Inhibition of expression of the circadian clock gene Period causes metabolic abnormalities including repression of glycometabolism in Bombyx mori cells.
ABSTRACT: Abnormalities in the circadian clock system are known to affect the body's metabolic functions, though the molecular mechanisms responsible remain uncertain. In this study, we achieved continuous knockdown of B. mori Period (BmPer) gene expression in the B. mori ovary cell line (BmN), and generated a Per-KD B. mori model with developmental disorders including small individual cells and slow growth. We conducted cell metabolomics assays by gas chromatography/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and showed that knockdown of BmPer gene expression resulted in significant inhibition of glycometabolism. Amino acids that used glucose metabolites as a source were also down-regulated, while lipid metabolism and nucleotide metabolism were significantly up-regulated. Metabolite correlation analysis showed that pyruvate and lactate were closely related to glycometabolism, as well as to metabolites such as aspartate, alanine, and xanthine in other pathways. Further validation experiments showed that the activities of the key enzymes of glucose metabolism, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and citrate synthase, were significantly decreased and transcription of their encoding genes, as well as that of pyruvate kinase, were also significantly down-regulated. We concluded that inhibition of the circadian clock gene BmPer repressed glycometabolism, and may be associated with changes in cellular amino acid metabolism, and in cell growth and development.
Project description:Circadian clock system disorders can lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. We used a Bombyx mori animal model of single Period gene (BmPer) expression to investigate this mechanism. A slow growing developmental cell model (Per-KD) was isolated from a B. mori ovarian cell line (BmN) by continuous knock down of BmPer expression. The effects of BmPer expression knockdown (Per-KD) on cell proliferation and apoptosis were opposite to those of m/hPer1 and m/hPer2 in mammals. The knockdown of BmPer expression led to cell cycle deceleration with shrinking of the BmN cell nucleus, and significant inhibition of nuclear DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. It also promoted autophagy via the lysosomal pathway, and accelerated apoptosis via the caspase pathway.
Project description:Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPK?1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes.
Project description:Background:Changes in glycometabolism of cancer cells provides cancer cells with growth advantages, which are also of great value in the prognosis prediction of the patients with lung adenocarcinoma. However, currently available studies are controversial. Methods:We successively collected 100 paired surgical specimens from patients with lung adenocarcinoma. The content of glycometabolic intermediates in tissues was tested by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Follow-up was conducted every 6 months for patients enrolled in this study. Results:There were significant differences in the contents of six intermediates, including glucose (P<0.0001), pyruvate (P=0.0009), lactate (P<0.0001), citrate (P=0.0001), ?-ketoglutarate (P=0.0002), and fumarate (P=0.0096). For different TNM stages, the pyruvate content (P<0.001) and lactate content (P<0.001) in the II/III/IV stage cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in the stage I cancer tissues. The overall survival (OS) of patients with high levels of glucose (P=0.0034), pyruvate (P<0.0001), lactate (P=0.049), and citrate (P=0.024) in cancer tissues was significantly worse than that of patients with low levels. N stage (P<0.001) and the contents of pyruvate (P=0.033) were independent prognostic factors for the OS. Conclusions:The contents of glucose, pyruvate, lactate, and citrate in cancer tissues are higher than that in para-carcinoma tissues, and the long-term survival decrease in patients with higher glucose, pyruvate, lactate, and citrate.
Project description:Numerous physiological processes of mammals, including bone metabolism, are regulated by the circadian clock system, which consists of a central regulator, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and the peripheral oscillators of the BMAL1/CLOCK-PERs/CRYs system. Various bone turnover markers and bone metabolism-regulating hormones such as melatonin and parathyroid hormone (PTH) display diurnal rhythmicity. According to previous research, disruption of the circadian clock due to shift work, sleep restriction, or clock gene knockout is associated with osteoporosis or other abnormal bone metabolism, showing the importance of the circadian clock system for maintaining homeostasis of bone metabolism. Moreover, common causes of osteoporosis, including postmenopausal status and aging, are associated with changes in the circadian clock. In our previous research, we found that agonism of the circadian regulators REV-ERBs inhibits osteoclast differentiation and ameliorates ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice, suggesting that clock genes may be promising intervention targets for abnormal bone metabolism. Moreover, osteoporosis interventions at different time points can provide varying degrees of bone protection, showing the importance of accounting for circadian rhythms for optimal curative effects in clinical treatment of osteoporosis. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about circadian rhythms and bone metabolism.
Project description:Ion transport peptide (ITP) and its alternatively spliced variant, ITP-like (ITPL), are insect peptides that belong to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family. These peptides modulate the homeostatic mechanisms for regulating energy metabolism, molting, and reproduction and are specifically conserved in ecdysozoans. Many of the details of the molecular mechanisms by which crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family peptides exert pleiotropy remain to be elucidated, including characterization of their receptors. Here we identified three Bombyx mori orphan neuropeptide G protein-coupled receptors (BNGRs), BNGR-A2, -A24, and -A34, as receptors for ITP and ITPL (collectively referred to as ITPs). BNGR-A2 and -A34 and BNGR-A24 respond to recombinant ITPs, respectively, with EC50 values of 1.1-2.6 × 10(-8) M, when expressed in a heterologous expression system. These three candidate BNGRs are expressed at larval B. mori tissues targeted by ITPs, with cGMP elevation observed after exposure to recombinant ITPs. ITPs also increased the cGMP level in B. mori ovary-derived BmN cells via membrane-bound and soluble guanylyl cyclases. The simultaneous knockdown of bngr-A2 and -A34 significantly decreased the response of BmN cells to ITP, whereas knockdown of bngr-A24 led to decreased responses to ITPL. Conversely, transient expression of bngr-A24 potentiated the response of BmN cells to ITPL. An in vitro binding assay showed direct interaction between ITPs and heterologously expressed BNGRs in a ligand-receptor-specific manner. Taken together, these data demonstrate that BNGR-A2 and -A34 are ITP receptors and that BNGR-A24 is an ITPL receptor in B. mori.
Project description:We identified a novel, 6,513-bp-long RNA, termed Bombyx mori macula-like latent virus (BmMLV) RNA, which abundantly expressed in B. mori cultured BmN cells. BmMLV RNA potentially encodes two proteins, putative RNA replicase and coat protein, which share structural features and sequence similarities with those of a plant RNA virus, the genus Maculavirus. Northern blot analysis showed that two transcripts were expressed in BmN cells: a 6.5-kb-long RNA, which contains both putative RNA replicase and coat protein genes, and a 1.2-kb-long RNA, which contains only a coat protein gene. Southern blot analysis showed that BmMLV RNA is not carried by the B. mori genome. RT-PCR analysis also revealed the presence of BmMLV RNA in several B. mori cell lines other than BmN cells, suggesting that BmMLV RNA latently exists in B. mori cultured cells. Infection studies showed that BmMLV virions were able to infect BmMLV-negative Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cells and B. mori larvae. Electron microscopy and Northern blot analysis of a purified BmMLV revealed that isometric virions appear to be 28 to 30 nm in diameter and contain a 6.5-kb genomic RNA. These results showed that BmMLV is a novel macula-like virus infectious to and replicable in B. mori-derived cells.
Project description:Circadian clocks are 24-h timing devices that phase cellular responses; coordinate growth, physiology, and metabolism; and anticipate the day-night cycle. Here we report sensitivity of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian oscillator to sucrose, providing evidence that plant metabolism can regulate circadian function. We found that the Arabidopsis circadian system is particularly sensitive to sucrose in the dark. These data suggest that there is a feedback between the molecular components that comprise the circadian oscillator and plant metabolism, with the circadian clock both regulating and being regulated by metabolism. We used also simulations within a three-loop mathematical model of the Arabidopsis circadian oscillator to identify components of the circadian clock sensitive to sucrose. The mathematical studies identified GIGANTEA (GI) as being associated with sucrose sensing. Experimental validation of this prediction demonstrated that GI is required for the full response of the circadian clock to sucrose. We demonstrate that GI acts as part of the sucrose-signaling network and propose this role permits metabolic input into circadian timing in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Bombyx mori is one of the key lepidopteran model species, and is economically important for silk production and proteinaceous drug expression. Baculovirus and insect host are important natural biological models for studying host-pathogen interactions. The impact of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) infection on the proteome and acetylome of Bombyx mori ovarian (BmN) cells were explored to facilitate a better understanding of infection-driven interactions between BmNPV and host in vitro. The proteome and acetylome were profiled through 6-plex Tandem mass tag (TMT) labelling-based quantitative proteomics. Totally, 4,194 host proteins were quantified, of which 33 were up-regulated and 47 were down-regulated in BmN cells at 36 h post-infection. Based on the proteome, quantifiable differential Kac proteins were identified and functionally annotated to gene expression regulation, energy metabolism, substance synthesis and metabolism after BmNPV infection. Altogether, 644 Kac sites in 431 host proteins and 39 Kac sites in 22 viral proteins were identified and quantified in infected BmN cells. Our study demonstrated that BmNPV infection globally impacts the proteome and acetylome of BmN cells. The viral proteins are also acetylated by the host acetyltransferase. Protein acetylation is essential for cellular self-regulation and response to virus infection. This study provides new insights for understanding the host-virus interaction mechanisms, and the role of acetylation in BmN cellular response to viral infection.
Project description:Circadian rhythms control metabolism and energy homeostasis, but the role of the skeletal muscle clock has never been explored. We generated conditional and inducible mouse lines with muscle-specific ablation of the core clock gene Bmal1. Skeletal muscles from these mice showed impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake with reduced protein levels of GLUT4, the insulin-dependent glucose transporter, and TBC1D1, a Rab-GTPase involved in GLUT4 translocation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity was also reduced due to altered expression of circadian genes Pdk4 and Pdp1, coding for PDH kinase and phosphatase, respectively. PDH inhibition leads to reduced glucose oxidation and diversion of glycolytic intermediates to alternative metabolic pathways, as revealed by metabolome analysis. The impaired glucose metabolism induced by muscle-specific Bmal1 knockout suggests that a major physiological role of the muscle clock is to prepare for the transition from the rest/fasting phase to the active/feeding phase, when glucose becomes the predominant fuel for skeletal muscle.
Project description:The circadian clock is encoded by a transcription-translation feedback loop that synchronizes behavior and metabolism with the light-dark cycle. Here we report that both the rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), and levels of NAD+ display circadian oscillations that are regulated by the core clock machinery in mice. Inhibition of NAMPT promotes oscillation of the clock gene Per2 by releasing CLOCK:BMAL1 from suppression by SIRT1. In turn, the circadian transcription factor CLOCK binds to and up-regulates Nampt, thus completing a feedback loop involving NAMPT/NAD+ and SIRT1/CLOCK:BMAL1.