Evaluation of in vivo mutagenesis for assessing the health risk of air pollutants.
ABSTRACT: Various kind of chemical substances, including man-made chemical products and unintended products, are emitted to ambient air. Some of these substances have been shown to be mutagenic and therefore to act as a carcinogen in humans. National pollutant inventories (e.g., Pollutant Release and Transfer Registration in Japan) have estimated release amounts of man-made chemical products, but a major concern is the release of suspended particulate matter containing potent mutagens, for example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds generated by the combustion of fossil fuel, which are not estimated by PRTR system. In situ exposure studies have revealed that DNA adducts in the lung, and possibly mutations in germline cells are induced in rodents by inhalation of ambient air, indicating that evaluating in vivo mutations is important for assessing environmental health risks. Transgenic rodent systems (Muta, Big Blue, and gpt delta) are good tools for analyzing in vivo mutations induced by a mixture of chemical substances present in the environment. Following inhalation of diesel exhaust (used as a model mixture), mutation frequency was increased in the lung of gpt delta mice and base substitutions were induced at specific guanine residues (mutation hotspots) on the target transgenes. Mutation hotspots induced by diesel exhaust were different from those induced by benzo[a]pyrene, a typical mutagen in ambient air, but nearly identical to those induced by 1,6-dinitropyrene contained in diesel exhaust. Comparison between mutation hotspots in the TP53 (p53) gene in human lung cancer (data extracted from the IARC TP53 database) and mutations we identified in gpt delta mice showed that G to A transitions centered in CGT and CGG trinucleotides were mutation hotspots on both TP53 genes in human lung cancers and gpt genes in transgenic mice that inhaled diesel exhaust. The carcinogenic potency (TD50 value) of genotoxic carcinogen was shown to be correlated with the in vivo mutagenicity (total dose per increased mutant frequency). These results suggest that the mutations identified in transgenic rodents can help identify environmental mutagens that cause cancer.
Project description:Previously we found that DNA adducts were accumulated in the lungs of the rats exposed to ambient air in the Tokyo metropolitan area. To examine chronological change in in vivo mutagenicity of airborne particles, extracts produced from samples of total suspended particulates (TSP) collected from urban air in 1980, 1990, and 2010 in the Tokyo metropolitan area were intratracheally administered into the lungs of gpt delta mice, and differences in mutation and mutant frequency were determined by using the gpt assay. In vivo mutations induced by the extracts were characterized and mutation hotspots were identified by DNA sequencing of the mutated gpt gene. Administration of the 1990 extract at a dose of 0.3 mg/animal significantly elevated total mutant frequency to 3.3-times that in vehicle control, and the in vivo mutagenicity of the extract (induced mutation frequency per milligram extract) was estimated to be 2.0- and 2.4-times higher than that of the 2010 and 1980 extract, respectively. G-to-A transition was the most common base substitution in the vehicle control mice. However, administration of the 1990 extract increased the frequency of G-to-T transversion, which is a landmark base substitution induced by oxidative stress; furthermore, when the extract was administered at a dose of 0.15 mg, the mutant and mutation frequencies of G-to-T transversion were significantly increased to frequencies comparable with those of G-to-A transition. Similar increases in the mutant and mutation frequencies of G-to-T transversion were observed after administration of the 2010 extract. Hotspots (mutation foci identified in three or more mice) of G-to-A transition mutations at nucleotides 64 and 110 were induced by the 1980, 1990, and 2010 extracts; a hotspot of G-to-T transversions at nucleotide 406 was also induced by the 2010 extract. Previously, we showed that diesel exhaust particles or their extract, as well as 1,6-dinitropyrene, administered to mice induced these hotspots of G-to-A transitions. The results of the present study suggested that mutagenesis induced by extracts produced from TSP collected in the Tokyo metropolitan area induced in vivo mutagenicity via the same mechanism underlying the induction of in vivo mutagenicity by components of diesel exhaust.
Project description:3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a highly mutagenic compound and possible human carcinogen found in diesel exhaust. 3-NBA forms bulky DNA adducts following metabolic activation and induces predominantly G:CT:A transversions in a variety of experimental systems. Here we investigated the influence of nucleotide excision repair (NER) on 3-NBA-induced mutagenesis of the human tumour suppressor gene TP53 and the reporter gene lacZ. To this end we utilised Xpa -knockout (Xpa-Null) human TP53 knock-in (Hupki) embryo fibroblasts (HUFs). As Xpa is essential for NER of bulky DNA adducts, we hypothesized that DNA adducts induced by 3-NBA would persist in the genomes of Xpa-Null cells and lead to an increased frequency of mutation. The HUF immortalisation assay was used to select for cells harbouring TP53 mutations following mutagen exposure. We found that Xpa-Null Hupki mice and HUFs were more sensitive to 3-NBA treatment than their wild-type (Xpa-WT) counterparts. However, following 3-NBA treatment and immortalisation, a similar frequency of TP53-mutant clones arose from Xpa-WT and Xpa-Null HUF cultures. In cells from both Xpa genotypes G:CT:A transversion was the predominant TP53 mutation type and mutations exhibited bias towards the non-transcribed strand. Thirty-two percent of 3-NBA-induced TP53 mutations occurred at CpG sites, all of which are hotspots for mutation in smokers' lung cancer (codons 157, 158, 175, 245, 248, 273, 282). We also examined 3-NBA-induced mutagenesis of an integrated lacZ reporter gene in HUFs, where we again observed a similar mutant frequency in Xpa-WT and Xpa-Null cells. Our findings suggest that 3-NBA-DNA adducts may evade removal by global genomic NER; the persistence of 3-NBA adducts in DNA may be an important factor in its mutagenicity.
Project description:Exposures to ambient diesel exhaust particles have been associated with respiratory symptoms and asthma exacerbations in children; however, epidemiologic evidence linking short-term exposure to ambient diesel exhaust particles with airway inflammation is limited. We conducted a panel study with asthmatic and nonasthmatic adolescents to characterize associations between ambient diesel exhaust particle exposures and exhaled biological markers of airway inflammation and oxidative stress. Over four weeks, exhaled breath condensate was collected twice a week from 18 asthmatics and 18 nonasthmatics (ages 14-19 years) attending two New York City schools and analyzed for pH and 8-isoprostane as indicators of airway inflammation and oxidative stress, respectively. Air concentrations of black carbon, a diesel exhaust particle indicator, were measured outside schools. Air measurements of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and fine particulate matter were obtained for the closest central monitoring sites. Relationships between ambient pollutants and exhaled biomarkers were characterized using mixed effects models. Among all subjects, increases in 1- to 5-day averages of black carbon were associated with decreases in exhaled breath condensate pH, indicating increased airway inflammation, and increases in 8-isoprostane, indicating increased oxidative stress. Increases in 1- to 5-day averages of nitrogen dioxide were associated with increases in 8-isoprostane. Ozone and fine particulate matter were inconsistently associated with exhaled biomarkers. Associations did not differ between asthmatics and nonasthmatics. The findings indicate that short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants may increase airway inflammation and/or oxidative stress in urban youth and provide mechanistic support for associations documented between traffic-related pollutant exposures and respiratory morbidity.
Project description:There is an emerging concern that particulate air pollution increases the risk of cranial nerve disease onset. Small nanoparticles, mainly derived from diesel exhaust particles reach the olfactory bulb by their nasal depositions. It has been reported that diesel exhaust inhalation causes inflammation of the olfactory bulb and other brain regions. However, these toxicological studies have not evaluated animal rearing environment. We hypothesized that rearing environment can change mice phenotypes and thus might alter toxicological study results. In this study, we exposed mice to diesel exhaust inhalation at 90 µg/m(3), 8 hours/day, for 28 consecutive days after rearing in a standard cage or environmental enrichment conditions. Microarray analysis found that expression levels of 112 genes were changed by diesel exhaust inhalation. Functional analysis using Gene Ontology revealed that the dysregulated genes were involved in inflammation and immune response. This result was supported by pathway analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed 10 genes. Interestingly, background gene expression of the olfactory bulb of mice reared in a standard cage environment was changed by diesel exhaust inhalation, whereas there was no significant effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression levels of mice reared with environmental enrichment. The results indicate for the first time that the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression of the olfactory bulb was influenced by rearing environment. Rearing environment, such as environmental enrichment, may be an important contributive factor to causation in evaluating still undefined toxic environmental substances such as diesel exhaust.
Project description:There is an emerging concern that particulate air pollution increases the risk of cranial nerve disease onset. Small nanoparticles, mainly derived from diesel exhaust particles reach the olfactory bulb by their nasal depositions. It has been reported that diesel exhaust inhalation causes inflammation of the olfactory bulb and other brain regions. However, these toxicological studies have not evaluated animal rearing environment. We hypothesized that rearing environment can change mice phenotypes and thus might alter toxicological study results. In this study, we exposed mice to diesel exhaust inhalation at 90 micro g/m3, 8 hours/day, for 28 consecutive days after rearing in a standard cage or environmental enrichment conditions. Microarray analysis found that expression levels of 112 genes were changed by diesel exhaust inhalation. Functional analysis using Gene Ontology revealed that the dysregulated genes were involved in inflammation and immune response. This result was supported by pathway analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed 10 genes. Interestingly, background gene expression of the olfactory bulb of mice reared in a standard cage environment was changed by diesel exhaust inhalation, whereas there was no significant effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression levels of mice reared with environmental enrichment. The results indicate for the first time that the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on gene expression of the olfactory bulb was influenced by rearing environment. Rearing environment, such as environmental enrichment, may be an important contributive factor to causation in evaluating still undefined toxic environmental substances such as diesel exhaust. RNA sample was taken from olfactory bulb of 56-day-old mouse received diesel exhaust (DE) inhalation at 90 micro g/m3, 8 hours/day, for 28 consecutive days, while control RNA was taken from mouse received clean air, after rearing in a standard cage or environmental enrichment conditions. Comparisons among groups were made by one-color method with normalized data from Cy3 channels for data analysis.
Project description:Diesel exhaust has been associated with adverse human health effects. Farmers are often exposed to diesel exhaust; however, their diesel exposure has not been well characterized. In this descriptive study, we measured black carbon concentrations as a proxy for diesel exhaust exposure in 16 farmers over 20 sampling days during harvest in southeast Iowa. Farmers wore a personal aethalometer which measured real-time black carbon levels throughout the working day, and their activities were recorded by a field researcher. Black carbon concentrations were characterized for each farmer, and by activity, vehicle fuel type, and microenvironment. Overall, 574 discrete tasks were monitored with a median task duration of 5.5 min. Of these tasks, 39% involved the presence of a diesel vehicle. Farmers' daily black carbon geometric mean exposures ranged from 0.1-2.3 µg/m3, with a median daily geometric mean of 0.3 µg/m3. The highest black carbon concentrations were measured on farmers who used or worked near diesel vehicles (geometric mean ranged from 0.5 µg/m3 while harvesting to 4.9 µg/m3 during animal work). Higher geometric means were found for near vs. far proximity to diesel-fueled vehicles and equipment (2.9 vs. 0.3 µg/m3). Indoor, bystander proximity to diesel-operated vehicles resulted in the highest geometric mean black carbon concentrations (18 µg/m3). Use of vehicles with open cabs had higher mean black carbon concentrations than closed cabs (2.1-3.2 vs. 0.4-0.9 µg/m3). In summary, our study provided evidence that farmers were frequently exposed to black carbon associated with diesel-related activities at levels above urban ambient concentrations in their daily work during harvest.
Project description:The composition of diesel exhaust has changed over the past decade due to the increased use of alternative fuels, like biodiesel, and to new regulations on diesel engine emissions. Given the changing nature of diesel fuels and diesel exhaust emissions, a need exists to understand the human health implications of switching to "cleaner" diesel engines run with particulate filters and engines run on alternative fuels like biodiesel. We exposed well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells to fresh, complete exhaust from a diesel engine run (1) with and without a diesel particulate filter and (2) using either traditional petro- or alternative biodiesel. Despite the lowered emissions in filter-treated exhaust (a 91-96% reduction in mass), significant increases in transcripts associated with oxidative stress and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon response were observed in all exposure groups and were not significantly different between exposure groups. Our results suggest that biodiesel and filter-treated diesel exhaust elicits as great, or greater a cellular response as unfiltered, traditional petrodiesel exhaust in a representative model of the bronchial epithelium.
Project description:Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples.
Project description:Chronic exposure to ambient levels of air pollution induces respiratory illness exacerbation by increasing inflammatory responses and apoptotic cells in pulmonary tissues. The ineffective phagocytosis of these apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) by macrophages has been considered an important factor in these pathological mechanisms. Depending on microenvironmental stimuli, macrophages can assume different phenotypes with different functional actions. M1 macrophages are recognized by their proinflammatory activity, whereas M2 macrophages play pivotal roles in responding to microorganisms and in efferocytosis to avoid the progression of inflammatory conditions. To verify how exposure to air pollutants interferes with macrophage polarization in emphysema development, we evaluated the different macrophage phenotypes in a PPE- induced model with the exposure to diesel exhaust particles. C57BL/6 mice received intranasal instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) to induce emphysema, and the control groups received saline. Both groups were exposed to diesel exhaust particles or filtered air for 60 days according to the groups. We observed that both the diesel and PPE groups had an increase in alveolar enlargement, collagen and elastic fibers in the parenchyma and the number of macrophages, lymphocytes and epithelial cells in BAL, and these responses were exacerbated in animals that received PPE instillation prior to exposure to diesel exhaust particles. The same response pattern was found inCaspase-3 positive cell analysis, attesting to an increase in cell apoptosis, which is in agreement with the increase in M2 phenotype markers, measured by RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis. We did not verify differences among the groups for the M1 phenotype. In conclusion, our results showed that both chronic exposure to diesel exhaust particles and PPE instillation induced inflammatory conditions, cell apoptosis and emphysema development, as well as an increase in M2 phenotype macrophages, and the combination of these two factors exacerbated these responses. The predominance of the M2-like phenotype likely occurred due to the increased demand for efferocytosis. However, M2 macrophage activity was ineffective, resulting in emphysema development and worsening of symptoms.
Project description:Fine particulate matters less than 2.5?µm (PM2.5) in the ambient atmosphere are strongly associated with adverse health effects. However, it is unlikely that all fine particles are equally toxic in view of their different sizes and chemical components. Toxicity of fine particles produced from various combustion sources (diesel engine, gasoline engine, biomass burning (rice straw and pine stem burning), and coal combustion) and non-combustion sources (road dust including sea spray aerosols, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA)), which are known major sources of PM2.5, was determined. Multiple biological and chemical endpoints were integrated for various source-specific aerosols to derive toxicity scores for particles originating from different sources. The highest toxicity score was obtained for diesel engine exhaust particles, followed by gasoline engine exhaust particles, biomass burning particles, coal combustion particles, and road dust, suggesting that traffic plays the most critical role in enhancing the toxic effects of fine particles. The toxicity ranking of fine particles produced from various sources can be used to better understand the adverse health effects caused by different fine particle types in the ambient atmosphere, and to provide practical management of fine particles beyond what can be achieved only using PM mass which is the current regulation standard.