Validation of the Dutch version of the Swallowing Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (DSWAL-QoL) and the adjusted DSWAL-QoL (aDSWAL-QoL) using item analysis with the Rasch model: a pilot study.
ABSTRACT: The Swallowing Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QoL) is considered the gold standard for assessing health-related QoL in oropharyngeal dysphagia. The Dutch translation (DSWAL-QoL) and its adjusted version (aDSWAL-QoL) have been validated using classical test theory (CTT). However, these scales have not been tested against the Rasch measurement model, which is required to establish the structural validity and objectivity of the total scale and subscale scores. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of these scales using item analysis according to the Rasch model.Item analysis with the Rasch model was performed using RUMM2030 software with previously collected data from a validation study of 108 patients. The assessment included evaluations of overall model fit, reliability, unidimensionality, threshold ordering, individual item and person fits, differential item functioning (DIF), local item dependency (LID) and targeting.The analysis could not establish the psychometric properties of either of the scales or their subscales because they did not fit the Rasch model, and multidimensionality, disordered thresholds, DIF, and/or LID were found. The reliability and power of fit were high for the total scales (PSI?=?0.93) but low for most of the subscales (PSI?
Project description:To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Adult Strabismus-20 (AS-20)- a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaire in adults with strabismus, and if flawed, to revise the AS-20 and its subscales creating valid measurement scales.584 adults (meanage, 27.5 years) with strabismus were recruited from an outpatient clinic at a South Indian tertiary eye care centre and were administered the AS-20 questionnaire.The AS-20 was translated and back translated into two Indian languages. The AS-20 and its two 10-item subscales - 'psychosocial' and 'function'were assessed separately for fit to the Rasch model, including an assessment of the rating scale, unidimensionality (by principal components analysis), measurement precision by person separation reliability, PSR, targeting, and differential item functioning (DIF; notable > 1.0 logits).Response categories were not used as intended, thereby, required re-organization and reducing their number from 5 to 3. The AS-20 had adequate measurement precision (PSR = 0.87) but lacked unidimensionality; however, deletion of the six multi-dimensionality causing items and an additional three misfitting items resulted in 11-item unidimensional questionnaire (AS-11). Two items failed to satisfy the model expectations in the 'psychosocial' subscale and were deleted - resulting in an 8-item unidimensional scale with adequate PSR (0.81) and targeting (0.23 logits). One item misfit in the 'function' subscale and was deleted-resulting in a 9 item Rasch-revised unidimensional subscale with acceptable PSR (0.80) and targeting (0.97 logits).None of the items displayed notable DIF by age, gender and level of education.The AS-11 and its two Rasch-revised subscales - 8-item psychosocial and 9-item function subscale may be more appropriate than the original AS-20 and its two 10-item subscales for use as unidimensional measures of HRQoL in adults with strabismus in India. Further work is required to establish the validity of the revised rating scale.
Project description:The Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) was developed as a wrist joint specific measure of pain and disability and evidence of sound validity has been accumulated through classical psychometric methods. Rasch analysis (RA) has been endorsed as a newer method for analyzing the clinical measurement properties of self-report outcome measures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the PRWE using Rasch modeling.We employed the Rasch model to assess overall fit, response scaling, individual item fit, differential item functioning (DIF), local dependency, unidimensionality and person separation index (PSI). A convenience sample of 382 patients with distal radius fracture was recruited from the hand and upper limb clinic at large academic healthcare organization, London, Ontario, Canada, 6-month post-injury scores of the PRWE was used. RA was conducted on the 3 subscales (pain, specific activities, and usual activities) of the PRWE separately.The pain subscale adequately fit the Rasch model when item 4 "Pain - When it is at its worst" was deleted to eliminate non-uniform DIF by age group, and item 5 "How often do you have pain" was rescored by collapsing into 8 intervals to eliminate disordered thresholds. Uniform DIF for "Use my affected hand to push up from the chair" (by work status) and "Use bathroom tissue with my affected hand" (by injured hand) was addressed by splitting the items for analysis. After background rescoring of 2 items in pain subscale, 2 items in specific activities and 3 items in usual activities, all three subscales of the PRWE were well targeted and had high reliability (PSI?=?0.86). These changes provided a unidimensional, interval-level scaled measure.Like a previous analysis of the Patient-Rated Wrist and Hand Evaluation, this study found the PRWE could be fit to the Rasch model with rescoring of multiple items. However, the modifications required to achieve fit were not the same across studies, our fit statistics also suggested one of the pain items should be deleted. This study adds to the pool of evidence supporting the PRWE, but cannot confidently provide a Rasch-based scoring algorithm.
Project description:To analyze the validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) among Chinese cataract population.A total of 275 participants with unilateral or bilateral cataract were recruited to complete the Chinese version of HADS. The patients' demographic and ophthalmic characteristics were documented. Rasch analysis was conducted to examine the model fit statistics, the thresholds ordering of the polytomous items, targeting, person separation index and reliability, local dependency, unidimentionality, differential item functioning (DIF) and construct validity of the HADS individual and summary measures.Rasch analysis was performed on anxiety and depression subscales as well as HADS-Total score respectively. The items of original HADS-Anxiety, HADS-Depression and HADS-Total demonstrated evidence of misfit of the Rasch model. Removing items A7 for anxiety subscale and rescoring items D14 for depression subscale significantly improved Rasch model fit. A 12-item higher order total scale with further removal of D12 was found to fit the Rasch model. The modified items had ordered response thresholds. No uniform DIF was detected, whereas notable non-uniform DIF in high-ability group was found. The revised cut-off points were given for the modified anxiety and depression subscales.The modified version of HADS with HADS-A and HADS-D as subscale and HADS-T as a higher-order measure is a reliable and valid instrument that may be useful for assessing anxiety and depression states in Chinese cataract population.
Project description:The Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) assesses Thwarted Belongingness (TB) and Perceived Burdensomeness (PB), two predictors of suicidal thoughts. Up to now, the use of item response theory (IRT) for the evaluation of the INQ has been restricted to a single study with clinically depressed and suicidal youth. Therefore, the psychometric properties of the two INQ-15-subscales TB and PB were now evaluated in a general population sample (N = 2508) and a clinical adult population sample (N = 185) using IRT, specifically the Rasch model (RM) and the graphical log-linear Rasch model (GLLRM). Of special interest was whether the INQ-subscales displayed differential item functioning (DIF) across the two different samples and how well the subscales were targeted to the two sample populations. For the clinical sample, fit to a GLLRM could be established for the PB-subscale and fit to a RM was established for a five-item version of the TB-subscale. In contrast, for the general population sample fit to a GLLRM could only be achieved for the PB-subscale. Overall, there was strong evidence of local dependence (LD) across items and of some age- and gender-related DIF. Both subscales exhibited massive DIF related to the sample, indicating that they don't work the same across the general population and clinical sample. As expected, targeting of both INQ-subscales was much better for the clinical population. Further investigations of the INQ-15 under the Rasch approach in a large clinical population are recommended to determine and optimize the scale performance.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54, 52 items grouped in 12 subscales plus two single items) is the most used MS specific health related quality of life inventory.<h4>Objective</h4>To develop a shortened version of the MSQOL-54.<h4>Methods</h4>MSQOL-54 dimensionality and metric properties were investigated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch modelling (Partial Credit Model, PCM) on MSQOL-54s completed by 473 MS patients. Their mean age was 41 years, 65% were women, and median Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score was 2.0 (range 0-9.5). Differential item functioning (DIF) was evaluated for gender, age and EDSS. Dimensionality of the resulting short version was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and CFA. Cognitive debriefing of the short instrument (vs. the original) was then performed on 12 MS patients.<h4>Results</h4>CFA of MSQOL-54 subscales showed that the data fitted the overall model well. Two subscales (Role Limitations--Physical, Role Limitations--Emotional) did not fit the PCM, and were removed; two other subscales (Health Perceptions, Social Function) did not fit the model, but were retained as single items. Sexual Satisfaction (single-item subscale) was also removed. The resulting MSQOL-29 consisted of 25 items grouped in 7 subscales, plus 4 single items. PCM fit statistics were within the acceptability range for all MSQOL-29 items except one which had significant DIF by age. EFA and CFA indicated adequate fit to the original two-factor (Physical and Mental Health Composites) hypothesis. Cognitive debriefing confirmed that MSQOL-29 was acceptable and had lost no key items.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The proposed MSQOL-29 is 50% shorter than MSQOL-54, yet preserves key quality of life dimensions. Prospective validation on a large, independent MS patient sample is ongoing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a complex process. To quantify it, one has to also consider individual and contextual factors using multiple measures. Modern measurement approaches are available to optimize the measurement of complex constructs. This study aimed to develop a robust measurement approach for constructs around EBP including practice, individual (e.g. knowledge, attitudes, confidence, behaviours), and contextual factors (e.g. resources). METHODS:One hundred eighty-one items arising from 5 validated EBP measures were subjected to an item analysis. Nominal group technique was used to arrive at a consensus about the content relevance of each item. Baseline questionnaire responses from a longitudinal study of the evolution of EBP in 128 new graduates of Canadian physical and occupational therapy programmes were analysed. Principles of Rasch Measurement Theory were applied to identify challenges with threshold ordering, item and person fit to the Rasch model, unidimensionality, local independence, and differential item functioning (DIF). RESULTS:The nominal group technique identified 70/181 items, and modified Delphi approach identified 68 items that fit a formative model (2 related EBP domains: self-use of EBP (9 items) and EBP activities (7 items)) or a reflective model (4 related EBP domains: attitudes towards EBP (17 items), self-efficacy (9 items), knowledge (11 items) and resources (15 items)). Rasch analysis provided a single score for reflective construct. Among attitudes items, 65% (11/17) fit the Rasch model, item difficulties ranged from - 7.51 to logits (least difficult) to + 5.04 logits (most difficult), and person separation index (PSI) = 0.63. Among self-efficacy items, 89% (8/9) fit the Rasch model, item difficulties ranged from - 3.70 to + 4.91, and PSI = 0.80. Among knowledge items, 82% (9/11) fit the Rasch model, item difficulties ranged from - 7.85 to 4.50, and PSI = 0.81. Among resources items, 87% (13/15) fit the Rasch model, item difficulties ranged from - 3.38 to 2.86, and PSI = 0.86. DIF occurred in 2 constructs: attitudes (1 by profession and 2 by language) and knowledge (1 by language and 2 by profession) arising from poor wording in the original version leading to poor translation. CONCLUSIONS:Rasch Measurement Theory was applied to develop a valid and reliable measure of EBP. Further modifications to the items can be done for subsequent waves of the survey.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Person-centred care is the bedrock of modern dementia services, yet the evidence-base to support its implementation is not firmly established. Research is hindered by a need for more robust measurement instruments. The 14-item Person-Centred Climate Questionnaire - Staff version (PCQ-S) is one of the most established scales and has promising measurement properties. However, its construction under classical test theory methods leaves question marks over its rigour and the need for evaluation under more modern testing procedures. METHODS:The PCQ-S was self-completed by nurses and other care staff working across nursing homes in 35 Swedish municipalities in 2013/14. A Rasch analysis was undertaken in RUMM2030 using a partial credit model suited to the Likert-type items. Three subscales of the PCQ-S were evaluated against common thresholds for overall fit to the Rasch model; ordering of category thresholds; unidimensionality; local dependency; targeting; and Differential Item Functioning. Three subscales were evaluated separately as unidimensional models and then combined as subtests into a single measure. Due to large number of respondents (n?=?4381), two random sub-samples were drawn, with a satisfactory model established in the first ('evaluation') and confirmed in the second ('validation'). Final item locations and a table converting raw scores to Rasch-transformed values were created using the full sample. RESULTS:All three subscales had disordered thresholds for some items, which were resolved by collapsing categories. The three subscales fit the assumptions of the Rasch model after the removal of two items, except for subscale 3, where there was evidence of local dependence between two items. By forming subtests, the 3 subscales were combined into a single Rasch model which had satisfactory fit statistics. The Rasch form of the instrument (PCQ-S-R) had an adequate but modest Person Separation Index (<?0.80) and some evidence of mistargeting due to a low number of 'difficult-to-endorse' items. CONCLUSIONS:The PCQ-S-R has 12 items and can be used as a unidimensional scale with interval level properties, using the nomogram presented within this paper. The scale is reliable but has some inefficiencies due to too few high-end thresholds inhibiting discrimination amongst populations who already perceive that person-centred care is very good in their environment.
Project description:The potential stressors associated with military deployment are related to an increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Perceived exposure to combat has been found to be proportional to the severity of post-deployment posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, other perceived adversities during deployment, such as witnessing danger, distress, and hardship in the war zone, have been less systematically studied, but might play an equally substantial role for post-deployment mental health. The development and validation of scales that assess these related constructs are needed to distinguish their contribution to post-deployment risk of PTSD. We evaluated the validity of 10 items measuring perceived danger distributed to all deployed personnel with the Danish Defense since 1998. We hypothesize two scales: Exposure to Danger and Combat (EDC) and Witnessing Consequences of War (WCW). Two military cohorts deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 (Cohort 1, N = 276) and 2013 (Cohort 2, N = 273) were included. Questionnaire data was collected six months after homecoming, including deployment experiences and post-deployment reactions. We tested the construct validity of the 10 items of perceived danger with Rasch models (RM), focusing specifically on presence of subscales, and differential item functioning (DIF) across cohorts. We confirmed the existence of two separate subscales, EDCS and WCWS, both with adequate reliability. None of the subscales fitted a pure RM, but adequate fit was found for graphical log-linear RMs with evidence of DIF for the ECDS. However, adjusting the score to account for DIF had practically no effect, suggesting that the total non-adjusted mean score can be used in future cohort comparisons. Perceived exposure to combat and danger and witnessing consequences of war are related, but essentially distinct, concepts, each providing unique information about deployment adversities. Future studies should evaluate their shared and unique contribution to the risk of post-deployment PTSD.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>This observational study examines the internal construct validity, internal consistency and cross-informant reliability of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a New Zealand preschool population across four ethnicity strata (New Zealand European, M?ori, Pasifika, Asian).<h4>Design</h4>Rasch analysis was employed to examine internal validity on a subsample of 1000 children. Internal consistency (n=29?075) and cross-informant reliability (n=17?006) were examined using correlations, intraclass correlation coefficients and Cronbach's alpha on the sample available for such analyses.<h4>Setting and participants</h4>Data were used from a national SDQ database provided by the funder, pertaining to New Zealand domiciled children aged 4 and 5 and scored by their parents and teachers.<h4>Results</h4>The five subscales do not fit the Rasch model (as indicated by the overall fit statistics), contain items that are biased (differential item functioning (DIF)) by key variables, suffer from a floor and ceiling effect and have unacceptable internal consistency. After dealing with DIF, the Total Difficulty scale does fit the Rasch model and has good internal consistency. Parent/teacher inter-rater reliability was unacceptably low for all subscales.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The five SDQ subscales are not valid and not suitable for use in their own right in New Zealand. We have provided a conversion table for the Total Difficulty scale, which takes account of bias by ethnic group. Clinicians should use this conversion table in order to reconcile DIF by culture in final scores. It is advisable to use both parents and teachers' feedback when considering children's needs for referral of further assessment. Future work should examine whether validity is impacted by different language versions used in the same country.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The impact of strabismus on visual function, self-image, self-esteem, and social interactions decrease health-related quality of life (HRQoL).The purpose of this study was to evaluate and refine the adult strabismus quality of life questionnaire (AS-20) by using Rasch analysis among Chinese adult patients with strabismus.<h4>Methods</h4>We evaluated the fitness of the AS-20 with Rasch model in Chinese population by assessing unidimensionality, infit and outfit, person and item separation index and reliability, response ordering, targeting and differential item functioning (DIF).<h4>Results</h4>The overall AS-20 did not demonstrate unidimensional; however, it was achieved separately in the two Rasch-revised subscales: the psychosocial subscale (11 items) and the function subscale (9 items). The features of good targeting, optimal item infit and outfit, and no notable local dependence were found for each of the subscales. The rating scale was appropriate for the psychosocial subscale but a reduction to four response categories was required for the function subscale. No significant DIF were revealed for any demographic and clinical factors (e.g., age, gender, and strabismus types).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The AS-20 was demonstrated by Rasch analysis to be a rigorous instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in Chinese strabismus patents if some revisions were made regarding the subscale construct and response options.