Effects of cholecalciferol supplementation on serum and urinary vitamin D metabolites and binding protein in HIV-infected youth.
ABSTRACT: Vitamin D insufficiency is widespread in HIV-infected patients. HIV and/or antiretroviral therapy (ART), particularly efavirenz (EFV), may interfere with vitamin D metabolism. However, few data from randomized, controlled trials exist. Here, we investigate changes in vitamin D metabolites and binding protein (VDBP) after 6 months of supplementation in a randomized, active-control, double-blind trial investigating 2 different monthly cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) doses [60,000 (medium) or 120,000 (high) IU/month] vs. a control arm of 18,000 IU/month in 8-25year old HIV-infected youth on ART with HIV-1 RNA <1000 copies/mL and baseline 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3) ?30ng/mL. A matched healthy uninfected group was enrolled in a similar parallel study for comparison. Changes after 6 months were analyzed as intent-to-treat within/between groups [control group (low dose) vs. combined supplementation doses (medium+high)]. At 6 months, 55% vs. 82% of subjects in control and supplementation groups, respectively, reached 25(OH)D3 ?30ng/mL (P=0.01) with no difference between medium and high doses (both 82% ?30ng/mL). There were few differences for those on EFV vs. no-EFV, except serum VDBP decreased in EFV-treated subjects (both within- and between-groups P?0.01). There were no significant differences between the HIV-infected vs. healthy uninfected groups. The major finding of the present study is that cholecalciferol supplementation (60,000 or 120,000 IU/month) effectively raises serum 25(OH)D3 in the majority of HIV-infected subjects, regardless of EFV use. Notably, response to supplementation was similar to that of uninfected subjects.
Project description:HIV-infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to experience high rates of morbidity and mortality during the initial months of treatment. Observational studies in high-income and resource-limited settings indicate that HIV-infected adults with low vitamin D levels may be at increased risk of mortality, HIV disease progression, and incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). As a result, vitamin D3 supplementation may improve survival and treatment outcomes for HIV-infected adults initiating ART.The Trial of Vitamins-4 (ToV4) is an individually randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation conducted among 4000 HIV-infected adults with low vitamin D levels [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) <30 ng/mL] initiating ART in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The two primary aims of the trial are to determine the effect of a vitamin D3 supplementation regimen on incidence of (1) mortality and (2) pulmonary TB as compared to a matching placebo regimen. The primary safety outcome of the study is incident hypercalcemia. The investigational vitamin D3 regimen consists of oral supplements containing 50,000 IU vitamin D3 taken under direct observation at randomization and once a week for 3 weeks (four doses) followed by daily oral supplements containing 2000 IU vitamin D3 taken at home from the fourth week until trial discharge at 1 year post ART initiation. Trial participants are followed up at weekly clinic visits during the first month of ART and at monthly clinic visits thereafter until trial discharge at 1 year post ART initiation. Secondary aims of the trial are to examine the effect of the vitamin D3 regimen on CD4 T cell reconstitution, incidence of non-TB comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), depression and anxiety, physical activity, bone health, and immunologic biomarkers.The ToV4 will provide causal evidence on the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on incidence of pulmonary TB and mortality among HIV-infected Tanzanian adults initiating ART. The trial will also give insight to whether vitamin D3 supplementation trials for the prevention of pulmonary TB should be pursued in HIV-uninfected populations.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01798680 . Registered on 21 February 2013.
Project description:To compare 3 different treatment regimens for vitamin D deficiency in minority adolescents and to explore factors that impact treatment efficacy.We conducted an 8-week, prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial in an urban, academic, children's hospital. A total of 183 vitamin D-deficient adolescents, mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D 13.7 ± 3.9 ng/mL; mean age 16.6 ± 2.2 years, were randomized into 3 vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) treatment arms: 50,000 IU/wk; 5000 IU/d; and 1000 IU/d. Serum 25(OH)D and vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) levels were measured pre-and posttreatment; 122 (67%) participants completed posttreatment measures. Complete-case and multiple-imputation, intention-to-treat analyses were performed.Mean change in 25(OH)D level posttreatment was significantly different among the 3 arms, 24.9 ± 15.1 vs 21.0 ± 15.2 vs 6.2 ± 6.5 ng/mL, for 50,000 IU, 5000 IU, and 1000 IU doses, respectively, P < .001. Both high-dose treatments were effective in increasing the 25(OH)D level out of deficiency range (? 20 ng/mL) in more than 80% of participants, and 60% remained deficient after low-dose treatment. Only 72%, 56%, and 2% achieved vitamin D sufficiency (>30 ng/mL) with 50,000 IU, 5000 IU, and 1000 IU doses, respectively, P < .001. Obese participants had substantially less mean change in 25(OH)D level after treatment than normal-weight participants, 13.7 ± 10.7 vs 21.9 ± 16.9 ng/mL, P < .001. Mean baseline VDBP level was almost twice as high in Hispanic compared with black participants (P < .001) and did not alter treatment response or change with treatment.Adult-sized adolescents require 8 weeks of high-dose cholecalciferol, at least 5000 IU/d, to correct deficiency. Obese adolescents have poorer response to treatment and may need higher doses than nonobese youth. Hispanic and black adolescents have different VDBP levels but similar treatment responses.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01784029.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tenofovir (TDF) is associated with phosphaturia and elevated 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-OH(2)D). Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) causes phosphaturia and increases in response to elevated 1,25-OH(2)D. Vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) binds to 1,25-OH(2)D, decreasing its biological activity, and is elevated in individuals with higher plasma tenofovir concentrations. We compared FGF23 and VDBP before and after vitamin D3 (VITD) supplementation in youths treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing or not containing TDF. METHODS:A randomized controlled trial in HIV-positive youths aged 18-25 years enrolled participants based on cART treatment with TDF (TDF; n=118) or without TDF (no-TDF; n=85), and randomized within those groups to VITD (50,000 IU every 4 weeks) or placebo (PL). We measured FGF23 and VDBP and calculated free 1,25-OH(2)D at baseline and week 12, and compared changes by TDF treatment and VITD randomized group. RESULTS:At baseline, serum FGF23 concentration showed a quadratic relationship with 1,25-OH(2)D most pronounced in the TDF group. At week 12, total and free 1,25-OH(2)D increased in the VITD but not PL groups, independent of TDF use. FGF23 increased in the TDF group receiving VITD, but there was no FGF23 change in the no-TDF group receiving VITD or the PL groups. The adjusted mean change in FGF23 from baseline to week 12 was 7.7 pg/ml in the TDF/VITD group, compared with -1.7 (no-TDF/VITD, P=0.010), -1.3 (TDF/PL, P=0.006) and 1.1 (no-TDF/PL, P=0.035). CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that TDF-containing cART may alter the FGF23 response to vitamin D supplementation in HIV-infected youths. Clinical trials number: NCT00490412.
Project description:Recommendations for vitamin D supplementation for preterm infants span a wide range of doses. Response to vitamin D supplementation and impact on outcomes in preterm infants is not well understood.Evaluate serum 25(OH)D3 concentration changes after 4 weeks in response to two different doses of vitamin D3 supplementation in a population of premature infants and quantify the impact on NICU outcomes.32 infants born at 24-32 weeks gestation were prospectively randomized to receive 400 or 800 IU/day vitamin D3 supplementation. Serum 25(OH)D3 levels were measured every 4 weeks. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare serum levels of 25(OH)D3 at 4 weeks and each subsequent time point. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Serum 25(OH)D3 levels at birth were 41.9 and 42.9 nmol/l for infants in the 400 IU group and 800 IU group, respectively (p = 0.86). Cord 25(OH)D3 concentrations significantly correlated with gestational age (r = 0.40, p = 0.04). After 4 weeks of D3 supplementation, median 25(OH)D3 levels increased in both groups (84.6vs. 105.3 nmol/l for 400 vs. 800 IU/day respectively, with significantly more improvement in the higher dose (p = 0.048). Infants in the 400 IU group were significantly more likely to have dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) bone density measurements <10 percentile (56% vs 16%, p = 0.04).Improvement in 25(OH)D3 levels at 4 weeks, bone density, and trends towards improvement in linear growth support consideration of a daily dose of 800 IU of vitamin D for infants <32 weeks cared for in the NICU.
Project description:Vitamin D may play a role in performance and injury risk, yet the required supplementation dosage for collegiate athletes is unclear. The objective of this study was to define the dosage of vitamin D3 supplementation required to beneficially affect serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) among a sample of collegiate basketball athletes. This was a quasi-experimental trial, participants were allocated to one of three groups of vitamin D3 daily at the beginning of pre-season training and dependent upon their baseline vitamin D status as follows: insufficient (<75 nmol/L) to 10,000 IU, sufficient (75-125 nmol/L) to 5000 IU and optimal (>125 nmol/L) to no supplementation. Follow-up assessments were completed ~ 5 months later in post season. The majority (n = 13) were allocated to 10,000 IU vs. n = 5 to 5000 IU and n = 2 to no supplementation. The 10,000 IU group showed the greatest change (35.0 ± 27.0 nmol/L) vs. the 5000 IU group (-9.3 ± 9.6 nmol/L) and no supplementation group (-41.6 ± 11.7 nmol/L, p < 0.01). Only 1 participant reached optimal status in the 10,000 IU group. In conclusion, a daily dosage of 10,000 IU vitamin D3 supplementation mitigated the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among collegiate basketball players but was insufficient for all to reach sufficient levels.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>We recently published two independent randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy, both indicating a >20% reduced risk of asthma/recurrent wheeze in the offspring by 3 years of age. However, neither reached statistical significance.<br><br><b>Objective: </b>To perform a combined analysis of the two trials and investigate whether maternal 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) level at trial entry modified the intervention effect.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>VDAART (N = 806) and COPSAC2010. (N = 581) randomized pregnant women to daily high-dose vitamin D3 (4,000 IU/d and 2,400 IU/d, respectively) or placebo. All women also received a prenatal vitamin containing 400 IU/d vitamin D3. The primary outcome was asthma/recurrent wheeze from 0-3yrs. Secondary end-points were specific IgE, total IgE, eczema and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). We conducted random effects combined analyses of the treatment effect, individual patient data (IPD) meta-analyses, and analyses stratified by 25(OH)D level at study entry.<br><br><b>Results: </b>The analysis showed a 25% reduced risk of asthma/recurrent wheeze at 0-3yrs: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.74 (95% CI, 0.57-0.96), p = 0.02. The effect was strongest among women with 25(OH)D level ?30ng/ml at study entry: aOR = 0.54 (0.33-0.88), p = 0.01, whereas no significant effect was observed among women with 25(OH)D level <30ng/ml at study entry: aOR = 0.84 (0.62-1.15), p = 0.25. The IPD meta-analyses showed similar results. There was no effect on the secondary end-points.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>This combined analysis shows that vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy results in a significant reduced risk of asthma/recurrent wheeze in the offspring, especially among women with 25(OH)D level ? 30 ng/ml at randomization, where the risk was almost halved. Future studies should examine the possibility of raising 25(OH)D levels to at least 30 ng/ml early in pregnancy or using higher doses than used in our studies.<br><br><b>Trial registration: </b>COPSAC2010: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00856947; VDAART: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00920621.
Project description:Background:Insulin resistance and lipid changes are common after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Observational studies suggest that vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of developing diabetes and improves lipid profiles. Methods:This 48-week prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated high-dose vitamin D3 (4000 IU daily) plus calcium supplementation (1000 mg calcium carbonate daily) in HIV-infected participants initiating ART with efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir (EFV/FTC/TDF). Changes in insulin resistance (as estimated by homeostatic model assessment), fasting lipid profile, and components of the metabolic syndrome were assessed at baseline, 24 weeks, and 48 weeks. Stratified Wilcoxon rank sum tests and stratified normal score tests were used to evaluate differences between treatment arms, stratified by screening 25-OH vitamin D stratum (?/>20 ng/mL). Results:A total of 165 participants enrolled: 79 in the vitamin D/calcium (Vit D/Cal) arm and 86 in the placebo arm. Only the placebo arm experienced a modest increase in insulin resistance at week 24 (P < .001). While increases in total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significant in both arms at weeks 24 and 48, increases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at week 24 were only identified in the placebo arm (P = .011). Body mass index remained stable, whereas modest increases in waist circumference were observed in the placebo arm. Metabolic syndrome was present in 19 participants (12%) at baseline and 20 participants (14%) at week 48, without differences between arms. Conclusions:Vit D/Cal supplementation over 48 weeks did not alter the lipid profile or glucose metabolism experienced with initiation of EFV/FTC/TDF in ART-naïve persons. Vitamin D supplementation is unlikely to be an effective strategy to attenuate metabolic dysregulations with ART initiation.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency may contribute to musculoskeletal symptoms and bone loss observed in women taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs). This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D levels in women initiating adjuvant letrozole for breast cancer and to determine whether supplementation with 50,000 IU of vitamin D3 weekly could reduce musculoskeletal symptoms and fatigue in women who have suboptimal vitamin D levels. Sixty women about to begin an adjuvant AI were enrolled. Baseline 25OHD levels were obtained, and women completed symptom questionnaires. They were then started on letrozole, along with standard dose calcium and vitamin D. Four weeks later, women with baseline 25OHD levels </=40 ng/ml started additional vitamin D3 supplementation at 50,000 IU per week for 12 weeks. 25OHD levels were re-assessed at 4, 10, and 16 weeks; the questionnaires were repeated at weeks 4 and 16. At baseline, 63% of women exhibited vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) or insufficiency (20-31 ng/ml). 25OHD levels >40 ng/ml were achieved in all 42 subjects who received 12 weeks of supplementation with 50,000 IU vitamin D3 weekly, with no adverse effects. After 16 weeks of letrozole, more women with 25OHD levels >66 ng/ml (median level) reported no disability from joint pain than did women with levels <66 ng/ml (52 vs. 19%; P = 0.026). Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are prevalent in post-menopausal women initiating adjuvant AI. Vitamin D3 supplementation with 50,000 IU per week is safe, significantly increases 25OHD levels, and may reduce disability from AI-induced arthralgias.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antenatal vitamin D status may be associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes; however, the benefits of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy remain unknown. METHODS:We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial to evaluate the effect of high-dose prenatal 3rd trimester vitamin D3 supplementation on maternal and neonatal (cord blood) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration (primary biochemical efficacy outcome) and maternal serum calcium concentration (primary safety measure). Eligibility criteria were pregnant women aged 18 to <35 years, at 26 to 29 weeks gestation, and residing in Dhaka, Bangladesh. 160 women were randomized by 1:1 allocation to one of two parallel intervention groups; placebo (n?=?80) or 35,000 IU/week of vitamin D3 (n?=?80) until delivery. All participants, study personnel and study investigators were blind to treatment allocation. RESULTS:Mean maternal 25(OH)D concentration was similar in the vitamin D and placebo groups at baseline (45 vs. 44 nmol/L; p?=?0.66), but was significantly higher in the vitamin D group vs. placebo group among mothers at delivery (134 vs. 38 nmol/L; p?<?0.001) and newborns (cord blood: 103 vs. 39; p?<?0.001). In the vitamin D group, 95% of neonates and 100% of mothers attained 25(OH)D?>50 nmol/L, versus 21% mothers and 19% of neonates in the placebo group. No participants met criteria for hypercalcemia, there were no known supplement-related adverse events, and major pregnancy outcomes were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS:Antenatal 3rd-trimester vitamin D3 supplementation (35,000 IU/week) significantly raised maternal and cord serum 25(OH)D concentrations above 50 nmol/L in almost all participants without inducing hypercalcemia or other observed safety concerns. Doses up to 35,000 IU/week may be cautiously used in further research aimed at establishing the clinical effects and safety of vitamin D3 supplementation in pregnancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01126528).
Project description:Suboptimal vitamin D (vitD) status is common in children and young adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The vitD supplemental dose needed to normalize vitD status in this population is unknown.In this double-blind trial, subjects infected with HIV ages 8.3 to 24.9 years were randomized to vitD3 supplementation of 4000 IU/day or 7000 IU/day and evaluated at 6 and 12 week for changes in vitD status and HIV indicators. A dose was considered unsafe if serum calcium was elevated (above age and sex-specific range) associated with elevated serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D); >160 ng/mL).At baseline, 95% of subjects (n = 44; 43% with perinatally acquired HIV, 57% with behaviorally acquired HIV) had a suboptimal serum 25(OH)D concentration of <32 ng/mL (mean ± standard deviation, 19.3 ± 7.4; range, 4.4-33.6 ng/mL). After 12 weeks (main outcome) of D3 supplementation, both D3 doses were safe and well tolerated, with no evidence of elevation of serum calcium concentrations or deterioration in HIV immunologic or virologic status. Sufficient vitD status, defined as serum 25(OH)D ?32 ng/mL, was achieved in 81% of all subjects, and only the 7000 IU/day group (86%) achieved this a priori efficacy criterion in >80% of subjects. Change in serum 25(OH)D did not differ between HIV acquisition groups.A 7000 IU/day D3 supplementation was safe and effective in children and young adults infected with HIV.