Modifying Antigen-Encapsulating Liposomes with KALA Facilitates MHC Class I Antigen Presentation and Enhances Anti-tumor Effects.
ABSTRACT: For a successful anti-cancer vaccine, antigen presentation on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I is a requirement. To accomplish this, an antigen must be delivered to the cytoplasm by overcoming the endosome/lysosome. We previously reported that a lipid nanoparticle modified with a KALA peptide (WEAKLAKALAKALAKHLAKALAKALKA), an ?-helical cationic peptide, permits the encapsulated pDNA to be efficiently delivered to the cytoplasm in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Herein, we report on the use of KALA-modified liposomes as an antigen carrier, in an attempt to induce potent antigen-specific cellular immunity. The subcutaneous injection of KALA-modified ovalbumin (OVA)-encapsulating liposomes (KALA-OVA-LPs) elicited a much more potent OVA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and anti-tumor effect in comparison with particles that were modified with octa-arginine (R8), a cell-penetrating peptide (R8-OVA-LPs). In addition, the numbers of OVA-specific CD8+ T cells were increased by immunization the KALA-OVA-LPs. The treatment of BMDCs with KALA-OVA-LPs induced a substantial MHC class I antigen presentation. Furthermore, the acidic pH-dependent membrane destabilization activity of KALA-OVA-LPs strongly suggests that they are able to escape from endosomes/lysosomes and thereby deliver their cargos to the cytoplasm. Collectively, the KALA-modified liposome is a potential antigen delivery platform for use as a protein vaccine.
Project description:To establish peptide vaccine-based cancer immunotherapy, we investigated the improvement of antigenic peptides by encapsulation with pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-modified liposomes for induction of antigen-specific immunity. The liposomes were prepared by modification of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and l-dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine with 3-methyl-glutarylated hyperbranched poly(glycidol) (MGlu-HPG) and were loaded with antigenic peptides derived from ovalbumin (OVA) OVA-I (SIINFEKL), and OVA-II (PSISQAVHAAHAEINEAP<sub>?</sub>A), which bind, respectively, to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules on dendritic cell (DCs). The peptide-loaded liposomes were taken up efficiently by DCs. The peptides were delivered into their cytosol. Administration of OVA-I-loaded MGlu-HPG-modified liposomes to mice bearing OVA-expressing E.G7-OVA tumors induced the activation of OVA-specific CTLs much more efficiently than the administration of free OVA-I peptide did. Mice strongly rejected E.G7-OVA cells after immunization with OVA-I peptide-loaded MGlu-HPG liposomes, although mice treated with free OVA-I peptide only slightly rejected the cells. Furthermore, efficient suppression of tumor volume was observed when tumor-bearing mice were immunized with OVA-I-peptide-loaded liposomes. Immunization with OVA-II-loaded MGlu-HPG-modified liposomes exhibited much lower tumor-suppressive effects. Results indicate that MGlu-HPG liposomes might be useful for improvement of CTL-inducing peptides for efficient cancer immunotherapy.
Project description:Doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomes (commercially available as DOXIL or Lipodox) were surface functionalized with a cell-penetrating peptide, octa-arginine (R8). For this purpose, R8-peptide was conjugated to the polyethylene glycol-dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-DOPE) amphiphilic co-polymer. The resultant R8-PEG-PE conjugate was introduced into the lipid bilayer of liposomes at 2 mol% of total lipid amount via spontaneous micelle-transfer technique. The liposomal modification did not alter the particle size distribution, as measured by Particle Size Analyzer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, surface-associated cationic peptide increased zeta potential of the modified liposomes. R8-functionalized liposomes (R8-Dox-L) markedly increased the intracellular and intratumoral delivery of doxorubicin as measured by flow cytometry and visualizing by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) compared to unmodified Doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomes (Dox-L). R8-Dox-L delivered loaded Doxorubicin to the nucleus, being released from the endosomes at higher efficiency compared to unmodified liposomes, which had marked entrapment in the endosomes at tested time point of 1h. The significantly higher accumulation of loaded drug to its site of action for R8-Dox-L resulted in improved cytotoxic activity in vitro (cell viability of 58.5 ± 7% for R8-Dox-L compared to 90.6 ± 2% for Dox-L at Dox dose of 50 ?g/mL for 4h followed by 24h incubation) and enhanced suppression of tumor growth (348 ± 53 mm(3) for R8-Dox-L, compared to 504 ± 54 mm(3) for Dox-L treatment) in vivo compared to Dox-L. R8-modification has the potential for broadening the therapeutic window of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin treatment, which could lead to lower non-specific toxicity.
Project description:The usefulness of pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-(succinylated poly(glycidol)-(SucPG-) modified liposomes as a vaccine carrier in the induction of immune responses was evaluated. Mice were intraperitoneally immunized with ovalbumin- (OVA-) containing SucPG-modified liposomes. After immunization, significant OVA-specific antibodies were detected in the serum. When sera were analyzed for isotype distribution, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody responses were noted in mice immunized with OVA-containing polymer-unmodified liposomes, whereas immunization with OVA-containing SucPG-modified liposomes resulted in the induction of OVA-specific IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG3 Ab responses. In spleen lymphocytes from mice immunized with OVA-containing SucPG-modified liposomes, both IFN-?-(Th1-type-) and IL-4-(Th2 type-) specific mRNA were detected. Moreover, substantial production of IFN-? and IL-4 was demonstrated in spleen cells from OVA-containing SucPG-modified liposomes in vitro. These results suggest that the pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer-(SucPG-) modified liposomes would serve effectively as an antigen delivery vehicle for inducing Th1 and Th2 immune responses.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles have potential applications as a vaccine adjuvant and delivery system due to its unique advantages as biodegradability and biocompatibility.<h4>Experimental</h4>We fabricated cationic solid lipid nanoparticles using PLGA and dimethyl-dioctadecyl-ammonium bromide (DDAB), followed by loading of model antigen OVA (antigen ovalbumin, OVA<sub>257-264</sub>) to form an OVA@DDAB/PLGA nano-vaccine. And we investigated the intracellular signaling pathway in dendritic cells in vitro and antigen transport pathway and immune response in vivo mediated by an OVA@DDAB/PLGA nano-vaccine.<h4>Results</h4>In vitro experiments revealed that the antigen uptake of BMDCs after nanovaccine incubation was two times higher than pure OVA or OVA@Al at 12 h. The BMDCs were well activated by p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, the nano-vaccine induced antigen escape from lysosome into cytoplasm with 10 times increased cross-presentation activity than those of OVA or OVA@Al. Regarding the transport of antigen into draining lymph nodes (LNs), the nano-vaccine could rapidly transfer antigen to LNs by passive lymphatic drainage and active DC transport. The antigen<sup>+</sup> cells in inguinal/popliteal LNs for the nano-vaccine were increased over two folds comparing to OVA@Al and OVA at 12 h. Moreover, the antigen of nano-vaccine stayed in LNs for over 7 days, germinal center formation over two folds higher than those of OVA@Al and OVA. After immunization, the nano-vaccine induced a much higher ratio of IgG2c/IgG1 than OVA@Al. It also effectively activated CD4<sup>+</sup> T, CD8<sup>+</sup> T and B cells for immune memory with a strong cellular response.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These results indicated that DDAB/PLGA NP was a potent platform to improve vaccine immunogenicity by p38 signaling pathway in BMDCs, enhancing transport of antigens to LNs, and higher immunity response.
Project description:Background:The role of miR-223-3p in dendritic cells (DCs) is unknown. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of miR-223-3p on the antigen uptake and presentation capacities of DCs and the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods:FITC-OVA antigen uptake and cell surface markers in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were analyzed by flow cytometry. BMDCs were transfected with the miR-223-3p mimic or inhibitor. Cytokine levels were determined by ELISA. CD4+ T cell differentiation was determined by mixed lymphocyte culture assay. Results:OVA treatment significantly downregulated miR-223-3p in BMDCs. The miR-223-3p mimic significantly inhibited OVA-induced antigen uptake and surface expression of MHC-II on BMDCs (P < 0.01). The miR-223-3p mimic increased TGF-?1 production in OVA-treated DCs (P < 0.01). Mixed lymphocyte reaction showed that the miR-223-3p mimic significantly promoted Treg cell differentiation. In addition, the miR-223-3p mimic significantly upregulated CD103 in DCs, indicating the promotion of tolerogenic DCs. The miR-223-3p mimic downregulated Rhob protein in OVA-induced DCs. Rhob knockdown significantly suppressed the ability of FITC-OVA endocytosis (P < 0.01) and surface MHC-II molecule expression (P < 0.01) in BMDCs, promoting promoted Treg cell differentiation. Mannose receptor (MR) knockdown significantly upregulated miR-223-3p, downregulated Rhob protein in OVA-treated DCs, inhibited the FITC-OVA endocytosis and surface MHC-II expression in BMDCs, and promoted Treg cell differentiation (all P < 0.01). Conclusion:These data suggest that miR-223-3p has an inhibitory effect on the antigen uptake and presentation capacities of BMDCs and promotes Treg cell differentiation, which is, at least partially, through targeting MR signaling and Rhob.
Project description:Alcaligenes spp. are identified as commensal bacteria and have been found to inhabit Peyer's patches in the gut. We previously reported that Alcaligenes-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS) exerted adjuvant activity in systemic vaccination, without excessive inflammation. Lipid A is one of the components responsible for the biological effect of LPS and has previously been applied as an adjuvant. Here, we examined the adjuvant activity and safety of chemically synthesized Alcaligenes lipid A. We found that levels of OVA-specific serum IgG antibodies increased in mice that were subcutaneously immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) plus Alcaligenes lipid A relative to those that were immunized with OVA alone. In addition, Alcaligenes lipid A promoted antigen-specific T helper 17 (Th17) responses in the spleen; upregulated the expression of MHC class II, CD40, CD80, and CD86 on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs); enhanced the production of Th17-inducing cytokines IL-6 and IL-23 from BMDCs. Stimulation with Alcaligenes lipid A also induced the production of IL-6 and IL-1? in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, Alcaligenes lipid A caused minor side effects, such as lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. These findings suggest that Alcaligenes lipid A is a safe and effective Th17-type adjuvant by directly stimulating dendritic cells in systemic vaccination.
Project description:PURPOSE:To develop a new intradermal antigen delivery system by coating microneedle arrays with lipid bilayer-coated, antigen-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (LB-MSN-OVA). METHODS:Synthesis of MSNs with 10-nm pores was performed and the nanoparticles were loaded with the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA), and coated with a lipid bilayer (LB-MSN-OVA). The uptake of LB-MSN-OVA by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BDMCs) was studied by flow cytometry. The designed LB-MSN-OVA were coated onto pH-sensitive pyridine-modified microneedle arrays and the delivery of LB-MSN-OVA into ex vivo human skin was studied. RESULTS:The synthesized MSNs demonstrated efficient loading of OVA with a maximum loading capacity of about 34% and the lipid bilayer enhanced the colloidal stability of the MSNs. Uptake of OVA loaded in LB-MSN-OVA by BMDCs was higher than that of free OVA, suggesting effective targeting of LB-MSN-OVA to antigen-presenting cells. Microneedles were readily coated with LB-MSN-OVA at pH 5.8, yielding 1.5 ?g of encapsulated OVA per microneedle array. Finally, as a result of the pyridine modification, LB-MSN-OVA were effectively released from the microneedles upon piercing the skin. CONCLUSION:Microneedle arrays coated with LB-MSN-OVA were successfully developed and shown to be suitable for intradermal delivery of the encapsulated protein antigen.
Project description:Bleomycin (BLM) is an example of an anticancer drug that should be delivered into cytosol for its efficient therapeutic action. With this in mind, we developed octaarginine (R8)-modified fusogenic DOPE-liposomes (R8-DOPE-BLM). R8-modification dramatically increased (up to 50-fold) the cell-liposome interaction. R8-DOPE-liposomes were internalized via macropinocytosis and did not end up in the lysosomes. R8-DOPE-BLM led to a significantly stronger cell death and DNA damage in vitro relative to all controls. R8-DOPE-BLM demonstrated a prominent anticancer effect in the BALB/c mice bearing 4T1 tumors. Thus, R8-DOPE-BLM provided efficient intracellular delivery of BLM leading to strong tumor growth inhibition in vivo.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Lung cancer is one of the most important diseases threatening human health, and targeted therapy has become the main research direction. This work, therefore, aimed to develop cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD) and octa-arginine (R8) peptide-modified ergosterol (ERG)-combined cisplatin (diamminedichloridoplatinum(II) [DDP]) liposomes (LIP) as a drug delivery system.<h4>Methods</h4>Soybean phospholipids (SPC) and cholesterol (Chol) were selected to prepare different LIPs: ERG-loaded LIP (ERG-LIP), DDP and ERG-LIP (DDP/ERG-LIP), R8 peptide-modified DDP and ERG-LIP (R8-DDP/ERG-LIP), and cyclic RGD and R8-DDP/ERG-LIP (RGD/R8-DDP/ERG-LIP). The quality, tumor sphere penetrating ability, in vitro cellular uptake, mechanism of cellular uptake, and in vitro cytotoxicity of RGD/R8-DDP/ERG-LIP were evaluated.<h4>Results</h4>The LIP quality evaluation revealed that RGD/R8-DDP/ERG-LIP is round with a double-layer structure. The average particle size, dispersion coefficient of the polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential of RGD/R8-DDP/ERG-LIP were 155.2?±?8.7?nm, 0.102, and 4.74?±?0.7?mV, respectively. Furthermore, the LIPs were stable in the serum, and obviously inhibited the growth of A549 lung cancer cells with RGD/R8-DDP/ERG-LIP exhibiting the strongest inhibitory effect. The highest cellular uptake rate, which was at 4?hours, was exhibited by RGD/R8-DDP/ERG-LIP in a concentration-dependent manner.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The results showed that LIP uptake by A549 cells was mainly by the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway (chlorpromazine). The results also suggest that RGD/R8-DDP/ERG-LIP might be a promising drug delivery system to improve antilung cancer drug effect and tumor-targeting in vitro.
Project description:Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) were widely used for drug delivery to tumor. However, the nonselective in vivo penetration greatly limited the application of CPPs-mediated drug delivery systems. And the treatment of malignant tumors is usually followed by poor prognosis and relapse due to the existence of extravascular core regions of tumor. Thus it is important to endue selective targeting and stronger intratumoral diffusion abilities to CPPs. In this study, an RGD reverse sequence dGR was conjugated to a CPP octa-arginine to form a CendR (R/KXXR/K) motif contained tandem peptide R8-dGR (RRRRRRRRdGR) which could bind to both integrin ?v?3 and neuropilin-1 receptors. The dual receptor recognizing peptide R8-dGR displayed increased cellular uptake and efficient penetration ability into glioma spheroids in vitro. The following in vivo studies indicated the active targeting and intratumoral diffusion capabilities of R8-dGR modified liposomes. When paclitaxel was loaded in the liposomes, PTX-R8-dGR-Lip induced the strongest anti-proliferation effect on both tumor cells and cancer stem cells, and inhibited the formation of vasculogenic mimicry channels in vitro. Finally, the R8-dGR liposomal drug delivery system prolonged the medium survival time of intracranial C6 bearing mice by 2.1-fold compared to the untreated group, and achieved an exhaustive anti-glioma therapy including anti-tumor cells, anti-vasculogenic mimicry and anti-brain cancer stem cells. To sum up, all the results demonstrated that R8-dGR was an ideal dual receptor recognizing CPP with selective glioma targeting and efficient intratumoral diffusion, which could be further used to equip drug delivery system for effective glioma therapy.