FTDP-17 with Pick body-like inclusions associated with a novel tau mutation, p.E372G.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT) cause frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). Here, we describe a patient with FTDP-17 and a novel missense mutation in exon 13 of MAPT, p.E372G. We compare clinicopathologic features of this patient to two previously unreported patients with another exon 13 mutation, p.G389R. The patient with the p.E372G mutation was a 40-year-old man with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), who subsequently developed agrammatic speech and parkinsonism. One of the FTDP-17 patients with p.G389R mutation presented at age 24 with agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia, and subsequently behavioral dysfunction. The other presented at age 53 with bvFTD, followed by agrammatic speech and corticobasal syndrome. Neuropathologic features of FTDP-17 due to p.E372G were similar to those of p.G389R, including tau-immunoreactive Pick body-like neuronal inclusions and swollen, tapering thread-like processes in white matter immunoreactive for 3-repeat and 4-repeat tau. Biochemical analysis of insoluble tau showed similar isoform compositions in p.E372G and p.G389R. Functional studies of the p.E372G mutation showed marked increase in tau filament formation and its reduced ability to promote microtubule assembly. Together these findings indicate that p.E372G is a pathogenic MAPT mutation that causes FTDP-17 similar to p.G389R.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mutations in the tau gene linked to chromosome 17 cause frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism (FTDP-17).<h4>Objective</h4>This study presents 3 Japanese familial cases diagnosed with N279K tau gene mutation, including 1 autopsy-confirmed case.<h4>Methods</h4>We compared the clinical presentations, cognitive functions, and images between the 3 familial cases diagnosed with N279K mutation.<h4>Results</h4>All 3 patients presented symptoms in their early 40s. One patient showed severe cognitive dysfunction and died in his sixth year after onset. The remaining 2 cases presented with parkinsonism-dominant clinical features. Among the 2 cases, 1 presented the characteristic symptoms of progressive supranuclear palsy. The pathological features of the dementia-dominant case showed frontal and temporal lobe-dominant neuronal loss and gliosis. Tau-positive neuronal and glial inclusions were found throughout. Further, tufted astrocytes and globose tangles were present whereas there were no Pick bodies and astrocytic plaques, compatible with pathology-confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) -tau subtypes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Patients with FTDP-17 can be classified into the following 2 major groups: dementia and parkinsonism-plus predominant phenotypes. Among our 3 cases, 1 showed dementia predominance whereas the other 2 showed parkinsonism predominance. Mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (<i>MAPT</i>) present with several pathological features. Clinically, our case presented a behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). However, morphologically, the observed glial and neuronal pathology met the criteria for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). This study highlights the clinical heterogeneity within and between families with same <i>MAPT</i> mutation. Few pathologically confirmed PSP cases have been reported with mutations in <i>MAPT</i>.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration (PPND), a major subtype of frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism related to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), is a progressive and terminal neurodegenerative disease caused by c.837 T?>?G mutation in the MAPT gene encoding microtubule-associated protein tau (rs63750756; N279K). This MAPT mutation induces alternative splicing of exon 10, resulting in a modification of microtubule-binding region of tau. Although mutations in the MAPT gene have been linked to multiple tauopathies including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia and progressive supranuclear palsy, knowledge regarding how tau N279K mutation causes PPND/FTDP-17 is limited. RESULTS:We investigated the underlying disease mechanism associated with the N279K tau mutation using PPND/FTDP-17 patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and autopsy brains. In iPSC-derived neural stem cells (NSCs), the N279K tau mutation induced an increased ratio of 4-repeat to 3-repeat tau and accumulation of stress granules indicating elevated cellular stress. More significant, NSCs derived from patients with the N279K tau mutation displayed impaired endocytic trafficking as evidenced by accumulation of endosomes and exosomes, and a reduction of lysosomes. Since there were no significant differences in cellular stress and distribution of subcellular organelles between control and N279K skin fibroblasts, N279K-related vesicle trafficking defects are likely specific to the neuronal lineage. Consistently, the levels of intracellular/luminal vesicle and exosome marker flotillin-1 were significantly increased in frontal and temporal cortices of PPND/FTDP-17 patients with the N279K tau mutation, events that were not seen in the occipital cortex which is the most spared cortical region in the patients. CONCLUSION:Together, our results demonstrate that alterations of intracellular vesicle trafficking in NSCs/neurons likely contribute to neurodegeneration as an important disease mechanism underlying the N279K tau mutation in PPND/FTDP-17.
Project description:See Josephs (doi:10.1093/brain/awx367) for a scientific commentary on this article.In many neurodegenerative disorders, familial forms have provided important insights into the pathogenesis of their corresponding sporadic forms. The first mutations associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) were found in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene on chromosome 17 in families with frontotemporal degeneration and parkinsonism (FTDP-17). However, it was soon discovered that 50% of these families had a nearby mutation in progranulin. Regardless, the original FTDP-17 nomenclature has been retained for patients with MAPT mutations, with such patients currently classified independently from the different sporadic forms of FTLD with tau-immunoreactive inclusions (FTLD-tau). The separate classification of familial FTLD with MAPT mutations implies that familial forms cannot inform on the pathogenesis of the different sporadic forms of FTLD-tau. To test this assumption, this study pathologically assessed all FTLD-tau cases with a known MAPT mutation held by the Sydney and Cambridge Brain Banks, and compared them to four cases of four subtypes of sporadic FTLD-tau, in addition to published case reports. Ten FTLD-tau cases with a MAPT mutation (K257T, S305S, P301L, IVS10+16, R406W) were screened for the core differentiating neuropathological features used to diagnose the different sporadic FTLD-tau subtypes to determine whether the categorical separation of MAPT mutations from sporadic FTLD-tau is valid. Compared with sporadic cases, FTLD-tau cases with MAPT mutations had similar mean disease duration but were younger at age of symptom onset (55 ± 4 years versus 70 ± 6 years). Interestingly, FTLD-tau cases with MAPT mutations had similar patterns and severity of neuropathological features to sporadic FTLD-tau subtypes and could be classified into: Pick's disease (K257T), corticobasal degeneration (S305S, IVS10+16, R406W), progressive supranuclear palsy (S305S) or globular glial tauopathy (P301L, IVS10+16). The finding that the S305S mutation could be classified into two tauopathies suggests additional modifying factors. Assessment of our cases and previous reports suggests that distinct MAPT mutations result in particular FTLD-tau subtypes, supporting the concept that they are likely to inform on the varied cellular mechanisms involved in distinctive forms of sporadic FTLD-tau. As such, FTLD-tau cases with MAPT mutations should be considered familial forms of FTLD-tau subtypes rather than a separate FTDP-17 category, and continued research on the effects of different mutations more focused on modelling their impact to produce the very different sporadic FTLD-tau pathologies in animal and cellular models.
Project description:AIM:The p.P301L mutation in microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) is a common cause of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). We compare clinicopathologic features of five unrelated and three related (brother, sister and cousin) patients with FTDP-17 due to p.P301L mutation. METHODS:Genealogical, clinical, neuropathologic and genetic data were reviewed from eight individuals. RESULTS:The series consisted of five men and three women with an average age of death of 58 years (52-65 years) and average disease duration of 9 years (3-14 years). The first symptoms were those of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia in seven patients and semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia in one. Three patients were homozygous for the MAPT H1 haplotype; five had H1/H2 genotype. The apolipoprotein E genotype was ?3/?3 in seven and ?3/?4 in one. The average brain weight was 1015 g (876-1188 g). All had frontotemporal lobar or more diffuse cortical atrophy. Except for one patient, the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus had minimal atrophy, whereas there was atrophy of middle and inferior temporal gyri. Dentate fascia neuronal dispersion was identified in three patients, two of whom had epilepsy. In one patient there was extensive white matter tau involvement with Gallyas-positive globular glial inclusions typical of globular glial tauopathy (GGT). CONCLUSIONS:This clinicopathologic study shows inter- and intra-familial clinicopathologic heterogeneity of FTDP-17 due to MAPT p.P301L mutation, including GGT in one patient.
Project description:Tau is a microtubule-associated protein that plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies. Approximately one-half of all cases of Frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism-17 (FTDP-17) are caused by mutations in the MAPT gene. The N279K mutation is one of the three mutations more prevalent in FTDP-17 cases. Several studies have demonstrated that N279K Tau mutation alters alternative splicing inducing the presence of exon 10. Tau is mainly found in the cytosol of neuronal cells although it has also been localized within the nucleus. Here we demonstrate by biochemical and immunohistochemistry studies in COS-7 cells, that the proportion of mutant N279K Tau increases compared with wild-type at the cell nucleus although cell viability is not affected. These data will provide us with a better outline of the nuclear role of tau protein offering new clues related with this tauopathie.
Project description:Frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) with mutations in the MAPT gene is a hereditary neurodegenerative tauopathy with various clinical phenotypes. We herein report the first Japanese patient with FTDP-17 caused by an IVS10+3G>A mutation in the MAPT gene, which is linked to an H1M haplotype. The present study suggests that the IVS10+3G>A mutation in the MAPT gene can have originated from a non-Caucasian population. In the disease course, myoclonus and respiratory failure can be observed. This study may expand on the clinical and genetic findings for FTDP-17 with mutations in the MAPT gene.
Project description:Frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism chromosome 17 type (FTDP-17) is caused by mutations in MAPT, the gene encoding tau. FTDP-17 begins with executive function deficits and other abnormal behaviors, which progress to dementia. Neurodegenerative changes include accumulation of aggregated tau as neuronal and glial fibrillary tangles. Aggregated tau is seen in numerous other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). We expressed normal and FTDP-17 mutant human tau (mutations P301L and V337M) in Caenorhabditis elegans to model tauopathy disorders. Tau pan-neuronal expression caused progressive uncoordinated locomotion (Unc), characteristic of nervous system defects in worms. Subsequently, insoluble tau accumulates and both soluble and insoluble tau is phosphorylated at many of the sites hyperphosphorylated in FTDP-17, AD, and other tauopathies. Substantial neurodegeneration, seen as bulges and gaps in nerve cords followed by loss of neurons, occurs after insoluble tau begins to accumulate. Axons show vacuoles, membranous infoldings, and whorls with associated amorphous tau accumulations and abnormal tau-positive aggregates. FTDP-17 mutation lines had a more severe Unc phenotype, accumulated more insoluble tau at a younger age, were more resistant to cholinergic inhibitors, and had more severe axonal degeneration when compared with lines expressing normal tau. The Unc phenotype is caused by a presynaptic defect. Postsynaptic transmission is intact. This transgenic model will enable mechanistic dissection of tau-induced neurodegeneration and identification of genes and compounds that inhibit pathological tau formation.
Project description:Frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism (FTDP) is a major neurodegenerative syndrome, particularly for those with symptoms beginning before age 65 years. A spectrum of degenerative disorders can present as sporadic or familial FTDP. Mutations in the gene encoding the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT; OMIM +157140) on chromosome 17 have been found in many kindreds with familial FTDP. Several other kindreds with FTDP had been linked to chromosome 17, but they had ubiquitin-positive inclusions rather than tauopathy pathology and no mutations in MAPT. This conundrum was solved in 2006 with the identification of mutations in the gene encoding progranulin (PGRN; OMIM *138945), which is only 1.7 Mb centromeric to MAPT on chromosome 17. In this review, we compare and contrast the demographic, clinical, radiologic, neuropathologic, genetic, and pathophysiologic features in patients with FTDP linked to mutations in MAPT and PGRN, highlighting the many similarities but also a few important differences. Our findings describe an intriguing oddity of nature in which 2 genes can cause a similar phenotype through apparently different mechanisms yet reside so near to each other on the same chromosome.
Project description:The accumulation of aberrantly aggregated MAPT (microtubule-associated protein Tau) defines a spectrum of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in the MAPT gene cause frontotemporal dementia with Parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), characterized by neuronal pathological Tau inclusions in the form of neurofibrillary tangles and Pick bodies and in some cases glial Tau pathology. Increasing evidence points to the importance of prion-like seeding as a mechanism for the pathological spread in tauopathy and other neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, using a cell culture model, we examined a multitude of genetic FTDP-17 Tau variants for their ability to be seeded by exogenous Tau fibrils. Our findings revealed stark differences between FTDP-17 Tau variants in their ability to be seeded, with variants at Pro301 and Ser320 showing robust aggregation with seeding. Similarly, we elucidated the importance of certain Tau protein regions and unique residues, including the role of Pro301 in inhibiting Tau aggregation. We also revealed potential barriers in cross-seeding between three-repeat and four-repeat Tau isoforms. Overall, these differences alluded to potential mechanistic differences between wildtype and FTDP-17 Tau variants, as well as different Tau isoforms, in influencing Tau aggregation. Furthermore, by combining two FTDP-17 Tau variants (either P301L or P301S with S320F), we generated aggressive models of tauopathy that do not require exogenous seeding. These models will allow for rapid screening of potential therapeutics to alleviate Tau aggregation without the need for exogenous Tau fibrils. Together, these studies provide novel insights in the molecular determinants that modulate Tau aggregation.
Project description:Frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism (FTDP-17) caused by the 10+16 splice-site mutation in the gene encoding microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) provides an established platform to model tau-related dementia in vitro Neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been shown to recapitulate the neurodevelopmental profile of tau pathology during in vitro corticogenesis, as in the adult human brain. However, the neurophysiological phenotype of these cells has remained unknown, leaving unanswered questions regarding the functional relevance and the gnostic power of this disease model. In this study, we used electrophysiology to explore the membrane properties and intrinsic excitability of the generated neurons and found that human cells mature by ?150?days of neurogenesis to become compatible with matured cortical neurons. In earlier FTDP-17, however, neurons exhibited a depolarized resting membrane potential associated with increased resistance and reduced voltage-gated Na+- and K+-channel-mediated conductance. Expression of the Nav1.6 protein was reduced in FTDP-17. These effects led to reduced cell capability of induced firing and changed the action potential waveform in FTDP-17. The revealed neuropathology might thus contribute to the clinicopathological profile of the disease. This sheds new light on the significance of human in vitro models of dementia.