Zoonotic Transmission of mcr-1 Colistin Resistance Gene from Small-Scale Poultry Farms, Vietnam.
ABSTRACT: We investigated the consequences of colistin use in backyard chicken farms in Vietnam by examining the prevalence of mcr-1 in fecal samples from chickens and humans. Detection of mcr-1-carrying bacteria in chicken samples was associated with colistin use and detection in human samples with exposure to mcr-1-positive chickens.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance against colistin has emerged worldwide and is threatening the efficacy of colistin treatment of multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, PCRs were used to detect mcr genes (mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3) in 213 anal and 1,339 nasal swabs from pigs (n?=?1,454) in nine provinces of China, and 1,696 cloacal and 1,647 oropharyngeal samples from poultry (n?=?1,836) at live-bird markets in 24 provinces. The mcr-1 prevalences in pigs (79.2%) and geese (71.7%) were significantly higher than in chickens (31.8%), ducks (34.6%) and pigeons (13.1%). The mcr-2 prevalence in pigs was 56.3%, significantly higher than in chickens (5.5%), ducks (2.3%), geese (5.5%) and pigeons (0%). The mcr-3 prevalences in pigs (18.7%), ducks (13.8%) and geese (11.9%) were significantly higher than in chickens (5.2%) and pigeons (5.1%). In total, 173 pigs and three chickens were positive for all three mcr genes. The prevalences of the mcr were significantly higher in nasal/oropharyngeal swabs than in the anal /cloacal swabs. Phylogenetic studies identified 33 new mcr-2 variants and 12 new mcr-3 variants. This study demonstrates high prevalences of mcr in pigs and poultry in China, and indicates there is need for more thorough surveillance and control programs to prevent further selection of colistin resistance.
Project description:Objectives:To characterize the mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-5 in Aeromonas hydrophila from backyard pigs in rural areas of China. Methods:Pig faecal samples from 194 households were directly tested for the presence of mcr-5 by PCR assay and the phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the mcr-5-positive isolates were determined using the broth dilution method. The genomic location and transferability of mcr-5 were analysed by S1-PFGE with Southern blotting and DNA hybridization, and natural transformation, respectively. One strain isolated from an mcr-5-positive sample was subjected to WGS and the stability of the mcr-5-harbouring plasmid over successive generations was examined by subculturing. Results:One mcr-5-positive A. hydrophila isolate showing resistance, with a colistin MIC of 4?mg/L, was isolated from a backyard pig faecal sample. mcr-5 was located on a 7915?bp plasmid designated pI064-2, which could naturally transform into a colistin-susceptible A. hydrophila strain of porcine origin and mediated colistin resistance in both the original isolate and its transformants. The plasmid backbone (3790?bp) of pI064-2 showed 81% nucleotide sequence identity to the corresponding region of the ColE2-type plasmid pAsa1 from Aeromonas salmonicida, while similar replication primases are widely distributed among aeromonads, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas species. Conclusions:To the best of our knowledge, this is the first identification of the novel colistin resistance gene mcr-5 in an A. hydrophila isolate from the faeces of a backyard pig. mcr-5 is expected to be able to disseminate among different bacterial species and genera.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance against colistin has emerged worldwide threatening the efficacy of one of the last-resort antimicrobials used for the treatment of Enterobacteriaceae. To investigate the presence of the recently identified colistin resistance genes (mcr-4, mcr-5) in China, we established PCRs to detect mcr-4 and mcr-5 on 213 anal and 1,339 nasal swabs from apparently healthy pigs (n = 1,454) in nine provinces, and 1,696 cloacal and 1,647 oropharyngeal samples from poultry (n = 1,836) at live-bird markets in 24 provinces of China. The prevalence of the mcr-4 in swine swabs (41.4%; 642/1,552) was significantly higher than in swabs from poultry (11.5%; 384/3,343). The mcr-4 gene was found in geese (49.5%, 54/109), chickens (17.2%, 257/1,498), pigeons (17.2%, 17/99) and ducks (15.4%, 20/130). In a similar trend, the prevalence of the mcr-5 in swine swabs (33.1%; 514/1552) was significantly higher than in swabs from poultry (5.6%; 187/3,343). The mcr-5 was identified in geese (17.4%, 19/109), chickens (9.9%, 148/1,498), ducks (7.7%, 10/130) and pigeons (3%, 3/99). The mcr-4 prevalence in the nasal swabs from pigs (59.2%, 58/98) was significantly higher than that in anal swabs (29.6%, 29/98) (P<0.001). Similarly, the mcr-5 prevalence in the nasal swabs from pigs (61.2%, 60/98) was significantly higher than in anal swabs (44.9%, 44/98) (P = 0.02), and significantly higher in oropharyngeal swabs (7.2%, 109/1,507) than in the cloacal swabs (3.7%, 56/1,507) (P<0.001). This study further confirms the presence of the mcr-4 and mcr-5 in animals and indicates these genes are prevalent and widespread in food producing animals (pig and poultry) in China. Future studies are needed to characterize the bacteria carrying the mcr-4 and mcr-5 and their locations on plasmids and/or the bacterial chromosomes, and determine co-resistances in the mcr-4 and mcr-5 positive strains.
Project description:Colistin is considered a last-resort reserved drug for the treatment of critical human infections by Gram-negative bacteria. Phenotypic colistin-resistance is strongly associated with plasmid-mediated mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes. The mcr-bearing Enterobacteriaceae have been detected in many countries from environments, animals, and humans. This study investigated phenotypic colistin-resistance and the distribution of mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-4, and mcr-5 genes in chicken-gut bacteria in Bangladesh. Bacteria were isolated from poultry- and native-chicken droppings, and their susceptibilities to colistin were determined by agar dilution and E-test minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurements. Multiplex polymerase chain reactions detected mcr-1 to mcr-5 genes. Overall, 61.7% (92/149) of the isolates showed colistin resistance by agar dilution assessment (MIC?>?2.0 ?g/mL). The phenotypic resistance was observed considerably higher in poultry-chicken isolates (64.6%, 64/99) than in native-chicken isolates (56%, 28/50; p?=?0.373). All the resistant isolates showed MIC levels between >?2 and >?128 ?g/mL. The mcr-genes (mcr-1and mcr-2 combined) were detected more in poultry gut bacteria (36.4%) than native-chicken isolates (20%, p?=?0.06). Despite bacteria sources, mcr-genes appeared to be significantly associated with phenotypic colistin-resistance phenomena (p?<?0.001). Prior colistin usage led to a substantial increase in the proportion of bacteria with mcr-genes and phenotypic resistance (p?<?0.001).
Project description:This study was conducted to detect the presence of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) in raw chicken meat and bean sprouts collected from local markets and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the E. coli isolates. A total of 100 samples, comprised of 50 raw chicken meat and 50 bean sprouts, were collected and processed. Kirby-Bauer method was used to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns, and PCR amplification was used to detect E. coli species-specific and colistin resistance (mcr-1 and mcr-2) genes. The results showed that 52.1% (12/23) of the E. coli isolated from raw chicken meat were positive for the colistin resistance encoding gene, mcr-1, whereas all the E. coli isolates from bean sprouts were negative for colistin resistance encoding genes. The findings show that chicken meat contaminated with colistin-resistant E. coli may pose public health risk to the consumers. Hence, prudent usage of antibiotics and hygienic handling of food items helps to prevent and combat the risks of spreading of colistin-resistant E. coli and the public health risks it may pose. More comprehensive and large-scale studies focusing on all the possible sources of colistin-resistant E. coli are recommended.
Project description:Colistin resistance has emerged worldwide and has been threatening the efficacy of one of the last-resort antimicrobials used for treatment of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. While five colistin resistance genes (mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-4 and mcr-5) have been described, few data are available on the prevalence of mcr-genes other than mcr-1 in human samples.In this study, the presence of five currently described colistin resistance genes (mcr 1-5) in vaginal swabs of women undergoing infertility evaluation was reported. Most samples were found to be positive for the mcr-4 (12.7%), followed by two for the mcr-2 (1.5%), two for the mcr-3 (1.5%), one for the mcr-1 (0.7%), and one for the mcr-5 (0.7%). Phylogenetic comparison demonstrated identical (mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-5) or similar (mcr-4) nucleotide sequences of human samples and those of animal origins from the same city, suggesting the potential transmission of mcr genes from animals to humans. This is the first detection of mcr-2, mcr-4 and mcr-5 genes in human samples, and warrants further research to determine the spread of the mcr genes and elucidate the full epidemiology of colistin resistance genes in humans.
Project description:Background:Plasmid-mediated resistance to the last-resort drugs: carbapenems and colistin is an emerging public health threat. The studies on the prevalence and co-expression of resistant genes among livestock and human pathogens are rare in Nepal. This is the first study in Nepal exploring the prevalence and co-existence of colistin resistance gene, mcr-1 along with carbapenemase resistance gene, OXA-48 in Escherichia coli isolated from poultry and clinical specimens. Methods:A total of 240 rectal swabs from chickens of five different poultry farms of Kathmandu valley and 705 mid-stream urine samples from human subjects attending Kantipur Hospital, Kathmandu were collected between August, 2018 and March, 2019. Rectal swabs and urine specimens were cultured. E. coli isolated from the specimens were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) using disk diffusion method'. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of colistin was determined by agar dilution method using 0.5 µg/ml to 32 µg/ml. The E. coli isolates were first screened for mcr-1 followed by screening for OXA-48 genes using conventional Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results:Of the total samples analyzed, E. coli was isolated from 31.7% (76/240) of poultry and 7.9% (56/705) of clinical specimens. In AST, 80% (61/76) of E. coli from poultry and 79% (44/56) from clinical specimens were MDR. The phenotypic prevalence of colistin resistance in poultry specimens were 31.6% (24/76) and clinical specimens were 21.4% (12/56). In PCR assay, 27.6% (21/76) of poultry and 19.6% (11/56) of clinical isolates had colistin resistant mcr-1 gene. MICs value of E. coli isolates ranged from 4 to 32 (µg/ml) in both clinical and poultry isolates. Prevalence of co-existing carbapenem resistance gene, OXA-48, among colistin resistant mcr-1 positive isolates was 38% (8/21) in poultry specimens and 18.2% (2/11) in clinical specimens. Conclusions:The high prevalence of colistin and carbapenem resistant genes, and their co-existence in plasmid DNA of E. coli isolates in this study suggests the possible spread to other animal, human and environmental pathogens. Molecular methods in addition to the conventional diagnostics in laboratories can help in early diagnosis, effective management and control of their potential transmission.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance is a prevalent problem in public health worldwide. In general, the carbapenem ?-lactam antibiotics are considered a final resort against lethal infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Colistin is a cationic polypeptide antibiotic and acts as the last line of defense for treatment of carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Very recently, a new plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene, mcr-2, was revealed soon after the discovery of the paradigm gene mcr-1, which has disseminated globally. However, the molecular mechanisms for MCR-2 colistin resistance are poorly understood. Here we show a unique transposon unit that facilitates the acquisition and transfer of mcr-2 Evolutionary analyses suggested that both MCR-2 and MCR-1 might be traced to their cousin phosphoethanolamine (PEA) lipid A transferase from a known polymyxin producer, Paenibacillus Transcriptional analyses showed that the level of mcr-2 transcripts is relatively higher than that of mcr-1 Genetic deletions revealed that the transmembrane regions (TM1 and TM2) of both MCR-1 and MCR-2 are critical for their location and function in bacterial periplasm, and domain swapping indicated that the TM2 is more efficient than TM1. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) confirmed that all four MCR proteins (MCR-1, MCR-2, and two chimeric versions [TM1-MCR-2 and TM2-MCR-1]) can catalyze chemical modification of lipid A moiety anchored on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with the addition of phosphoethanolamine to the phosphate group at the 4' position of the sugar. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis defined an essential 6-residue-requiring zinc-binding/catalytic motif for MCR-2 colistin resistance. The results further our mechanistic understanding of transferable colistin resistance, providing clues to improve clinical therapeutics targeting severe infections by MCR-2-containing pathogens.IMPORTANCE Carbapenem and colistin are the last line of refuge in fighting multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. MCR-2 is a newly emerging variant of the mobilized colistin resistance protein MCR-1, posing a potential challenge to public health. Here we report transfer of the mcr-2 gene by a unique transposal event and its possible origin. Distribution of MCR-2 in bacterial periplasm is proposed to be a prerequisite for its role in the context of biochemistry and the colistin resistance. We also define the genetic requirement of a zinc-binding/catalytic motif for MCR-2 colistin resistance. This represents a glimpse of transferable colistin resistance by MCR-2.
Project description:Colistin is a last-resort antimicrobial used for the treatment of human infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However, colistin is still widely used in intensive poultry production in Bangladesh. We aimed to investigate the dynamics and genetic diversity of colistin-resistant commensal Escherichia coli from broiler chickens. A total of 1200 E. coli strains were characterized from 20 broiler farms at three-time points along the production period. All strains were screened for mcr-1 to mcr-5 genes by a multiplex PCR, and their genetic diversity was measured by repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-PCR fingerprinting. Genomic diversity and characterization were performed by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Twenty-five percent of the commensal E. coli strains harbored mcr-1 genes. Frequency of mcr-1 gene detection correlated positively (odds ratio 1.71; 95% CI 0.96-3.06; p?=?0.068) with the use of colistin in poultry flocks. REP-PCR profiles and WGS analysis showed diverse E. coli population carrying multiple antimicrobial resistance genes. Phylogenetic comparison of mcr-1-bearing strains recovered from this study with a global strain collection revealed wide phylogenetic relationship. This study identified a high prevalence of mcr-1 gene among genetically diverse E. coli populations from broiler chickens in Bangladesh suggesting a massive horizontal spread of mcr-1 rather than by clonal expansion.
Project description:The mcr-1 gene was detected in 5.11% (58/1136) of Escherichia coli isolates of chicken origin from 13 provinces in China. A novel mcr-1 variant, named mcr-1.3, encoding an Ile-to-Val functional variant of MCR-1 was identified in a sequence type 155 (ST155) strain. An mcr-1.3-containing IncI2 plasmid, pHeN867 (60,757 bp), was identified. The transfer of pHeN867 led to a 32-fold increase in the MIC of colistin in the recipient, exhibiting an effect on colistin resistance that was similar to that of mcr-1.