High-efficient production of boron nitride nanosheets via an optimized ball milling process for lubrication in oil.
ABSTRACT: Although tailored wet ball milling can be an efficient method to produce a large quantity of two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, milling parameters including milling speed, ball-to-powder ratio, milling ball size and milling agent, are important for optimization of exfoliation efficiency and production yield. In this report, we systematically investigate the effects of different milling parameters on the production of BN nanosheets with benzyl benzoate being used as the milling agent. It is found that small balls of 0.1-0.2 mm in diameter are much more effective in exfoliating BN particles to BN nanosheets. Under the optimum condition, the production yield can be as high as 13.8% and the BN nanosheets are 0.5-1.5 ?m in diameter and a few nanometers thick and of relative high crystallinity and chemical purity. The lubrication properties of the BN nanosheets in base oil have also been studied. The tribological tests show that the BN nanosheets can greatly reduce the friction coefficient and wear scar diameter of the base oil.
Project description:Two-dimensional (2D) materials can be produced using ball milling with the help of liquid surfactants or solid exfoliation agents, as ball milling of bulk precursor materials usually produces nanosized particles because of high-energy impacts. Post-milling treatment is thus needed to purify the nanosheets. We show here that nanosheets of graphene, BN, and MoS2 can be produced by ball milling of their bulk crystals in the presence of ammonia or a hydrocarbon ethylene gas and the obtained nanosheets remain flat and maintain their single-crystalline structure with low defects density even after a long period of time; post-milling treatment is not needed. This study does not just demonstrate production of nanosheets using ball milling, but reveals surprising indestructible behaviour of 2D nanomaterials in ammonia or hydrocarbon gas under the high-energy impacts; in other milling atmospheres such as air, nitrogen or argon the same milling treatment produces nanosized particles. A systematic study reveals chemisorption of ammonia and hydrocarbon gases and chemical reactions occurring at defect sites, which heal the defects by saturating the dangling bonds. Density functional theory was used to understand the mechanism of mechanochemical reactions. Ball milling in ammonia or hydrocarbon is promising for mass-production of pure nanosheets.
Project description:Low-cost, high-yield production of graphene nanosheets (GNs) is essential for practical applications. We have achieved high yield of edge-selectively carboxylated graphite (ECG) by a simple ball milling of pristine graphite in the presence of dry ice. The resultant ECG is highly dispersable in various solvents to self-exfoliate into single- and few-layer (? 5 layers) GNs. These stable ECG (or GN) dispersions have been used for solution processing, coupled with thermal decarboxylation, to produce large-area GN films for many potential applications ranging from electronic materials to chemical catalysts. The electrical conductivity of a thermally decarboxylated ECG film was found to be as high as 1214 S/cm, which is superior to its GO counterparts. Ball milling can thus provide simple, but efficient and versatile, and eco-friendly (CO(2)-capturing) approaches to low-cost mass production of high-quality GNs for applications where GOs have been exploited and beyond.
Project description:Difficult separation of oil–solid phase and high fine content of the recovered oil were two problems in the treatment of oily sludge from the tank bottom by the hot water-based extraction process. To solve the problems, one technology with “ball milling + ozone-catalyzed oxidation” as the core was studied, and the process parameters of ball milling and ozone-catalyzed oxidation were respectively optimized. After ball milling treatment, the oil content of dry oily sludge decreased from 33.9 to 10.2%. Then, an ozone catalytic oxidation treatment technology with aluminum ore as the catalyst was developed to further treat this stubborn oily sludge. Under the optimal conditions, the oil content of oily sludge could be further reduced to 0.28%, which met the treatment and disposal requirements stipulated in GB4284-2018. For further research on the contribution of the catalyst to the ozone catalytic oxidation system, the reaction activation energy and reaction rates of ozone oxidation and ozone catalytic oxidation were compared from the perspective of kinetics. The results showed that, with the catalyst addition, the reaction rate constants increased about three times and the reaction activation energy reduced 82.26%, which showed the effectiveness of the catalyst on the kinetics quantitatively. The combined process with “ball milling + ozone-catalyzed oxidation” as the core can solve the two problems in the treatment of oily sludge from the tank bottom by hot water-based extraction and provides a reference for the harmless and resourceful treatment of oily sludge from the tank bottom.
Project description:The black phosphorus (BP) powders were prepared by high-energy ball milling with red phosphorus as the raw material, and then the BP nanosheets were obtained by liquid-phase exfoliation. The tribological properties of the BP nanosheets as oil-based lubricant additives were investigated by the ball-on-disc tribometer. Results show that compared with the base oil of liquid paraffin (LP), the coefficient of friction and wear rate of the BP nanosheets as the additives in liquid paraffin (BP-LP) are lower for the same loads. BP-LP lubricants could significantly improve the load-bearing capacity of the base oil for titanium alloy-steel contacts and show excellent friction-reducing and anti-wear properties. The surface morphologies and elemental compositions of the friction pairs were further analysed using an optional microscope, scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The lubrication mechanism of BP-LP can be attributed to the synergistic effects between lamellar adsorption and interlayer shear of BP nanosheets.
Project description:In this work, a planetary ball milling was used to modify the surface properties of calcite-based material from waste oyster shell under the rotational speed of 200-600 rpm, grinding time of 5-180 min and sample mass of 1-10 g. The milling significantly changed the microstructural properties of the calcite-based minerals (i.e., surface area, pore volume, true density, and porosity). The surface characterization of the resulting powder should be macroporous and/or nonporous based on the nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. Under the optimal conditions at the rotational speed of 400 rpm, grinding time of 30 min and sample mass of 5 g, the resulting calcite-based powder had larger specific surface area (i.e., 10.64 m²·g-¹) than the starting material (i.e., 4.05 m²·g-1). This finding was also consistent with the measurement of laser-diffraction (i.e., 9.7 vs. 15.0 μm of mean diameter). In addition, the results from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation indicated that surface roughness can be enhanced as particle size decreases as a result of particle-particle attrition. Thus, grinding the aquacultural bioresource by a high-energy ball milling can create the fine materials, which may be applied in the fields of inorganic minerals like aggregate and construction material.
Project description:The microstructural evolution, thermodynamics, and kinetics of Mo (21 wt %) Tm₂O₃ powder mixtures during ball milling were investigated using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Ball milling induced Tm₂O₃ to be decomposed and then dissolved into Mo crystal. After 96 h of ball milling, Tm₂O₃ was dissolved completely and the supersaturated nanocrystalline solid solution of Mo (Tm, O) was obtained. The Mo lattice parameter increased with increasing ball-milling time, opposite for the Mo grain size. The size and lattice parameter of Mo grains was about 8 nm and 0.31564 nm after 96 h of ball milling, respectively. Ball milling induced the elements of Mo, Tm, and O to be distributed uniformly in the ball-milled particles. Based on the semi-experimental theory of Miedema, a thermodynamic model was developed to calculate the driving force of phase evolution. There was no chemical driving force to form a crystal solid solution of Tm atoms in Mo crystal or an amorphous phase because the Gibbs free energy for both processes was higher than zero. For Mo (21 wt %) Tm₂O₃, it was mechanical work, not the negative heat of mixing, which provided the driving force to form a supersaturated nanocrystalline Mo (Tm, O) solid solution.
Project description:Nanocrystalline/amorphous powder was produced by ball milling of Ti50Cu25Ni20Sn? (at.%) master alloy. Both laser diffraction particle size analyzer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to monitor the changes in the particle size as well as in the shape of particles as a function of milling time. During ball milling, the average particle size decreased with milling time from >320 µm to ~38 µm after 180 min of milling. The deformation-induced hardening and phase transformation caused the hardness value to increase from 506 to 779 HV. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to observe the changes in the phases/amorphous content as a function of milling time. The amount of amorphous fraction increased continuously until 120 min milling (36 wt % amorphous content). The interval of crystallite size was between 1 and 10 nm after 180 min of milling with 25 wt % amorphous fractions. Cubic Cu(Ni,Cu)Ti? structure was transformed into the orthorhombic structure owing to the shear/stress, dislocations, and Cu substitution during the milling process.
Project description:This experimental work aims at investigating the effects of milling; sieving; and electrostatic separation on the biochemical methane potential of two olive pomaces from traditional olive oil extraction (M) and from a three-phase system (T). Sieving proved to be efficient for increasing the soluble chemical oxygen demand in the smallest fractions of the sieve of both M (62%) and T (78%) samples. The positive fraction following electrostatic separation also enhanced chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilisation by 94%, in comparison to sample T milled at 4 mm. Sieve fractions with a size greater than 0.9 mm contained 33% and 47% less lipids for the M and T biomasses; respectively. Dry fractionation modified sample properties as well as lipid and fiber distribution. Concomitantly; milling increased the accessibility and facilitated the release of organic matter. The energy balance was positive after knife milling and sieving; while ball milling and ultrafine milling proved to be inefficient.
Project description:The high coercivity of 26.2 kOe for SmCo5 nanoflakes are obtained by multistep (three steps) surfactant-assisted ball milling. The magnetic properties, phase structure and morphology are studied by VSM, XRD and SEM, respectively. The results demonstrate that the three step ball-milling can keep more complete crystallinity (relatively less defects) during the process of milling compared with one step high energy ball-milling, which enhances the texture degree and coercivity. In addition, the mechanism of coercivity are also studied by the temperature dependence of demagnetization curves for aligned SmCo5 nanoflakes/resin composite, the result indicates that the magnetization reversal could be controlled by co-existed mechanisms of pinning and nucleation.
Project description:Graphene shows great potential applications in functional coating, electrodes, and ultrasensitive sensors, but high-yield and scalable preparation of few-layer graphene (FLG) by mechanical exfoliation method is still a formidable challenge. In this work, a novel two-step method for high-yield preparation of FLG is developed by combining resonance ball milling and hydrothermal treatment. During the resonance ball milling process, the utilization of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles as a new "particle wedge" is beneficial to facilitate fragment and delamination of graphitic layers. In addition, further hydrothermal treatment can enhance ball milling product (BMP) exfoliation because of the shear force driven by the Brownian motion of various molecules at high temperature and high pressure. As expected, the two-step method can have high exfoliation efficiency up to 92% (?10 layers). Moreover, the FLG nanosheet ink can easily achieve the formation of FLG coatings on the surface of various substrates, resulting in good electrical conductivity, which possesses potential applications in various fields including functional coating, energy storages, and electrochemical sensors, etc. Our work provides a new-fashioned strategy for mechanical large-scale production of graphene.