Type 2 innate lymphoid cell suppression by regulatory T cells attenuates airway hyperreactivity and requires inducible T-cell costimulator-inducible T-cell costimulator ligand interaction.
ABSTRACT: Atopic diseases, including asthma, exacerbate type 2 immune responses and involve a number of immune cell types, including regulatory T (Treg) cells and the emerging type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Although ILC2s are potent producers of type 2 cytokines, the regulation of ILC2 activation and function is not well understood.In the present study, for the first time, we evaluate how Treg cells interact with pulmonary ILC2s and control their function.ILC2s and Treg cells were evaluated by using in vitro suppression assays, cell-contact assays, and gene expression panels. Also, human ILC2s and Treg cells were adoptively transferred into NOD SCID ?C-deficient mice, which were given isotype or anti-inducible T-cell costimulator ligand (ICOSL) antibodies and then challenged with IL-33 and assessed for airway hyperreactivity.We show that induced Treg cells, but not natural Treg cells, effectively suppress the production of the ILC2-driven proinflammatory cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, our data reveal the necessity of inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS)-ICOS ligand cell contact for Treg cell-mediated ILC2 suppression alongside the suppressive cytokines TGF-? and IL-10. Using a translational approach, we then demonstrate that human induced Treg cells suppress syngeneic human ILC2s through ICOSL to control airway inflammation in a humanized ILC2 mouse model.These findings suggest that peripheral expansion of induced Treg cells can serve as a promising therapeutic target against ILC2-dependent asthma.
Project description:Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and regulatory T (Treg) cells are systemically induced by helminth infection but also sustain metabolic homeostasis in adipose tissue and contribute to tissue repair during injury. Here we show that interleukin-33 (IL-33) mediates activation of ILC2s and Treg cells in resting adipose tissue, but also after helminth infection or treatment with IL-2. Unexpectedly, ILC2-intrinsic IL-33 activation was required for Treg cell accumulation in vivo and was independent of ILC2 type 2 cytokines but partially dependent on direct co-stimulatory interactions via ICOSL-ICOS. IFN-? inhibited ILC2 activation and Treg cell accumulation by IL-33 in infected tissue, as well as adipose tissue, where repression increased with aging and high-fat diet-induced obesity. IL-33 and ILC2s are central mediators of type 2 immune responses that promote tissue and metabolic homeostasis, and IFN-? suppresses this pathway, likely to promote inflammatory responses and divert metabolic resources necessary to protect the host.
Project description:CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) accumulate in bone marrow microenvironment in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, little is known about how the tumor environment including tumor cells themselves affects this process. Here we demonstrated that AML cells expressed inducible T-cell costimulator ligand (ICOSL) that can provide costimulation through ICOS for the conversion and expansion of Tregs sustaining high Foxp3 and CD25 expression as well as a suppressive function. TNF-a stimulation up-regulated the expression of ICOSL. Furthermore, both the conversion and expansion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and CD4+ICOS+Foxp3+ T cells were induced by co-culture with AML cells overexpressed ICOSL. CD4+CD25+ICOS+ T cells possessed stronger ability to secrete IL-10 than CD4+CD25+ICOS- T cells. The mechanism by which IL-10 promoted the proliferation of AML cells was dependent on the activation of the Akt, Erk1/2, p38, and Stat3 signaling pathways. Blockade of ICOS signaling using anti-ICOSL antibody impaired the generation of Tregs and retarded the progression of an AML mice model injected with C1498 cells. The expression of ICOSL of patient AML cells and ICOS+ Tregs were found to be predictors for overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with AML, with ICOS+ Treg cell subset being a stronger predictor than total Tregs. These results suggest that ICOSL expression by AML cells may directly drive Treg expansion as a mechanism of immune evasion and ICOS+ Treg cell frequency is a better prognostic predictor in patients with AML.
Project description:Allergic asthma is caused by Th2-cell-type cytokines in response to allergen exposure. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a newly identified subset of immune cells that, along with Th2 cells, contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma by producing copious amounts of IL-5 and IL-13, which cause eosinophilia and airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a cardinal feature of asthma. ILC2s express ICOS, a T cell costimulatory molecule with a currently unknown function. Here we showed that a lack of ICOS on murine ILC2s and blocking the ICOS:ICOS-ligand interaction in human ILC2s reduced AHR and lung inflammation. ILC2s expressed both ICOS and ICOS-ligand, and the ICOS:ICOS-ligand interaction promoted cytokine production and survival in ILC2s through STAT5 signaling. Thus, ICOS:ICOS-ligand signaling pathway is critically involved in ILC2 function and homeostasis.
Project description:Inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS, cluster of differentiation (CD278)) is an activating costimulatory immune checkpoint expressed on activated T cells. Its ligand, ICOSL is expressed on antigen-presenting cells and somatic cells, including tumour cells in the tumour microenvironment. ICOS and ICOSL expression is linked to the release of soluble factors (cytokines), induced by activation of the immune response. ICOS and ICOSL binding generates various activities among the diversity of T cell subpopulations, including T cell activation and effector functions and when sustained also suppressive activities mediated by regulatory T cells. This dual role in both antitumour and protumour activities makes targeting the ICOS/ICOSL pathway attractive for enhancement of antitumour immune responses. This review summarises the biological background and rationale for targeting ICOS/ICOSL in cancer together with an overview of the principal ongoing clinical trials that are testing it in combination with anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and anti-programmed cell death-1 or anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 based immune checkpoint blockade.
Project description:The T-cell costimulatory receptors, CD28 and the inducible costimulator (ICOS), are required for the generation of follicular B helper T cells (T(FH)) and germinal center (GC) reaction. A common signal transducer used by CD28 and ICOS is the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Although it is known that CD28-mediated PI3K activation is dispensable for GC reaction, the role of ICOS-driven PI3K signaling has not been defined. We show here that knock-in mice that selectively lost the ability to activate PI3K through ICOS had severe defects in T(FH) generation, GC reaction, antibody class switch, and antibody affinity maturation. In preactivated CD4(+) T cells, ICOS delivered a potent PI3K signal that was critical for the induction of the key T(FH) cytokines, IL-21 and IL-4. Under the same settings, CD28 was unable to activate PI3K but supported a robust secondary expansion of T cells. Thus, our results demonstrate a nonredundant function of ICOS-PI3K pathway in the generation of T(FH) and suggest that CD28 and ICOS play differential roles during a multistep process of T(FH) differentiation.
Project description:Food allergy is a major health issue, but its pathogenesis remains obscure. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) promote allergic inflammation. However their role in food allergy is largely unknown.We sought to investigate the role of ILC2s in food allergy.Food allergy-prone mice with a gain-of-function mutation in the IL-4 receptor ? chain (Il4raF709) were orally sensitized with food allergens, and the ILC2 compartment was analyzed. The requirement for ILC2s in food allergy was investigated by using Il4raF709, IL-33 receptor-deficient (Il1rl1(-/-)), IL-13-deficient (Il13(-/-)), and IL-4-deficient (Il4(-/-)) mice and by adoptive transfer of in vitro-expanded ILC2s. Direct effects of ILC2s on regulatory T (Treg) cells and mast cells were analyzed in coculture experiments. Treg cell control of ILC2s was assessed in vitro and in vivo.Il4raF709 mice with food allergy exhibit increased numbers of ILC2s. IL-4 secretion by ILC2s contributes to the allergic response by reducing allergen-specific Treg cell and activating mast cell counts. IL-33 receptor deficiency in Il4raF709 Il1rl1(-/-) mice protects against allergen sensitization and anaphylaxis while reducing ILC2 induction. Adoptive transfer of wild-type and Il13(-/-) but not Il4(-/-) ILC2s restored sensitization in Il4raF709 Il1rl1(-/-) mice. Treg cells suppress ILC2s in vitro and in vivo.IL-4 production by IL-33-stimulated ILC2s blocks the generation of allergen-specific Treg cells and favors food allergy. Strategies to block ILC2 activation or the IL-33/IL-33 receptor pathway can lead to innovative therapies in the treatment of food allergy.
Project description:Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play important roles in the immune escape of cancer. In this study, we investigated pDCs and pDC-induced inducible costimulator (ICOS)(+) Treg populations in peripheral blood from gastric cancer (GC) patients and healthy donors by flow cytometry. The distribution of these cells in carcinoma tissue, peritumor tissue, and normal gastric mucosa was detected by immunohistochemistry. Plasma and tissue concentration of the cytokines such as interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-?1 were also measured. We found that the numbers of pDCs, Tregs, and ICOS(+) Tregs in peripheral blood were increased in GC patients compared with healthy donors. In tissue, Tregs and ICOS(+) Tregs were found distributing mainly in carcinoma tissue, whereas pDCs were mainly found in peritumor tissue. Moreover, the Foxp3(+) ICOS(+) /Foxp3(+) cell ratio in carcinoma and peritumor tissue were higher than that in normal tissue. There were more ICOS(+) Tregs in tumor and peritumor tissue of late-stage GC patients. There was a positive correlation between pDCs and ICOS(+) Tregs in peripheral blood and peritumor tissue from GC patients. In conclusion, pDCs may play a potential role in recruiting ICOS(+) Tregs, and both participate in the immunosuppression microenvironment of GC.
Project description:Although there is evidence for distinct roles of myeloid dendritic cells (DCs [mDCs]) and plasmacytoid pre-DCs (pDCs) in regulating T cell-mediated adaptive immunity, the concept of functional DC subsets has been questioned because of the lack of a molecular mechanism to explain these differences. In this study, we provide direct evidence that maturing mDCs and pDCs express different sets of molecules for T cell priming. Although both maturing mDCs and pDCs upregulate the expression of CD80 and CD86, only pDCs upregulate the expression of inducible costimulator ligand (ICOS-L) and maintain high expression levels upon differentiation into mature DCs. High ICOS-L expression endows maturing pDCs with the ability to induce the differentiation of naive CD4 T cells to produce interleukin-10 (IL-10) but not the T helper (Th)2 cytokines IL-4, -5, and -13. These IL-10-producing T cells are T regulatory cells, and their generation by ICOS-L is independent of pDC-driven Th1 and Th2 differentiation, although, in the later condition, some contribution from endogenous IL-4 cannot be completely ruled out. Thus, in contrast to mDCs, pDCs are poised to express ICOS-L upon maturation, which leads to the generation of IL-10-producing T regulatory cells. Our findings demonstrate that mDC and pDCs are intrinsically different in the expression of costimulatory molecules that drive distinct types of T cell responses.
Project description:Human T helper 17 (T(H)17) cells regulate host defense, autoimmunity, and tumor immunity. Although cytokines that control human T(H)17 cell development have been identified, the costimulatory molecules important for T(H)17 cell generation are unknown. Here, we found that the inducible costimulator (ICOS) was critical for the differentiation and expansion of human T(H)17 cells. Human cord blood contained a subset of CD161(+)CD4(+) T cells that were recent emigrants from the thymus, expressed ICOS constitutively, and were imprinted as T(H)17 cells through ICOS signaling. ICOS stimulation induced c-MAF, RORC2, and T-bet expression in these cells, leading to increased secretion of interleukin-21 (IL-21), IL-17, and interferon-? (IFN-?) compared with cells stimulated with CD28. Conversely, CD28 ligation abrogated ICOS costimulation, dampening RORC2 expression while promoting the expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which led to reduced secretion of IL-17 and enhanced production of IL-22 compared with cells stimulated with ICOS. Moreover, ICOS promoted the robust expansion of IL-17(+)IFN-?(+) human T cells, and the antitumor activity of these cells after adoptive transfer into mice bearing large human tumors was superior to that of cells expanded with CD28. The therapeutic effectiveness of ICOS-expanded cells was associated with enhanced functionality and engraftment in vivo. These findings reveal a vital role for ICOS signaling in the generation and maintenance of human T(H)17 cells and suggest that components of this pathway could be therapeutically targeted to treat cancer or chronic infection and, conversely, that interruption of this pathway may have utility in multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune syndromes. These findings have provided the rationale for designing new clinical trials for tumor immunotherapy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recent evidence suggests that IL-17 contributes to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR); however, the mechanisms that suppress the production of this cytokine remain poorly defined.<h4>Objective</h4>We sought to identify the regulatory cells and molecules that suppress IL-17-dependent allergic airways disease.<h4>Methods</h4>Mice were sensitized by means of airway instillations of ovalbumin together with low levels of LPS. Leukocyte recruitment to the lung and AHR were assessed after daily challenges with aerosolized ovalbumin. Flow cytometry, quantitative PCR, and gene-targeted mice were used to identify naturally arising subsets of regulatory T (Treg) cells and their cytokines required for the suppression of established allergic airway disease.<h4>Results</h4>Allergic sensitization through the airway primed both effector and regulatory responses. Effector responses were initially dominant and led to airway inflammation and IL-17-dependent AHR. However, after multiple daily allergen challenges, IL-17 production and AHR decreased, even though pulmonary levels of T(H)17 cells remained high. This loss of AHR was reversible and required the expansion of a Treg cell subset expressing both forkhead box protein 3 and inducible costimulator. These Treg cells also expressed the regulatory cytokines IL-10, TGF-?, and IL-35. Whereas IL-10 and TGF-? were dispensable for suppression of AHR, IL-35 was required.<h4>Conclusion</h4>IL-35 production by inducible costimulator-positive Treg cells can suppress IL-17 production and thereby reverse established, IL-17-dependent AHR in mice. Targeting this pathway might therefore be of therapeutic value for treating allergic asthma in human subjects.