Heme oxygenase up-regulation under ultraviolet-B radiation is not epigenetically restricted and involves specific stress-related transcriptions factors.
ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a protective role against oxidative stress in plants. The mechanisms regulating its expression, however, remain unclear. Here we studied the methylation state of a GC rich HO-1 promoter region and the expression of several stress-related transcription factors (TFs) in soybean plants subjected to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. Genomic DNA and total RNA were isolated from leaves of plants irradiated with 7.5 and 15kJm-2 UV-B. A 304bp HO-1 promoter region was amplified by PCR from sodium bisulfite-treated DNA, cloned into pGEMT plasmid vector and evaluated by DNA sequencing. Bisulfite sequencing analysis showed similar HO-1 promoter methylation levels in control and UV-B-treated plants (C: 3.4±1.3%; 7.5: 2.6±0.5%; 15: 3.1±1.1%). Interestingly, HO-1 promoter was strongly unmethylated in control plants. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of TFs showed that GmMYB177, GmMYBJ6, GmWRKY21, GmNAC11, GmNAC20 and GmGT2A but not GmWRK13 and GmDREB were induced by UV-B radiation. The expression of several TFs was also enhanced by hemin, a potent and specific HO inducer, inferring that they may mediate HO-1 up-regulation. These results suggest that soybean HO-1 gene expression is not epigenetically regulated. Moreover, the low level of HO-1 promoter methylation suggests that this antioxidant enzyme can rapidly respond to environmental stress. Finally, this study has identified some stress-related TFs involved in HO-1 up-regulation under UV-B radiation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Continuous cropping stress involves such factors as biological barriers, allelopathic autotoxicity, deterioration of soil physicochemical properties, and soil fertility imbalance and is regarded as a kind of comprehensive stress limiting soybean yield and quality. Genomic DNA methylation is an important regulatory mechanism for plants to resist various environmental stresses. Therefore, it is especially worthwhile to reveal genomic methylation characteristics under stress and clarify the relationship between DNA methylation status and continuous cropping stress adaptability in soybean. RESULTS:We generated a genome-wide map of cytosine methylation induced by this kind of comprehensive stress in a tolerant soybean variety (Kang Xian 2, KX2) and a sensitive variety (He Feng, HF55) using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) technology. The expression of DNA demethylase genes was detected using real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). The functions of differentially methylated genes (DMGs) involved in stress response in biochemical metabolism and genetic information transmission were further assessed based on Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. The results showed that genomic DNA demethylation was closely related to continuous cropping comprehensive stress adaptability in soybean, which was further verified by the increasing expression of DNA demethylases ROS1 and DML. The demethylation of mCpG and mCpHpG (mCpApG preferred) contexts was more critical, which mainly occurred in gene-regulatory regions at the whole-chromosome scale. Moreover, this kind of stress adaptability may be related to various stress responders generated through strengthened glucose catabolism and amino acid and fatty acid anabolism, as well as fidelity transmission of genetic information. CONCLUSIONS:Genomic DNA demethylation was closely associated with continuous cropping comprehensive stress adaptability, highlighting the promising potential of screening continuous cropping-tolerant cultivars by DNA methylation index and further exploring the application of DNA demethylases in soybean breeding.
Project description:Epigenetic modification contributes to the regulation of gene expression and plant development under salinity stress. Here we describe the identification of 49 soybean transcription factors by microarray analysis as being inducible by salinity stress. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR-based expression assay confirmed the salinity stress inducibility of 45 of these 49 transcription factors, and showed that ten of them were up-regulated when seedlings were exposed to the demethylation agent 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine. Salinity stress was shown to affect the methylation status of four of these ten transcription factors (one MYB, one b-ZIP and two AP2/DREB family members) using a combination of bisulfite sequencing and DNA methylation-sensitive DNA gel blot analysis. ChIP analysis indicated that the activation of three of the four DNA methylated transcription factors was correlated with an increased level of histone H3K4 trimethylation and H3K9 acetylation, and/or a reduced level of H3K9 demethylation in various parts of the promoter or coding regions. Our results suggest a critical role for some transcription factors' activation/repression by DNA methylation and/or histone modifications in soybean tolerance to salinity stress.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation effect on reproductive parts of the plants has received little attention. We studied the influence of UV-B radiation on flower and pollen morphology, pollen production and in vitro pollen germination and tube growth of six genotypes of soybean (Glycine max). METHODS:Soybean genotypes were investigated by growing them under four levels of biologically effective UV-B radiation of 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 kJ m(-2) d(-1) in sunlit controlled-environment chambers. KEY RESULTS:Reductions in lengths of flower, standard petal, and staminal column along with reduced pollen production, germination and tube growth were observed in all genotypes with increasing UV-B radiation. Combined response index (CRI), the sum of percentage relative responses in flower size, pollen production, pollen germination and tube growth due to UV-B radiation varied with UV-B dosage: -67 to -152 with 5 kJ m(-2) d(-1), -90 to -212 with 10 kJ m(-2) d(-1), and -118 to -248 with 15 kJ m(-2) d(-1) of UV-B compared to controls. Genotypes were classified based on the UV-B sensitivity index (USI) calculated as CRI per unit UV-B, where D 90-9216, DG 5630RR and D 88-5320 were classified as tolerant (USI > -7.43), and DP 4933RR, Stalwart III and PI 471938 were sensitive (USI < -7.43) in their response to UV-B radiation. Pollen grains produced in plants grown at 15 kJ m(-2) d(-1) UV-B radiation were shrivelled and lacked apertures compared to control and other UV-B treatments in both sensitive and tolerant genotypes, and the differences were more conspicuous in the sensitive genotype (PI 471938) than in the tolerant genotype (D 90-9216). The number of columellae heads of the exine was reduced with increasing UV-B radiation. CONCLUSIONS:Soybean genotypes varied in their reproductive response to UV-B radiation. The identified UV-B tolerant genotypes could be used in future breeding programmes.
Project description:Plant R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) have been suggested to play crucial roles in the response to diverse abiotic and biotic stress factors but there is little molecular evidence of this role in soybean plants. In this work, we identified and functionally characterized an R2R3-MYB TF, namely, GsMYB15, from the wild soybean ED059. Protein and promoter sequence analysis indicated that GsMYB15 is a typical R2R3-MYB TF and contains multiple stress-related cis-elements in the promoter region. GsMYB15 is located in the nucleus and exhibits transcriptional activation activity. QPCR assays suggested that the expression of GsMYB15 could be induced by NaCl, insect attacks and defense-related hormones (MeJA and SA). Furthermore, GsMYB15 exhibited highest expression in pods compared to other tissues. Functional analysis of GsMYB15 demonstrated that overexpression of GsMYB15 could increase salt tolerance and enhance the resistance to H. armigera larvae in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Moreover, overexpression of GsMYB15 also affected the expression levels of salt stress- and defense-related genes in the transgenic plants. Feeding with transgenic Arabidopsis plant leaves could significantly suppress the expression levels of immunity-related genes in H. armigera larvae. Overexpression of GsMYB15 also increased mesophyll cell levels in transgenic plants. Taken together, these results provide evidence that GsMYB15 is a positive regulator of salt stress tolerance and insect resistance in transformed Arabidopsis plants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Environmental stimuli can activate a series of physiological and biochemical responses in plants accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), as versatile regulators, control gene expression in multiple ways and participate in the adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. RESULTS:In this study, soybean seedlings were continuously cultured for 15 days with high salinity solutions started from seed germination. Strand-specific whole transcriptome sequencing and stringent bioinformatic analysis led to the identification of 3030 long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and 275 natural antisense transcripts (lncNATs) in soybean roots. In contrast to mRNAs, newly identified lncRNAs exhibited less exons, similar AU content to UTRs, even distribution across the genome and low evolutionary conservation. Remarkably, more than 75% of discovered lncRNAs that were activated or up-regulated by continuous salt stress mainly targeted proteins with binding and catalytic activities. Furthermore, two DNA methylation maps with single-base resolution were generated by using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing, offering a genome-wide perspective and important clues for epigenetic regulation of stress-associated lncRNAs and protein-coding genes. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, our findings systematically demonstrated the characteristics of continuous salt stress-induced lncRNAs and extended the knowledge of corresponding methylation profiling, providing valuable evidence for a better understanding of how plants cope with long-term salt stress circumstances.
Project description:Soybean is an important economic crop for human diet, animal feeds and biodiesel due to high protein and oil content. Its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress, which impairs plant growth and development by affecting gene expression, in part, through epigenetic modification of chromatin status. However, little is known about epigenetic regulation of stress response in soybean roots. Here, we used RNA-seq and ChIP-seq technologies to study the dynamics of genome-wide transcription and histone methylation patterns in soybean roots under salt stress. Eight thousand seven hundred ninety eight soybean genes changed their expression under salt stress treatment. Whole-genome ChIP-seq study of an epigenetic repressive mark, histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), revealed the changes in H3K27me3 deposition during the response to salt stress. Unexpectedly, we found that most of the inactivation of genes under salt stress is strongly correlated with the de novo establishment of H3K27me3 in various parts of the promoter or coding regions where there is no H3K27me3 in control plants. In addition, the soybean histone modifiers were identified which may contribute to de novo histone methylation and gene silencing under salt stress. Thus, dynamic chromatin regulation, switch between active and inactive modes, occur at target loci in order to respond to salt stress in soybean. Our analysis demonstrates histone methylation modifications are correlated with the activation or inactivation of salt-inducible genes in soybean roots.
Project description:Sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) are often termed as 'master regulators' which bind to DNA and either activate or repress gene transcription. We have computationally analysed the soybean genome sequence data and constructed a proper set of TFs based on the Hidden Markov Model profiles of DNA-binding domain families. Within the soybean genome, we identified 4342 loci encoding 5035 TF models which grouped into 61 families. We constructed a database named SoybeanTFDB (http://soybeantfdb.psc.riken.jp) containing the full compilation of soybean TFs and significant information such as: functional motifs, full-length cDNAs, domain alignments, promoter regions, genomic organization and putative regulatory functions based on annotations of gene ontology (GO) inferred by comparative analysis with Arabidopsis. With particular interest in abiotic stress signalling, we analysed the promoter regions for all of the TF encoding genes as a means to identify abiotic stress responsive cis-elements as well as all types of cis-motifs provided by the PLACE database. SoybeanTFDB enables scientists to easily access cis-element and GO annotations to aid in the prediction of TF function and selection of TFs with functions of interest. This study provides a basic framework and an important user-friendly public information resource which enables analyses of transcriptional regulation in soybean.
Project description:Spontaneous silencing of MuDR/Mu transposons occurs in approximately 10-100% of the progeny of an active plant, and once silenced reactivation is very rare. To date, only radiation treatments have reactivated silenced Mu; for example UV-B radiation reactivated Mutator activities. Here we have investigated possible mechanisms by which UV-B could reactivate Mu transposons by monitoring transcript abundance, epigenetic DNA marks, and chromatin factors associated with these elements. We demonstrate that both mudrA and B transcripts are expressed at higher levels after an 8 h-UV-B treatment, in both active Mutator and silencing plants, and that different chromatin remodeling events occur in the promoter regions of MuDR than in non-autonomous Mu1 elements. Increased transcript abundance is accompanied by an increase in histone H3 acetylation and by decreased DNA and H3K9me2 methylation. No changes in siRNA levels were detected. In contrast, the decrease in H3K9me2 present at Mu elements after UV-B is significant in silencing plants, suggesting that early changes in H3 methylation in K9, chromatin remodeling, and transcription factor binding contribute directly to transposon reactivation by UV-B in maize.
Project description:Objectives This study was focused on the role of indole acetic acid (IAA) in the defense against oxidative stress damage caused by drought in soybean plants and to elucidate whether heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in this mechanism. IAA is an auxin that participates in many plant processes including oxidative stress defense, but to the best of our knowledge no information is yet available about its possible action in drought stress. Methods To this end, soybean plants were treated with 8% polyethylene glycol (PEG) or 100 µM IAA. To evaluate the behavior of IAA, plants were pretreated with this compound previous to PEG addition. Lipid peroxidation levels (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)), glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (AS) contents, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activities were determined to evaluate oxidative damage. Results Drought treatment (8% PEG) caused a significant increase in TBARS levels as well as a marked decrease in the non-enzymatic (GSH and AS) and enzymatic (CAT, SOD, and POD) antioxidant defense systems. Pre-treatment with IAA prevented the alterations of stress parameters caused by drought, while treatment with IAA alone did not produce changes in TBARS levels, or GSH and AS contents. Moreover, the activities of the classical enzymes involved in the enzymatic defense system (SOD, CAT, and POD) remained similar to control values. Furthermore, this hormone could enhance HO-1 activity (75% with respect to controls), and this increase was positively correlated with protein content as well as gene expression. The direct participation of HO-1 as an antioxidant enzyme was established by performing experiments in the presence of Zn-protoporphyrin IX, a well-known irreversible inhibitor of this enzyme. It was also demonstrated that HO-1 is modulated by NO, as shown by experiments performed in the presence of an NO donor (sodium nitroprusside), an NO scavenger (2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide), or an NO synthesis inhibitor (N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, NAME). Discussion It is concluded that IAA is responsible, at least in part, for the protection against oxidative stress caused by drought in soybean plants through the modulation of NO levels which, in turn, enhances HO-1 synthesis and activity.
Project description:The depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere has led to a dramatic spike in ultraviolet B (UV-B) intensity and increased UV-B light levels. The direct absorption of high-intensity UV-B induces complex abiotic stresses in plants, including excessive light exposure, heat, and dehydration. However, UV-B stress signaling mechanisms in plants including soybean (Glycine max [L.]) remain poorly understood. Here, we surveyed the overall transcriptional responses of two soybean genotypes, UV-B-sensitive Cheongja 3 and UV-B-resistant Buseok, to continuous UV-B irradiation for 0 (control), 0.5, and 6 h using RNA-seq analysis. Homology analysis using UV-B-related genes from Arabidopsis thaliana revealed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) likely involved in UV-B stress responses. Functional classification of the DEGs showed that the categories of immune response, stress defense signaling, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism were over-represented. UV-B-resistant Buseok utilized phosphatidic acid-dependent signaling pathways (based on subsequent reactions of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase) rather than phospholipase D in response to UV-B exposure at high fluence rates, and genes involved in its downstream pathways, such as ABA signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, and ROS overproduction, were upregulated in this genotype. In addition, the DEGs for TIR-NBS-LRR and heat shock proteins are positively activated. These results suggest that defense mechanisms against UV-B stress at high fluence rates are separate from the photomorphogenic responses utilized by plants to adapt to low-level UV light. Our study provides valuable information for deep understanding of UV-B stress defense mechanisms and for the development of resistant soybean genotypes that survive under high-intensity UV-B stress.