Stomatin modulates the activity of the Anion Exchanger 1 (AE1, SLC4A1).
ABSTRACT: Anion Exchanger 1 (AE1) and stomatin are integral proteins of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane. Erythroid and kidney AE1 play a major role in HCO3- and Cl- exchange. Stomatins down-regulate the activity of many channels and transporters. Biochemical studies suggested an interaction of erythroid AE1 with stomatin. Moreover, we previously reported normal AE1 expression level in stomatin-deficient RBCs. Here, the ability of stomatin to modulate AE1-dependent Cl-/HCO3- exchange was evaluated using stopped-flow methods. In HEK293 cells expressing recombinant AE1 and stomatin, the permeabilities associated with AE1 activity were 30% higher in cells overexpressing stomatin, compared to cells with only endogenous stomatin expression. Ghosts from stomatin-deficient RBCs and controls were resealed in the presence of pH- or chloride-sensitive fluorescent probes and submitted to inward HCO3- and outward Cl- gradients. From alkalinization rate constants, we deduced a 47% decreased permeability to HCO3- for stomatin-deficient patients. Similarly, kinetics of Cl- efflux, followed by the probe dequenching, revealed a significant 42% decrease in patients. In situ Proximity Ligation Assays confirmed an interaction of AE1 with stomatin, in both HEK recombinant cells and RBCs. Here we show that stomatin modulates the transport activity of AE1 through a direct protein-protein interaction.
Project description:The AE1 gene encodes band 3 Cl-/HCO3- exchangers that are expressed both in the erythrocyte and in the acid-secreting, type A intercalated cells of the kidney. Kidney AE1 contributes to urinary acidification by providing the major exit route for HCO3- across the basolateral membrane. Several AE1 mutations cosegregate with dominantly transmitted nonsyndromic renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). However, the modest degree of in vitro hypofunction exhibited by these dRTA-associated mutations fails to explain the disease phenotype in light of the normal urinary acidification associated with the complete loss-of-function exhibited by AE1 mutations linked to dominant spherocytosis. We report here novel AE1 mutations linked to a recessive syndrome of dRTA and hemolytic anemia in which red cell anion transport is normal. Both affected individuals were triply homozygous for two benign mutations M31T and K56E and for the loss-of-function mutation, G701D. AE1 G701D loss-of-function was accompanied by impaired trafficking to the Xenopus oocyte surface. Coexpression with AE1 G701D of the erythroid AE1 chaperonin, glycophorin A, rescued both AE1-mediated Cl- transport and AE1 surface expression in oocytes. The genetic and functional data both suggest that the homozygous AE1 G701D mutation causes recessively transmitted dRTA in this kindred with apparently normal erythroid anion transport.
Project description:All affected patients in four families with autosomal dominant familial renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) were heterozygous for mutations in their red cell HCO3-/Cl- exchanger, band 3 (AE1, SLC4A1) genes, and these mutations were not found in any of the nine normal family members studied. The mutation Arg589--> His was present in two families, while Arg589--> Cys and Ser613--> Phe changes were found in the other families. Linkage studies confirmed the co-segregation of the disease with a genetic marker close to AE1. The affected individuals with the Arg589 mutations had reduced red cell sulfate transport and altered glycosylation of the red cell band 3 N-glycan chain. The red cells of individuals with the Ser613--> Phe mutation had markedly increased red cell sulfate transport but almost normal red cell iodide transport. The erythroid and kidney isoforms of the mutant band 3 proteins were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and all showed significant chloride transport activity. We conclude that dominantly inherited dRTA is associated with mutations in band 3; but both the disease and its autosomal dominant inheritance are not related simply to the anion transport activity of the mutant proteins.
Project description:We report the novel, heterozygous AE1 mutation R730C associated with dominant, overhydrated, cation leak stomatocytosis and well-compensated anemia. Parallel elevations of red blood cell cation leak and ouabain-sensitive Na(+) efflux (pump activity) were apparently unaccompanied by increased erythroid cation channel-like activity, and defined ouabain-insensitive Na(+) efflux pathways of nystatin-treated cells were reduced. Epitope-tagged AE1 R730C at the Xenopus laevis oocyte surface exhibited severely reduced Cl(-) transport insensitive to rescue by glycophorin A (GPA) coexpression or by methanethiosulfonate (MTS) treatment. AE1 mutant R730K preserved Cl(-) transport activity, but R730 substitution with I, E, or H inactivated Cl(-) transport. AE1 R730C expression substantially increased endogenous oocyte Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-mediated (86)Rb(+) influx, but ouabain-insensitive flux was minimally increased and GPA-insensitive. The reduced AE1 R730C-mediated sulfate influx did not exhibit the wild-type pattern of stimulation by acidic extracellular pH (pH(o)) and, unexpectedly, was partially rescued by exposure to sodium 2-sulfonatoethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSES) but not to 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate hydrobromide (MTSEA) or 2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl methanethiosulfonate bromide (MTSET). AE1 R730E correspondingly exhibited acid pH(o)-stimulated sulfate uptake at rates exceeding those of wild-type AE1 and AE1 R730K, whereas mutants R730I and R730H were inactive and pH(o) insensitive. MTSES-treated oocytes expressing AE1 R730C and untreated oocytes expressing AE1 R730E also exhibited unprecedented stimulation of Cl(-) influx by acid pH(o). Thus recombinant cation-leak stomatocytosis mutant AE1 R730C exhibits severely reduced anion transport unaccompanied by increased Rb(+) and Li(+) influxes. Selective rescue of acid pH(o)-stimulated sulfate uptake and conferral of acid pH(o)-stimulated Cl(-) influx, by AE1 R730E and MTSES-treated R730C, define residue R730 as critical to selectivity and regulation of anion transport by AE1.
Project description:The widely expressed, homo-oligomeric, lipid raft-associated, monotopic integral membrane protein stomatin and its homologues are known to interact with and modulate various ion channels and transporters. Stomatin is a major protein of the human erythrocyte membrane, where it associates with and modifies the glucose transporter GLUT1; however, previous attempts to purify hetero-oligomeric stomatin complexes for biochemical analysis have failed. Because lateral interactions of membrane proteins may be short-lived and unstable, we have used in situ chemical cross-linking of erythrocyte membranes to fix the stomatin complexes for subsequent purification by immunoaffinity chromatography. To further enrich stomatin, we prepared detergent-resistant membranes either before or after cross-linking. Mass spectrometry of the isolated, high molecular, cross-linked stomatin complexes revealed the major interaction partners as glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1), anion exchanger (band 3), and water channel (aquaporin-1). Moreover, ferroportin-1 (SLC40A1), urea transporter-1 (SLC14A1), nucleoside transporter (SLC29A1), the calcium-pump (Ca-ATPase-4), CD47, and flotillins were identified as stomatin-interacting proteins. These findings are in line with the hypothesis that stomatin plays a role as membrane-bound scaffolding protein modulating transport proteins.
Project description:Familial distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) can be caused by mutations in the Cl2/HCO32 exchanger of the renal Type A intercalated cell, kidney AE1/SLC4A1. dRTA-associated AE1 mutations have been reported in families from North America, Europe, Thailand, Malaysia, Papua-New Guinea, Taiwan, and the Philippines, but not India. The dRTA mutation AE1 A858D has been detected only in the context of compound heterozygosity. We report here two unrelated Indian patients with combined hemolytic anemia and dRTA who share homozygous A858D mutations of the AE1/SLC4A1 gene. The mutation creates a novel restriction site that is validated for diagnostic screening.
Project description:The previously undescribed heterozygous missense mutation E758K was discovered in the human AE1/SLC4A1/band 3 gene in two unrelated patients with well-compensated hereditary spherostomatocytic anemia (HSt). Oocyte surface expression of AE1 E758K, in contrast to that of wild-type AE1, required coexpressed glycophorin A (GPA). The mutant polypeptide exhibited, in parallel, strong GPA dependence of DIDS-sensitive (36)Cl(-) influx, trans-anion-dependent (36)Cl(-) efflux, and Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange activities at near wild-type levels. AE1 E758K expression was also associated with GPA-dependent increases of DIDS-sensitive pH-independent SO(4)(2-) uptake and oxalate uptake with altered pH dependence. In marked contrast, the bumetanide- and ouabain-insensitive (86)Rb(+) influx associated with AE1 E758K expression was largely GPA-independent in Xenopus oocytes and completely GPA-independent in Ambystoma oocytes. AE1 E758K-associated currents in Xenopus oocytes also exhibited little or no GPA dependence. (86)Rb(+) influx was higher but inward cation current was lower in oocytes expressing AE1 E758K than previously reported in oocytes expressing the AE1 HSt mutants S731P and H734R. The pharmacological inhibition profile of AE1 E758K-associated (36)Cl(-) influx differed from that of AE1 E758K-associated (86)Rb(+) influx, as well as from that of wild-type AE1-mediated Cl(-) transport. Thus AE1 E758K-expressing oocytes displayed GPA-dependent surface polypeptide expression and anion transport, accompanied by substantially GPA-independent, pharmacologically distinct Rb(+) flux and by small, GPA-independent currents. The data strongly suggest that most of the increased cation transport associated with the novel HSt mutant AE1 E758K reflects activation of endogenous oocyte cation permeability pathways, rather than cation translocation through the mutant polypeptide.
Project description:Chicken erythroid AE1 anion exchangers receive endoglycosidase F (endo F)-sensitive sugar modifications in their initial transit through the secretory pathway. After delivery to the plasma membrane, anion exchangers are internalized and recycled to the Golgi where they acquire additional N-linked modifications that are resistant to endo F. During recycling, some of the anion exchangers become detergent insoluble. The acquisition of detergent insolubility correlates with the association of the anion exchanger with cytoskeletal ankyrin. Reagents that inhibit different steps in the endocytic pathway, including 0.4 M sucrose, ammonium chloride, and brefeldin A, block the acquisition of endo F-resistant sugars and the acquisition of detergent insolubility by newly synthesized anion exchangers. The inhibitory effects of ammonium chloride on anion exchanger processing are rapidly reversible. Furthermore, AE1 anion exchangers become detergent insoluble more rapidly than they acquire endo F-resistant modifications in cells recovering from an ammonium chloride block. This suggests that the cytoskeletal association of the recycling anion exchangers occurs after release from the compartment where they accumulate due to ammonium chloride treatment, and prior to their transit through the Golgi. The recycling pool of newly synthesized anion exchangers is reflected in the steady-state distribution of the polypeptide. In addition to plasma membrane staining, anion exchanger antibodies stain a perinuclear compartment in erythroid cells. This perinuclear AE1-containing compartment is also stained by ankyrin antibodies and partially overlaps the membrane compartment stained by NBD C6-ceramide, a Golgi marker. Detergent extraction of erythroid cells in situ has suggested that a substantial fraction of the perinuclear pool of AE1 is cytoskeletal associated. The demonstration that erythroid anion exchangers interact with elements of the cytoskeleton during recycling to the Golgi suggests the cytoskeleton may be involved in the post-Golgi trafficking of this membrane transporter.
Project description:Distal nephron acid secretion is mediated by highly specialized type A intercalated cells (A-ICs), which contain vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-type ATPase)-rich vesicles that fuse with the apical plasma membrane on demand. Intracellular bicarbonate generated by luminal H+ secretion is removed by the basolateral anion-exchanger AE1. Chronically reduced renal acid excretion in distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) may lead to nephrocalcinosis and renal failure. Studies in MDCK monolayers led to the proposal of a dominant-negative trafficking mechanism to explain AE1-associated dominant dRTA. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we generated an Ae1 R607H knockin mouse, which corresponds to the most common dominant dRTA mutation in human AE1, R589H. Compared with wild-type mice, heterozygous and homozygous R607H knockin mice displayed incomplete dRTA characterized by compensatory upregulation of the Na+/HCO3- cotransporter NBCn1. Red blood cell Ae1-mediated anion-exchange activity and surface polypeptide expression did not change. Mutant mice expressed far less Ae1 in A-ICs, but basolateral targeting of the mutant protein was preserved. Notably, mutant mice also exhibited reduced expression of V-type ATPase and compromised targeting of this proton pump to the plasma membrane upon acid challenge. Accumulation of p62- and ubiquitin-positive material in A-ICs of knockin mice suggested a defect in the degradative pathway, which may explain the observed loss of A-ICs. R607H knockin did not affect type B intercalated cells. We propose that reduced basolateral anion-exchange activity in A-ICs inhibits trafficking and regulation of V-type ATPase, compromising luminal H+ secretion and possibly lysosomal acidification.
Project description:Mutations of SLC4A1 (AE1) encoding the kidney anion (Cl(-)/HCO(3) (-)) exchanger 1 (kAE1 or band 3) can result in either autosomal dominant (AD) or autosomal recessive (AR) distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). The molecular mechanisms associated with SLC4A1 mutations resulting in these different modes of inheritance are now being unveiled using transfected cell systems. The dominant mutants kAE1 R589H, R901X and S613F, which have normal or insignificant changes in anion transport function, exhibit intracellular retention with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization in cultured non-polarized and polarized cells, while the dominant mutants kAE1 R901X and G609R are mis-targeted to apical membrane in addition to the basolateral membrane in cultured polarized cells. A dominant-negative effect is likely responsible for the dominant disease because heterodimers of kAE1 mutants and the wild-type protein are intracellularly retained. The recessive mutants kAE1 G701D and S773P however exhibit distinct trafficking defects. The kAE1 G701D mutant is retained in the Golgi apparatus, while the misfolded kAE1 S773P, which is impaired in ER exit and is degraded by proteosome, can only partially be delivered to the basolateral membrane of the polarized cells. In contrast to the dominant mutant kAE1, heterodimers of the recessive mutant kAE1 and wild-type kAE1 are able to traffic to the plasma membrane. The wild-type kAE1 thus exhibits a 'dominant-positive effect' relative to the recessive mutant kAE1 because it can rescue the mutant proteins from intracellular retention to be expressed at the cell surface. Consequently, homozygous or compound heterozygous recessive mutations are required for presentation of the disease phenotype. Future work using animal models of dRTA will provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of this disease.
Project description:The human stomatin-like protein-1 (SLP-1) is a membrane protein with a characteristic bipartite structure containing a stomatin domain and a sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) domain. This structure suggests a role for SLP-1 in sterol/lipid transfer and transport. Because SLP-1 has not been investigated, we first studied the molecular and cell biological characteristics of the expressed protein. We show here that SLP-1 localizes to the late endosomal compartment, like stomatin. Unlike stomatin, SLP-1 does not localize to the plasma membrane. Overexpression of SLP-1 leads to the redistribution of stomatin from the plasma membrane to late endosomes suggesting a complex formation between these proteins. We found that the targeting of SLP-1 to late endosomes is caused by a GYXXPhi (Phi being a bulky, hydrophobic amino acid) sorting signal at the N terminus. Mutation of this signal results in plasma membrane localization. SLP-1 and stomatin co-localize in the late endosomal compartment, they co-immunoprecipitate, thus showing a direct interaction, and they associate with detergent-resistant membranes. In accordance with the proposed lipid transfer function, we show that, under conditions of blocked cholesterol efflux from late endosomes, SLP-1 induces the formation of enlarged, cholesterol-filled, weakly LAMP-2-positive, acidic vesicles in the perinuclear region. This massive cholesterol accumulation clearly depends on the SCP-2 domain of SLP-1, suggesting a role for this domain in cholesterol transfer to late endosomes.