The microRNA-423-3p-Bim Axis Promotes Cancer Progression and Activates Oncogenic Autophagy in Gastric Cancer.
ABSTRACT: Human serum microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to serve as disease fingerprints for predicting survival of cancer patients. However, the roles of specific miRNAs involved in gastric cancer (GC) are largely unknown. In this study, miRNA profiling was performed on sera obtained from six patients in good- and poor-survival groups. Expression of miR-423-3p was validated by quantitative RT-PCR in another 67 GC serum samples and paired normal and cancerous gastric tissues. Luciferase reporter assays were used to identify the target gene Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim). As a result, between the good-survival and poor-survival groups, the expression of nine serum miRNAs was altered more than two-fold. Among these, miR-423-3p was significantly increased in the poor-survival group, and its overexpression in GC tissues predicted poor survival in 119 patients with GC. miR-423-3p was found to promote cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in cell lines and animal models. Mechanistically, knockdown of the autophagy-related gene (Atg) 7 rescued the GC-promoting effect of miR-423-3p. In conclusion, miR-423-3p activates oncogenic and Beclin-1-dependent autophagy and promotes GC progression by reducing the expression of Bim. The newly identified miR-423-3p-Bim axis might be a potential therapeutic target in GC.
Project description:Gastric cancer (GC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and China, there is an urgent need to discover novel non-invasive biomarkers for the early diagnosis of GC to improve the prognosis of GC patients. Exosomal miRNAs are considered promising biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS), bioinformatics and further validation, we identified and evaluated exosomal miRNAs in serum as early diagnostic markers for GC. NGS revealed that the average mappable reads in the RNA libraries were about 6.5 million per patient including miRNAs (73.38%), rRNAs (17.10%), snRNAs (8.83%), snoRNAs (0.65%), and tRNAs (0.04%). A total of 66 up and 13 down-regulated exosomal miRNAs were found in the screened cohort. In the validation cohort, by comparing with healthy individuals, higher levels of serum exosomal miR-92b-3p, let-7g-5p, miR-146b-5p, and miR-9-5p were found to be significantly associated with early-stage GC (p < 0.05). Diagnostic power of the combined panels of the exosomal miRNAs or the combination of exosomal miRNAs and CEA outperformed that of single exosomal miRNA marker for establishing a diagnosis of early-stage GC. The combined diagnosis of exosomal miR-92b-3p + let-7g-5p + miR-146b-5p + miR-9-5p with CEA had the most powerful efficiency with an AUC up to 0.786. In addition, serum levels of exosomal miR-92b-3p were significantly associated with poor cohesiveness (p = 0.0021), let-7g-5p and miR-146b-5p were significantly correlated with nerve infiltration (p = 0.0234 and p = 0.0126, respectively), and miR146b-5p was statistically correlated with tumor invasion depth in early-stage GC (p = 0.0089). In conclusion, serum exosomal miR-92b-3p, -146b-5p, -9-5p, and let-7g-5p may serve as potential non-invasive biomarkers for early diagnosis of GC.
Project description:Background:microRNAs (miRNAs) have been studied for their role in the early detection of several diseases. However, there is no current information on the systematic screening of serum-derived cisplatin resistance biomarkers in gastric cancer (GC). Methods:Cisplatin-resistant GC cell lines were screened for dysregulated miRNAs using small RNA sequencing (sRNA-seq) and miRNAs were functionally annotated using bioinformatics analyses. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to validate the miRNA-relative transcription levels in GC cells and in 74 GC patients. We analyzed the associations between the clinical characteristics of the patients and their miRNA expression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic value for serum-derived cisplatin resistance. Results:Seven miRNAs were identified from 35 differentially expressed miRNAs between the MGC803/DDP and MGC803 cells in a public database. We found four miRNA candidates (miR-9-3p, miR-9-5p, miR-146a-5p, and miR-433-3p) that were significantly associated with chemotherapy responses in GC cells and patients. miR-9-5p (AUC = 0.856, 95% CI [0.773-0.939], p < 0.0001) and a combined group (miR-9-5p + miR-9-3p + miR-433-3p) (AUC = 0.915, 95% CI [0.856-0.975], P < 0.0001) distinguished chemoresistant GC patients from chemosensitive GC patients. Conclusions:Our study reveals the potential therapeutic use of two serum-based biomarkers, miR-9-5p and a combined group (miR-9-5p + miR-9-3p + miR-433-3p), as indicators for the successful use of cisplatin in GC patients.
Project description:TEA domain (TEAD) transcription factors are key components of the Hippo-YAP1 signaling pathway, but their functional role and regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to comprehensively explore the expression pattern and functional role of TEAD family in gastric carcinogenesis and investigate its regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs). The mRNA and protein expression of TEAD family were examined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot. Their functional roles were determined by in vitro and in vivo studies. The clinicopathological association of TEAD4 in gastric cancer (GC) was studied using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray. The prediction of miRNAs, which potentially target TEAD1/4, was performed by TargetScan and miRDB. The regulation of TEAD1/4 by miRNAs was confirmed by qRT-PCR, western blot and luciferase assays. TEAD1/4 were overexpressed in GC cell lines and primary GC tissues. Knockdown of TEAD1/4 induced a significant anticancer effect in vitro and in vivo. TEAD1 was confirmed to be a direct target of miR-377-3p and miR-4269, while TEAD4 was negatively regulated by miR-1343-3p and miR-4269. Among them, miR-4269 was the most effective inhibitor of TEAD1/4. Ectopic expression of these miRNAs substantiated their tumor-suppressive effects. In primary GC tumors, downregulation of miR-4269 was associated with poor disease-specific survival and showed a negative correlation with TEAD4. TEAD1 and TEAD4 are oncogenic factors, whose aberrant activation are, in part, mediated by the silence of miR-377-3p, miR-1343-3p and miR-4269. For the first time, the nuclear accumulated TEAD4 and downregulated miR-4269 are proposed to serve as novel prognostic biomarkers in GC.
Project description:Cisplatin (CDDP) resistance is a major clinical problem associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer (GC) patients. In this study, we performed integrated analysis of TCGA data from microRNAs (miRNAs) expression matrix of GC patients who received CDDP-based chemotherapy with GEO dataset which contains differential miRNAs expression profiles in CDDP-resistant and -sensitive cell lines. We identified miR-148a-3p downregulation as a key step involved in CDDP resistance. Using a cohort consisting 105 GC patients who received CDDP-based therapy, we found that miR-148a-3p downregulation was associated with a decrease in patients' disease-free survival (DFS, P = 0.0077). A series of experiment data demonstrated that: 1) miR-148a-3p was downregulated in CDDP-resistant GC cell lines; 2) miR-148a-3p reconstitution sensitized CDDP-resistant cells to CDDP treatment through promoting mitochondrial fission and decreasing AKAP1 expression level; 3) AKAP1 played a novel role in CDDP resistance by inhibiting P53-mediated DRP1 dephosphorylation; 4) miR-148a-3p reconstitution in CDDP-resistant cells inhibits the cyto-protective autophagy by suppressing RAB12 expression and mTOR1 activation. Taken together, our study demonstrates that miR-148a-3p could be a promising prognostic marker or therapeutic candidate for overcoming CDDP resistance in GC.
Project description:Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as novel noninvasive biomarkers for prediction of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in cancer. The aim of this study was to identify serum miRNA signatures for prediction and prognosis of LNM in gastric cancer (GC). MiSeq sequencing was performed for an initial screening of serum miRNAs in 10 GC patients with LNM, 10 patients without LNM and 10 healthy controls. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR was applied to confirm concentration of candidate miRNAs using a training cohort (n = 279) and a validation cohort (n = 180). We identified a four-miRNA panel (miR-501-3p, miR-143-3p, miR-451a, miR-146a) by multivariate logistic regression model that provided high predictive accuracy for LNM with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.891 (95% CI, 0.840 to 0.930) in training set. Prospective evaluation of this panel revealed an AUC of 0.822 (95% CI, 0.758 to 0.875, specificity = 87.78%, sensitivity = 63.33%) in validation set. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that LNM patients with low miR-451a and miR-146a levels had worse overall survival (OS) (p < 0.05). In Cox regression analysis, miR-451a was independently associated with OS of LNM (p = 0.028). Our results suggested that use of serum miRNAs seems promising in estimating the probability GC patients harbor LNM and providing prognostic information for LNM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exosomes are essential for tumor growth, metastasis, and are used as novel signaling molecules in targeted therapies. Therefore, exosomal miRNAs can be used in new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches due to their involvement in the development of cancers. However, the detailed biological function, potential molecular mechanism and clinical application of exo-miR-15b-3p in gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. METHODS:miR-15b-3p mRNA levels in tissues, serum, cells and exosomes were analyzed using qRT-PCR assays. qRT-PCR, immunohistochemical and western blotting analyses were utilized for the determination of DYNLT1 expression. The interrelationship connecting miR-15b-3p with DYNLT1 was verified using Dual-luciferase report, western blotting and qRT-PCR assays. Fluorescent PKH-26 or GFP-Lv-CD63 labeled exosomes, as well as Cy3-miR-15b-3p, were utilized to determine the efficacy of the transfer of exo-miR-15b-3p between BGC-823 and recipient cells. Several in vitro assays and xenograft tumor models were conducted to determine exo-miR-15b-3p impact on GC progression. RESULTS:This is the first study to confirm high miR-15b-3p expression in GC cell lines, tissues and serum. Exosomes obtained from 108 GC patient serum samples and GC cell-conditioned medium were found to show upregulation of exo-miR-15b-3p, with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) being 0.820 [0.763-0.876], which is superior to the AUC of tissues and serum miR-15b-3p (0.674 [0.600-0.748] and 0.642 [0.499-0.786], respectively). In addition, high exo-miR-15b-3p expression in serum was found to accurately predict worse overall survival. SGC-7901 and GES-1 cells are capable of internalizing BGC-823 cell-derived exosomes, allowing the transfer of miR-15b-3p. Migration, invasion, proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo were enhanced by exo-miR-15b-3p, by restraining DYNLT1, Cleaved Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 expression. CONCLUSIONS:This study identified a previously unknown regulatory pathway, exo-miR-15b-3p/DYNLT1/Caspase-3/Caspase-9, which promotes GC development and GES-1 cell malignant transformation. Therefore, serum exo-miR-15b-3p may be a potential GC diagnosis and prognosis biomarker, which can be used in precise targeted GC therapy.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to be important in a variety of cancer types. The specific expression and roles of miR-520f-3p in the context of gastric cancer (GC), however, remains unknown. Herein we determined miR-520f-3p expression to be significantly reduced in human GC cells compared to cells of the gastric epithelium, with comparable down-regulation also being evident in gastric cancer tissue samples and the low expression of this miRNA was positively correlated with features of more aggressive large tumor size (p?=?0.019), depth of invasion (p?=?0.008), and distant metastasis (p?=?0.037). We further found that lower levels of miR-520f-3p corresponded with poorer GC patient overall (p?=?0.003) and disease-free (p?=?0.036) survival. When over-expressed in GC cells, miR-520f-3p was able to impair their growth, proliferation, and survival, instead leading to the induction of apoptosis. We further found that miR-520f-3p was able to bind the SOX9 3'-UTR, thereby negatively regulating its expression in GC cells. Consistent with this model, SOX9 and miR-520f-3p expression were negatively correlated with one another in GC tissues. When SOX9 was upregulated, this was also able to abrogate miR-520f-3p-mediated inactivation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Together our findings thus suggest that miR-520f-3p can act to suppress GC progression, at least in part via suppressing SOX9 expression and thus disrupting Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Our results thus highlight potential novel therapeutic targets in GC worthy of future investigation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are widely studied non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression. MiRNAs are deregulated in different tumors including gastric cancer (GC) and have potential diagnostic and prognostic implications. The aim of our study was to determine miRNA profile in GC tissues, followed by evaluation of deregulated miRNAs in plasma of GC patients. Using available databases and bioinformatics methods we also aimed to evaluate potential target genes of confirmed differentially expressed miRNA and validate these findings in GC tissues. METHODS:The study included 51 GC patients and 51 controls. Initially, we screened miRNA expression profile in 13 tissue samples of GC and 12 normal gastric tissues with TaqMan low density array (TLDA). In the second stage, differentially expressed miRNAs were validated in a replication cohort using qRT-PCR in tissue and plasma samples. Subsequently, we analyzed potential target genes of deregulated miRNAs using bioinformatics approach, determined their expression in GC tissues and performed correlation analysis with targeting miRNAs. RESULTS:Profiling with TLDA revealed 15 deregulated miRNAs in GC tissues compared to normal gastric mucosa. Replication analysis confirmed that miR-148a-3p, miR-204-5p, miR-223-3p and miR-375 were consistently deregulated in GC tissues. Analysis of GC patients' plasma samples showed significant down-regulation of miR-148a-3p, miR-375 and up-regulation of miR-223-3p compared to healthy subjects. Further, using bioinformatic tools we identified targets of replicated miRNAs and performed disease-associated gene enrichment analysis. Ultimately, we evaluated potential target gene BCL2 and DNMT3B expression by qRT-PCR in GC tissue, which correlated with targeting miRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS:Our study revealed miRNA profile in GC tissues and showed that miR-148a-3p, miR-223-3p and miR-375 are deregulated in GC plasma samples, but these circulating miRNAs showed relatively weak diagnostic performance as sole biomarkers. Target gene analysis demonstrated that BCL2 and DNMT3B expression in GC tissue correlated with their targeting miRNA expression.
Project description:Multidrug resistance (MDR) accounts for poor prognosis in gastric cancer (GC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of MDR via modulation of the target genes. The present study revealed that miR-495-3p could act via a target gene, GRP78, to regulate the process of autophagy and inhibit MDR. Based on the in vitro and in vivo gain-of-function or loss-of-function experiments, overexpression of miR-495-3p was sufficient to reverse the MDR to four chemotherapeutics in vitro and inhibit the tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, GRP78 was positively associated with the occurrence of autophagy. Thus, reducing the expression of GRP78 by siRNA resulted in autophagy-suppressive activity similar to that of miR-495-3p on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its substrates activation and autophagy inhibition, while restoring GRP78 attenuated the anti-autophagy effects caused by miR-495-3p. Clinically, either miR-495-3p downregulation or GRP78 upregulation was associated with malignant phenotypes in patients with GC. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that miR-495-3p is an important regulator of autophagy balance and MDR by modulating the GRP78/mTOR axis. In addition, miR-495-3p and GRP78 could be used as prognostic factors for overall survival in GC, which implicates miR-495-3p as a therapeutic target in cancer.
Project description:Recently, it has been reported that specific microRNA (miRNA) levels are elevated in serum and can be used as biomarkers in patients with cardiovascular diseases. However, miRNAs expression profiles and their sources in pericardial fluid (PF) are unclear.The purpose of this study was to identify the levels of miRNAs in PF in relation to those in the serum in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Serum (S) and PF from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) due to stable angina pectoris (sAP) and unstable AP (uAP) and aortic valve replacement due to aortic stenosis (AS) were analyzed for the detection of miRNAs. We named these samples S-sAP, S-uAP, S-AS, PF-sAP, PF-uAP, and PF-AS, respectively. We first measured the levels of miR-423-5p, which was recognized previously as a biomarker for heart failure. miR-423-5p levels were significantly higher in PF than serum. Although there was no difference in miR-423-5p levels among the PF-AS, PF-sAP, and PF-uAP, its levels were significantly elevated in S-uAP compared with those in S-AS and S-sAP. In order to clarify the source of miR-423-5p in PF, we measured the levels of muscle-enriched miR-133a and vascular-enriched miR-126 and miR-92a in the same samples. miR-133a levels were significantly higher in serum than in PF, and it was elevated in S-uAP compared with S-AS. miR-126 level was significantly increased in serum compared with PF, and the level of miR-92a the similar tendency. miR-423-5p is located in the first intron of NSRP1. There is another miRNA, miR-3184, encoded in the opposite direction in the same region. In vitro experiments indicated that the duplex of miR-423-5p and miR-3184-3p was more resistant to RNase than the duplex of miR-423-5p and miR-133-3p, which may help to stabilize miR-423-5p in the PF.Our results suggested that miR-423-5p is enriched in PF, and serum miR-423-5p may be associate with uAP. Its expression pattern was different to that of muscle- and vascular-enriched miRNAs, miR-133a, miR-126, and miR-92a.