The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care produces measurements along a single dimension: results from a Mokken analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:As the worldwide prevalence of chronic illness increases so too does the demand for novel treatments to improve chronic illness care. Quantifying improvement in chronic illness care from the patient perspective relies on the use of validated patient-reported outcome measures. In this analysis we examine the psychometric and scaling properties of the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire for use in the United Kingdom by applying scale data to the non-parametric Mokken double monotonicity model. METHODS:Data from 1849 patients with long-term conditions in the UK who completed the 20-item PACIC were analysed using Mokken analysis. A three-stage analysis examined the questionnaire's scalability, monotonicity and item ordering. An automated item selection procedure was used to assess the factor structure of the scale. Analysis was conducted in an 'evaluation' dataset (n?=?956) and results were confirmed using an independent 'validation' (n?=?890) dataset. RESULTS:Automated item selection procedures suggested that the 20 items represented a single underlying trait representing "patient assessment of chronic illness care": this contrasts with the multiple domains originally proposed. Six items violated invariant item ordering and were removed. The final 13-item scale had no further issues in either the evaluation or validation samples, including excellent scalability (Ho?=?.50) and reliability (Rho?=?.88). CONCLUSIONS:Following some modification, the 13-items of the PACIC were successfully fitted to the non-parametric Mokken model. These items have psychometrically robust and produce a single ordinal summary score. This score will be useful for clinicians or researchers to assess the quality of chronic illness care from the patient's perspective.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Providing patient-centered care (PCC) during the last year of life (LYOL) can be challenging due to the complexity of the patients' medical, social and psychological needs, especially in case of chronic illnesses. Assessing PCC can be helpful in identifying areas for improvements. Since not all patients can be surveyed, a questionnaire for proxy informants was developed in order to retrospectively assess patient-centeredness in care during the whole LYOL. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and validity of an adapted version of the German Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) for surveying bereaved persons in order to assess PCC during the decedents' LYOL. METHODS:The German PACIC short form (11 items) was adapted to a nine-item version for surveying bereaved persons on the decedent's LYOL (PACIC-S9-Proxy). Items were rated on a five-point Likert scale. The PACIC adaptation and validation was part of a cross-sectional survey in the region of Cologne. Participants were recruited through self-selection and active recruitment by practice partners. Sociodemographic characteristics and missing data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted in order to assess the structure of the PACIC-S9-Proxy. Internal consistency was estimated using Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS:Of the 351 informants who participated in the survey, 230 (65.52%) considered their decedent to have suffered from chronic illness prior to death. 193 of these informants (83.91%) completed ?5 items of the questionnaire and were included in the analysis. The least answered item was item (74.09%) was item 4 (encouragement to group & classes for coping). The most frequently answered item (96.89%) was item 2 (satisfaction with care organization). Informants rated the item" Given a copy of their treatment plan" highest (mean 3.96), whereas "encouragement to get to a specific group or class to cope with the condition" (mean 1.74) was rated lowest. Cronbach's alpha was 0.84. A unidimensional structure of the questionnaire was found (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin 0.86, Bartlett's test for sphericity p?<?0.001), with items' factor loadings ranging from 0.46 to 0.82. CONCLUSIONS:The nine-item questionnaire can be used as efficient tool for assessing PCC during the LYOL retrospectively and by proxies. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The study was registered in the German Clinical Trials Register ( DRKS00011925 ) on 13 June 2017.
Project description:RATIONALE:Aims and Objective: The validation study of the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire suggested a 5-factor structure determined a priori, but subsequent analyses have questioned the validity of the original factor structure. This study analyzed the factor structure of the PACIC using a large and diverse patient sample, and evaluated the identified factors through the lens of recent transformational initiatives in primary care. METHODS:Convenience samples of adults completed surveys in waiting rooms during clinic visits. Primary care patients with 1 or more chronic illnesses with complete PACIC responses at baseline from 39 clinics (n=1,567) and at follow-up from 36 clinics (n=1,536) participated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on baseline and follow-up patient questionnaire data from a cluster randomized controlled trial. Identified factors were evaluated in terms of item loadings, content, reliability, and the extent to which items reflected advances in the delivery of chronic illness care. RESULTS:Analyses supported the use of the PACIC summary score. Although a 5-factor model was retained, factor loadings were different from the original PACIC validation study. All factors had sufficient reliability, but findings suggested potential revisions to enhance the factor structure. CONCLUSIONS:It may be time to revise the PACIC to enhance the stability of the subscales (factors) and better reflect recent transformations in the delivery of chronic illness care.
Project description:Short versions of the Beck Hopelessness Scale have all been created according the Classical Test Theory, but the use and the application of this theory has been repeatedly criticized. In the current study, the Item Response Theory approach was employed to refine and shorten the BHS in order to build a reasonably coherent unidimensional scale whose items/symptoms can be treated as ordinal indicators of the theoretical concept of hopelessness, scaled along a single continuum. In a sample of 492 psychiatrically hospitalized, adult patients (51.2% females), predominantly with a diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder type II, the BHS was submitted to Mokken Scale Analysis. A final set of the nine best-fitting items satisfied the assumptions of local independency, monotonicity, and invariance of the item ordering. Using the ROC curve method, the IRT-based 9-item BHS showed good discriminant validity in categorizing psychiatric inpatients with high/medium suicidal risk and patients with and without suicide attempts. With high sensitivity (>.90), this newly developed scale could be used as a valid screening tool for suicidal risk assessment in psychiatric inpatients.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Many patients with chronic illness receive health care in primary care settings, so a challenge is to provide well-structured chronic care in these settings. Our aim was to develop and test a Dutch version of the PACIC questionnaire, a measure for patient reported structured chronic care. METHODS: Observational study in 165 patients with diabetes or COPD from four general practices (72% response rate). Patients completed a written questionnaire, which included instruments for assessing chronic illness care (PACIC), evaluations of general practice (Europep), enablement (PEI), and individual characteristics. RESULTS: The patients had a mean age of 68.0 years and 47% comprised of women. Twenty-two to 35% of responding patients did not provide answers to specific items in the PACIC. In 11 items the lowest answering category was used by 30% or more of the responders and in 6 items the highest answering category was used by this number of responders. Principal factor analysis identified the previously defined five domains reasonably well. Cronbach's alpha per domain varied from 0.71 to 0.83, and the intraclass coefficient from 0.66 to 0.91. Diabetes patients reported higher presence of structured chronic care for 14 out of the 20 PACIC items. The effect of patient evaluations of general practice on the PACIC score was positive (b = 0.72, p < 0.004), but the effect of patient enablement on the PACIC score was negative (b = -1.13, p < 0.000). CONCLUSION: A translated and validated Dutch version of the PACIC questionnaire is now available. Further research on its validity is recommended.
Project description:Background:The stigma associated with neurologic disorders plays a part in poor health-related quality of life. The eight-item Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness (SSCI-8) is a brief self-assessment tool for measuring perceived level of stigma. The psychometric performance of the SSCI-8 in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) was assessed. Methods:A multicenter, cross-sectional study in adults with relapsing-remitting or primary progressive MS was performed. A nonparametric item response theory procedure, Mokken analysis, was done to preliminarily study the dimensional structure of the SSCI-8. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model was then fit, and the behavior and information covered by the eight items were assessed by parametric item response theory analysis. Results:A total of 201 patients (mean ± SD age, 43.9 ± 10.5 years; 60.2% female; 86.1% with relapsing-remitting MS) were studied. The Mokken analysis found that the SSCI-8 is a unidimensional strong scale (scalability index H = 0.56) with high reliability (Cronbach ? = 0.88). The CFA model confirmed the unidimensionality (comparative fit index = 0.975, root mean square error of approximation = 0.077). The information covered by the SSCI-8 items ranges from 3.79 to 13.52, for a total of 66.56. More than half (66%) of the SSCI-8 overall information is conveyed by four items: 1 ("Some people avoided me"), 2 ("I felt left out of things"), 3 ("People avoided looking at me"), and 7 ("People were unkind to me"). Conclusions:The SSCI-8 shows appropriate psychometric characteristics and is, therefore, a useful instrument for assessing stigma in people with MS.
Project description:Mokken scale analysis is a popular method to evaluate the psychometric quality of clinical and personality questionnaires and their individual items. Although many empirical papers report on the extent to which sets of items form Mokken scales, there is less attention for the effect of violations of commonly used rules of thumb. In this study, the authors investigated the practical consequences of retaining or removing items with psychometric properties that do not comply with these rules of thumb. Using simulated data, they concluded that items with low scalability had some influence on the reliability of test scores, person ordering and selection, and criterion-related validity estimates. Removing the misfitting items from the scale had, in general, a small effect on the outcomes. Although important outcome variables were fairly robust against scale violations in some conditions, authors conclude that researchers should not rely exclusively on algorithms allowing automatic selection of items. In particular, content validity must be taken into account to build sensible psychometric instruments.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Transplant recipients are chronically ill patients, who require lifelong follow-up to manage co-morbidities and prevent graft loss. This necessitates a system of care that is congruent with the Chronic Care Model. The eleven-item self-report Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) scale assesses whether chronic care is congruent with the Chronic Care Model, yet its validity for heart transplant patients has not been tested. METHODS:We tested the validity of the English version of the PACIC, and compared the similarity of the internal structure of the PACIC across English-speaking countries (USA, Canada, Australia and United Kingdom) and across six languages (French, German, Dutch, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese). This was done using data from the cross-sectional international BRIGHT study that included 1378 heart transplant patients from eleven countries across 4 continents. To test the validity of the instrument, confirmatory factor analyses to check the expected unidimensional internal structure, and relations to other variables, were performed. RESULTS:Main analyses confirmed the validity of the English PACIC version for heart transplant patients. Exploratory analyses across English-speaking countries and languages also confirmed the single factorial dimension, except in Italian and Spanish. CONCLUSION:This scale could help healthcare providers monitor level of chronic illness management and improve transplantation care. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT01608477, first patient enrolled in March 2012, registered retrospectively: May 30, 2012.
Project description:International and national health policy seeks to increase service user and carer involvement in mental health care planning, but suitable user-centred tools to assess the success of these initiatives are not yet available. The current study describes the development of a new reliable and valid, interval-scaled service-user and carer reported outcome measure for quantifying user/carer involvement in mental health care planning. Psychometric development reduced a 70-item item bank to a short form questionnaire using a combination of Classical Test, Mokken and Rasch Analyses. Test-retest reliability was calculated using t-tests of interval level scores between baseline and 2-4 week follow-up. Items were worded to be relevant to both service users and carers. Nine items were removed following cognitive debriefing with a service user and carer advisory group. An iterative process of item removal reduced the remaining 61 items to a final 14-item scale. The final scale has acceptable scalability (Ho = .69), reliability (alpha = .92), fit to the Rasch model (?2(70) = 97.25, p = .02), and no differential item functioning or locally dependent items. Scores remained stable over the 4 week follow-up period, indicating good test-retest reliability. The 'Evaluating the Quality of User and Carer Involvement in Care Planning (EQUIP)' scale displays excellent psychometric properties and is capable of unidimensional linear measurement. The scale is short, user and carer-centred and will be of direct benefit to clinicians, services, auditors and researchers wishing to quantify levels of user and carer involvement in care planning.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Little is known as to whether primary care teams' perceptions of how well they have implemented the Chronic Care Model (CCM) corresponds with their patients' own experience of chronic illness care. We examined the extent to which practice members' perceptions of how well they organized to deliver care consistent with the CCM were associated with their patients' perceptions of the chronic illness care they have received. METHODS:Analysis of baseline measures from a cluster randomized controlled trial testing a practice facilitation intervention to implement the CCM in small, community-based primary care practices. All practice "members" (i.e., physician providers, non-physician providers, and staff) completed the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC) survey and adult patients with 1 or more chronic illnesses completed the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire. RESULTS:Two sets of hierarchical linear regression models accounting for nesting of practice members (N = 283) and patients (N = 1,769) within 39 practices assessed the association between practice member perspectives of CCM implementation (ACIC scores) and patients' perspectives of CCM (PACIC). ACIC summary score was not significantly associated with PACIC summary score or most of PACIC subscale scores, but four of the ACIC subscales [Self-management Support (p < 0.05); Community Linkages (p < 0.02), Delivery System Design (p < 0.02), and Organizational Support (p < 0.02)] were consistently associated with PACIC summary score and the majority of PACIC subscale scores after controlling for patient characteristics. The magnitude of the coefficients, however, indicates that the level of association is weak. CONCLUSIONS:The ACIC and PACIC scales appear to provide complementary and relatively unique assessments of how well clinical services are aligned with the CCM. Our findings underscore the importance of assessing both patient and practice member perspectives when evaluating quality of chronic illness care. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT00482768.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC-5A) was developed to assess the satisfaction with patient-provider interaction based on the Chronic Care Model. The additional 5A approach (assess, advise, agree, assist, arrange) allows to score behavioral counseling. The aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the German adaptation of the PACIC-5A questionnaire in a sample of general practitioners (GP) patients with obesity. METHODS:Analyses were based on data from the study "Five A's counseling in weight management of obese patients in primary care: a cluster randomized controlled trial (INTERACT)". Data were collected via standardized questionnaires containing the 26-item version of the PACIC-5A questionnaire. A total of 117 patients with obesity were included in the analyses. Statistical procedures comprised descriptive analyses, the calculation of Cronbach's alpha, test-retest analyses and factor analyses in order to assess the psychometric properties including reliability and validity of the PACIC-5A. RESULTS:The patient's mean age was 43.4?years and the sample was mostly female (59%). Middle educational level was found for the majority (78%) and the mean Body Mass Index was 38.9?kg/m2. Descriptive analyses revealed a mean PACIC score of 2.33 and 5A sum score of 2.29. Notable floor effects were found. PACIC-5A showed high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas >?0.9) and exploratory factor analyses resulted in a unidimensional structure. CONCLUSION:The results of this study provide evidence regarding the psychometric properties of the German version of the PACIC-5A used in a sample of GP patients with obesity and make an important contribution to the reliable and valid assessment of the patient-GP interaction with regard to obesity counseling in primary care.