehabilitation program in view of his frailty (Fried score = 5), 15% body weight loss, weak grip strength, severe depression and moderate anxiety, poor nutritional status (patient-generated subjective global assessment [PG-SGA] = B), low functional walking capacity (6-minute walking test [6MWT] = 210 metres, predicted 621 metres). The 4-week program included moderate aerobic and resistant exercises, nutritional counselling with whey protein supplementation (20 g/day), and relaxation exercises. Surgery and the postoperative period were uneventful, although he required treatment of his hyperglycemia and hypomagnesemia. He left the hospital on postoperative day 7 and returned home where he continued the multimodal program for 8 weeks. Measurements of 6MWT, Health-Related Quality of Life (SF-36), physical activity, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), were conducted at baseline, before surgery and at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. These tests revealed a progressive remarkable improvement before surgery that continued after surgery.
Project description:Importance:Radical cystectomy is the guidelines-recommended treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but a resurgence of trimodal therapy has occurred. Limited comparative data are available on outcomes and costs attributable to these 2 treatments. Objective:To compare the survival outcomes and costs between trimodal therapy and radical cystectomy in older adults with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants:This population-based cohort study used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database. A total of 3200 older adults (aged ≥66 years) with clinical stage T2 to T4a bladder cancer diagnosed from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2011, and with claims data available through December 31, 2013, were included in the analysis. Patients who received radical cystectomy underwent either only surgery or surgery in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who received trimodal therapy underwent transurethral resection of the bladder followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Propensity score matching by sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was used. Data analysis was performed from August 1, 2017, to March 11, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures:Overall survival and cancer-specific survival were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards regression model and the Fine and Gray competing risk model. All Medicare health care costs for inpatient, outpatient, and physician services within 30, 90, and 180 days of treatment were compared. The total amount spent nationwide was estimated, using 180-day medical costs between treatments, by the total number of new cases of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States in 2011. Results:Of the 3200 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 2048 (64.0%) were men and 1152 (36.0%) were women, with a mean (SD) age of 75.8 (6.0) years. After propensity score matching, 687 patients (21.5%) underwent trimodal therapy and 687 patients (21.5%) underwent radical cystectomy. Patients who underwent trimodal therapy had significantly decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.31-1.69) and cancer-specific survival (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.32-1.83). No differences in costs at 30 days were observed between trimodal therapy ($15 233 in 2002 vs $18 743 in 2011) and radical cystectomy ($17 990 in 2002 vs $21 738 in 2011). However, median total costs were significantly higher with trimodal therapy than with radical cystectomy at 90 days ($80 174 vs $69 181; median difference, $8964; Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, $3848-$14 079) and at 180 days ($179 891 vs $107 017; median difference, $63 771; Hodges-Lehmann 95% CI, $55 512-$72 029). Extrapolating these figures to the total US population revealed $335 million in excess spending for trimodal therapy compared with the less costly radical cystectomy ($492 million) for patients who received a muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosis in 2011. Conclusions and Relevance:Trimodal therapy was associated with significantly decreased overall survival and cancer-specific survival as well as $335 million in excess spending in 2011. These findings have important health policy implications regarding the appropriate use of high value-based care among older adults with invasive bladder cancer who are candidates for either radical cystectomy or trimodal therapy.