Application of ?-Resorcylic Acid as Potential Antimicrobial Feed Additive to Reduce Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Chickens.
ABSTRACT: Campylobacter is one of the major foodborne pathogens that result in severe gastroenteritis in humans, primarily through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Chickens are the reservoir host of Campylobacter, where the pathogen colonizes the ceca, thereby leading to contamination of carcass during slaughter. A reduction in cecal colonization by Campylobacter would directly translate into reduced product contamination and risk of human infections. With increasing consumer demand for antibiotic free chickens, significant research is being conducted to discover natural, safe and economical antimicrobials that can effectively control Campylobacter colonization in birds. This study investigated the efficacy of in-feed supplementation of a phytophenolic compound, ?-resorcylic acid (BR) for reducing Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens. In two separate, replicate trials, day-old-chicks (Cobb500; n = 10 birds/treatment) were fed with BR (0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1%) in feed for a period of 14 days (n = 40/trial). Birds were challenged with a four-strain mixture of Campylobacter jejuni (?106 CFU/ml; 250 ?l/bird) on day 7 and cecal samples were collected on day 14 for enumerating surviving Campylobacter in cecal contents. In addition, the effect of BR on the critical colonization factors of Campylobacter (motility, epithelial cell attachment) was studied using phenotypic assay, cell culture, and real-time quantitative PCR. Supplementation of BR in poultry feed for 14 days at 0.5 and 1% reduced Campylobacter populations in cecal contents by ?2.5 and 1.7 Log CFU/g, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant differences in feed intake and body weight gain were observed between control and treatment birds fed the compound (P > 0.05). Follow up mechanistic analysis revealed that sub-inhibitory concentration of BR significantly reduced Campylobacter motility, attachment to and invasion of Caco-2 cells. In addition, the expression of C. jejuni genes coding for motility (motA, motB, fliA) and attachment (jlpA, ciaB) was down-regulated as compared to controls (P < 0.05). These results suggest that BR could potentially be used as a feed additive to reduce Campylobacter colonization in broilers.
Project description:Worldwide Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne disease. Contamination of chicken meat with digesta from C. jejuni-positive birds during slaughter and processing is a key route of transmission to humans through the food chain. Colonization of chickens with C. jejuni elicits host innate immune responses that may be modulated by dietary additives to provide a reduction in the number of campylobacters colonizing the gastrointestinal tract and thereby reduce the likelihood of human exposure to an infectious dose. Here we report the effects of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) on broiler chickens colonized with C. jejuni when challenged at either an early stage in development at 6 days of age or 20 days old when campylobacters are frequently detected in commercial flocks. GOS-fed birds had increased growth performance, but the levels of C. jejuni colonizing the cecal pouches were unchanged irrespective of the age of challenge. Dietary GOS modulated the immune response to C. jejuni by increasing cytokine IL-17A expression at colonization. Correspondingly, reduced diversity of the cecal microbiota was associated with Campylobacter colonization in GOS-fed birds. In birds challenged at 6 days-old the reduction in microbial diversity was accompanied by an increase in the relative abundance of Escherichia spp. Whilst immuno-modulation of the Th17 pro-inflammatory response did not prevent C. jejuni colonization of the intestinal tract of broiler chickens, the study highlights the potential for combinations of prebiotics, and specific competitors (synbiotics) to engage with the host innate immunity to reduce pathogen burdens.
Project description:Despite reducing the prevalent foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni in chickens decreases campylobacteriosis, few effective approaches are available. The aim of this study was to use microbial metabolic product bile acids to reduce C. jejuni chicken colonization. Broiler chicks were fed with deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). The birds were also transplanted with DCA modulated anaerobes (DCA-Anaero) or aerobes (DCA-Aero). The birds were infected with human clinical isolate C. jejuni 81-176 or chicken isolate C. jejuni AR101. Notably, C. jejuni 81-176 was readily colonized intestinal tract at d16 and reached an almost plateau at d21. Remarkably, DCA excluded C. jejuni cecal colonization below the limit of detection at 16 and 28 days of age. Neither chicken ages of infection nor LCA or UDCA altered C. jejuni AR101 chicken colonization level, while DCA reduced 91% of the bacterium in chickens at d28. Notably, DCA diet reduced phylum Firmicutes but increased Bacteroidetes compared to infected control birds. Importantly, DCA-Anaero attenuated 93% of C. jejuni colonization at d28 compared to control infected birds. In conclusion, DCA shapes microbiota composition against C. jejuni colonization in chickens, suggesting a bidirectional interaction between microbiota and microbial metabolites.
Project description:Campylobacteriosis is the leading foodborne bacterial diarrheal illness in many countries, with up to 80% of human cases attributed to the avian reservoir. The only control strategies currently available are stringent on-farm biosecurity and carcass treatments. Heritable differences in the resistance of chicken lines to Campylobacter colonization have been reported and resistance-associated quantitative trait loci are emerging, although their impact on colonization appears modest. Recent studies indicated a protective role of the microbiota against colonization by Campylobacter in chickens. Furthermore, in murine models, differences in resistance to bacterial infections can be partially transferred between lines by transplantation of gut microbiota. In this study, we investigated whether heritable differences in colonization of inbred chicken lines by Campylobacter jejuni are associated with differences in cecal microbiota. We performed homologous and heterologous cecal microbiota transplants between line 61 (resistant) and line N (susceptible) by orally administering cecal contents collected from 3-week-old donors to day-of-hatch chicks. Recipient birds were challenged (day 21) with C. jejuni 11168H. In birds given homologous microbiota, the differential resistance of lines to C. jejuni colonization was reproduced. Contrary to our hypothesis, transfer of cecal microbiota from line 61 to line N significantly increased C. jejuni colonization. No significant difference in the overall composition of the cecal microbial communities of the two lines was identified, although line-specific differences for specific operational taxonomic units were identified. Our data suggest that while heritable differences in avian resistance to Campylobacter colonization exist, these are not explained by significant variation in the cecal microbiota.IMPORTANCE Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Poultry are a key source of human infections, but there are currently few effective measures against Campylobacter in poultry during production. One option to control Campylobacter may be to alter the composition of microbial communities in the avian intestines by introducing beneficial bacteria, which exclude the harmful ones. We previously described two inbred chicken lines which differ in resistance to intestinal colonization by Campylobacter Here, we investigated the composition of the microbial communities in the gut of these lines and whether transferring gut bacteria between the resistant and susceptible lines alters their resistance to Campylobacter No major differences in microbial populations were found, and resistance or susceptibility to colonization was not conferred by transferring gut bacteria between lines. The data suggest that gut microbiota did not play a role in resistance to Campylobacter colonization, at least in the lines used.
Project description:Colonization of broiler chickens by the enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is widespread and difficult to prevent. Bacteriophage therapy is one possible means by which this colonization could be controlled, thus limiting the entry of campylobacters into the human food chain. Prior to evaluating the efficacy of phage therapy, experimental models of Campylobacter colonization of broiler chickens were established by using low-passage C. jejuni isolates HPC5 and GIIC8 from United Kingdom broiler flocks. The screening of 53 lytic bacteriophage isolates against a panel of 50 Campylobacter isolates from broiler chickens and 80 strains isolated after human infection identified two phage candidates with broad host lysis. These phages, CP8 and CP34, were orally administered in antacid suspension, at different dosages, to 25-day-old broiler chickens experimentally colonized with the C. jejuni broiler isolates. Phage treatment of C. jejuni-colonized birds resulted in Campylobacter counts falling between 0.5 and 5 log10 CFU/g of cecal contents compared to untreated controls over a 5-day period postadministration. These reductions were dependent on the phage-Campylobacter combination, the dose of phage applied, and the time elapsed after administration. Campylobacters resistant to bacteriophage infection were recovered from phage-treated chickens at a frequency of <4%. These resistant types were compromised in their ability to colonize experimental chickens and rapidly reverted to a phage-sensitive phenotype in vivo. The selection of appropriate phage and their dose optimization are key elements for the success of phage therapy to reduce campylobacters in broiler chickens.
Project description:The Campylobacter jejuni-host interaction may be affected by the host's gut microbiota through competitive exclusion, metabolites, or modification of the immune response. To understand this interaction, C. jejuni colonization and local immune responses were compared in chickens with different gut microbiota compositions. Birds were treated with an antibiotic cocktail (AT) (experiments 1 and 2) or raised under germfree (GF) conditions (experiment 3). At 18 days posthatch (dph), they were orally inoculated either with 104 CFU of C. jejuni or with diluent. Cecal as well as systemic C. jejuni colonization, T- and B-cell numbers in the gut, and gut-associated tissue were compared between the different groups. Significantly higher numbers of CFU of C. jejuni were detected in the cecal contents of AT and GF birds, with higher colonization rates in spleen, liver, and ileum, than in birds with a conventional gut microbiota (P < 0.05). Significant upregulation of T and B lymphocyte numbers was detected in cecum, cecal tonsils, and bursa of Fabricius of AT or GF birds after C. jejuni inoculation compared to the respective controls (P < 0.05). This difference was less clear in birds with a conventional gut microbiota. Histopathological gut lesions were observed only in C. jejuni-inoculated AT and GF birds but not in microbiota-colonized C. jejuni-inoculated hatchmates. These results demonstrate that the gut microbiota may contribute to the control of C. jejuni colonization and prevent lesion development. Further studies are needed to identify key players of the gut microbiota and the mechanisms behind their protective role.
Project description:Four wild-type Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from the cecal contents of broiler chickens were sequenced. The average genome size was 1,622,170?bp, with 1,667 to 1,761 coding sequences and 47 to 51 RNAs. Multiple genes encoding motility, intestinal colonization, toxin production, stress tolerance, and multidrug resistance were present in all the strains.
Project description:Using laboratory challenge experiments, we examined whether Campylobacter-specific maternal antibody (MAB) plays a protective role in young chickens, which are usually free of Campylobacter under natural production conditions. Kinetics of C. jejuni colonization were compared by infecting 3-day-old broiler chicks, which were naturally positive for Campylobacter-specific MAB, and 21-day-old broilers, which were negative for Campylobacter-specific MAB. The onset of colonization occurred much sooner in birds challenged at the age of 21 days than it did in the birds inoculated at 3 days of age, which suggested a possible involvement of specific MAB in the delay of colonization. To further examine this possibility, specific-pathogen-free layer chickens were raised under laboratory conditions with or without Campylobacter infection, and their 3-day-old progenies with (MAB(+)) or without (MAB(-)) Campylobacter-specific MAB were orally challenged with C. jejuni. Significant decreases in the percentage of colonized chickens were observed in the MAB(+) group during the first week compared with the MAB(-) group. These results indicate that Campylobacter-specific MAB plays a partial role in protecting young chickens against colonization by C. jejuni. Presence of MAB in young chickens did not seem to affect the development of systemic immune response following infection with C. jejuni. However, active immune responses to Campylobacter occurred earlier and more strongly in birds infected at 21 days of age than those infected at 3 days of age. Clearance of Campylobacter infection was also observed in chickens infected at 21 days of age. Taken together, these findings (i) indicate that anti-Campylobacter MAB contributes to the lack of Campylobacter infection in young broiler chickens in natural environments and (ii) provide further evidence supporting the feasibility of development of immunization-based approaches for control of Campylobacter infection in poultry.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is a leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis. Reducing Campylobacter numbers in the intestinal tract of chickens will minimize transmission to humans, thereby reducing the incidence of infection. We have previously shown that oral pre-treatment of chickens with C. jejuni lysate and Poly D, L-lactide-co-glycolide polymer nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) containing CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) can reduce the number of C. jejuni in infected chickens. In the current study, the effects of these pre-treatments on the composition and functional diversity of the cecal microbiota, in chickens experimentally infected with C. jejuni, were investigated using next-generation sequencing. The taxonomic composition analysis revealed a reduction in cecal microbial diversity and considerable changes in the taxonomic profiles of the microbial communities of C. jejuni-challenged chickens. On the other hand, irrespective of the dose, the microbiota of PLGA-encapsulated CpG ODN- and C. jejuni lysate-treated chickens exhibited higher microbial diversity associated with high abundance of members of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and lower numbers of Campylobacter than untreated-chickens. These findings suggest that oral administration of encapsulated CpG ODN and C. jejuni lysate can reduce colonization by C. jejuni by enhancing the proliferation of specific microbial groups. The mechanisms that mediate these changes remain, however, to be elucidated.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is an enteropathogen for humans but commensal for chickens. In both hosts, the flagella and motility are important colonization factors. The flagellin gene is duplicated in Campylobacter, but only one flagellin gene, flaA, is sufficient for motility. We found that, during colonization of the chicken intestine, a nonmotile flaA mutant of C. jejuni underwent rearrangements within its flagellin locus, thereby regaining its motility and colonization capacity. In contrast, in vitro motile revertants isolated from liquid culture showed different flagellin DNA rearrangements than after reversion in the chicken.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is an important zoonotic foodborne pathogen causing acute gastroenteritis in humans. Chickens are often colonized at very high numbers by C. jejuni, up to 10(9) CFU per gram of caecal content, with no detrimental effects on their health. Farm control strategies are being developed to lower the C. jejuni contamination of chicken food products in an effort to reduce human campylobacteriosis incidence. It is believed that intestinal microbiome composition may affect gut colonization by such undesirable bacteria but, although the chicken microbiome is being increasingly characterized, information is lacking on the factors affecting its modulation, especially by foodborne pathogens. This study monitored the effects of C. jejuni chicken caecal colonization on the chicken microbiome in healthy chickens. It also evaluated the capacity of a feed additive to affect caecal bacterial populations and to lower C. jejuni colonization. From day-0, chickens received or not a microencapsulated feed additive and were inoculated or not with C. jejuni at 14 days of age. Fresh caecal content was harvested at 35 days of age. The caecal microbiome was characterized by real time quantitative PCR and Ion Torrent sequencing. We observed that the feed additive lowered C. jejuni caecal count by 0.7 log (p<0.05). Alpha-diversity of the caecal microbiome was not affected by C. jejuni colonization or by the feed additive. C. jejuni colonization modified the caecal beta-diversity while the feed additive did not. We observed that C. jejuni colonization was associated with an increase of Bifidobacterium and affected Clostridia and Mollicutes relative abundances. The feed additive was associated with a lower Streptococcus relative abundance. The caecal microbiome remained relatively unchanged despite high C. jejuni colonization. The feed additive was efficient in lowering C. jejuni colonization while not disturbing the caecal microbiome.