Viral transport of DNA damage that mimics a stalled replication fork.
ABSTRACT: Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) infection incites cells to arrest with 4N DNA content or die if the p53 pathway is defective. This arrest depends on AAV2 DNA, which is single stranded with inverted terminal repeats that serve as primers during viral DNA replication. Here, we show that AAV2 DNA triggers damage signaling that resembles the response to an aberrant cellular DNA replication fork. UV treatment of AAV2 enhances the G2 arrest by generating intrastrand DNA cross-links which persist in infected cells, disrupting viral DNA replication and maintaining the viral DNA in the single-stranded form. In cells, such DNA accumulates into nuclear foci with a signaling apparatus that involves DNA polymerase delta, ATR, TopBP1, RPA, and the Rad9/Rad1/Hus1 complex but not ATM or NBS1. Focus formation and damage signaling strictly depend on ATR and Chk1 functions. Activation of the Chk1 effector kinase leads to the virus-induced G2 arrest. AAV2 provides a novel way to study the cellular response to abnormal DNA replication without damaging cellular DNA. By using the AAV2 system, we show that in human cells activation of phosphorylation of Chk1 depends on TopBP1 and that it is a prerequisite for the appearance of DNA damage foci.
Project description:Coordination of the cellular response to DNA damage is organised by multi-domain 'scaffold' proteins, including 53BP1 and TOPBP1, which recognise post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, methylation and ubiquitylation on other proteins, and are themselves carriers of such regulatory signals. Here we show that the DNA damage checkpoint regulating S-phase entry is controlled by a phosphorylation-dependent interaction of 53BP1 and TOPBP1. BRCT domains of TOPBP1 selectively bind conserved phosphorylation sites in the N-terminus of 53BP1. Mutation of these sites does not affect formation of 53BP1 or ATM foci following DNA damage, but abolishes recruitment of TOPBP1, ATR and CHK1 to 53BP1 damage foci, abrogating cell cycle arrest and permitting progression into S-phase. TOPBP1 interaction with 53BP1 is structurally complimentary to its interaction with RAD9-RAD1-HUS1, allowing these damage recognition factors to bind simultaneously to the same TOPBP1 molecule and cooperate in ATR activation in the G1 DNA damage checkpoint.
Project description:We examined genotoxic signaling and cell fate decisions in response to a potent DNA-protein crosslinker formaldehyde (FA). DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC) are poorly understood lesions produced by bifunctional carcinogens and several cancer drugs. FA-treated human cells showed a rapid activation of ATR kinase that preferentially targeted the p53 transcription factor at low doses and CHK1 kinase at more severe damage, producing bell-shaped and sublinear responses, respectively. CHK1 phosphorylation was transient, and its loss was accompanied by increased p53 accumulation and Ser15 phosphorylation. Activation of p53 was insensitive to inhibition of mismatch repair and nucleotide and base excision repair, excluding the role of small DNA adducts in this response. The p53-targeted signaling was transcription-independent, absent in quiescent cells and specific to S-phase in cycling populations. Unlike other S-phase stressors, FA-activated p53 was functional transcriptionally, promoted apoptosis in lung epithelial cells and caused senescence in normal lung fibroblasts. FA did not induce ATR, RAD1 or RPA foci, and p53 phosphorylation was TopBP1-independent, indicating a noncanonical mode of ATR activation. Replication arrest by FA caused a dissociation of ATR from a chromatin-loaded MCM helicase but no PCNA monoubiquitination associated with stalled polymerases. These results suggest that unlike typical DNA adducts that stall DNA polymerases, replication inhibition by bulkier DPC largely results from blocking upstream MCM helicase, which prevents accumulation of ssDNA. Overall, our findings indicate that S-phase-specific, TopBP1-independent activation of the ATR-p53 axis is a critical stress response to FA-DPC, which has implications for understanding of FA carcinogenesis.
Project description:TopBP1 and Claspin are adaptor proteins that facilitate phosphorylation of Chk1 by the ATR kinase in response to genotoxic stress. Despite their established requirement for Chk1 activation, the exact way in which TopBP1 and Claspin control Chk1 phosphorylation remains unclear. We show that TopBP1 tightly colocalizes with ATR in distinct nuclear subcompartments generated by DNA damage. Although depletion of TopBP1 by RNA interference (RNAi) strongly impaired phosphorylation of multiple ATR targets, including Chk1, Nbs1, Smc1, and H2AX, it did not interfere with ATR assembly at the sites of DNA damage. These findings challenge the current concept of ATR activation by recruitment to damaged DNA. In contrast, Claspin, like Chk1, remained distributed throughout the nucleus both before and after DNA damage. Consistently, the RNAi-mediated ablation of Claspin selectively abrogated ATR's ability to phosphorylate Chk1 but not other ATR targets. In addition, downregulation of Claspin mimicked Chk1 inactivation by inducing spontaneous DNA damage. Finally, we show that TopBP1 is required for the DNA damage-induced interaction between Claspin and Chk1. Together, these results suggest that while TopBP1 is a general regulator of ATR, Claspin operates downstream of TopBP1 to selectively regulate the Chk1-controlled branch of the genotoxic stress response.
Project description:ATR kinase is a critical upstream regulator of the checkpoint response to various forms of DNA damage. Previous studies have shown that ATR is recruited via its binding partner ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) to replication protein A (RPA)-covered single-stranded DNA (RPA-ssDNA) generated at sites of DNA damage where ATR is then activated by TopBP1 to phosphorylate downstream targets including the Chk1 signal transducing kinase. However, this critical feature of the human ATR-initiated DNA damage checkpoint signaling has not been demonstrated in a defined system. Here we describe an in vitro checkpoint system in which RPA-ssDNA and TopBP1 are essential for phosphorylation of Chk1 by the purified ATR-ATRIP complex. Checkpoint defective RPA mutants fail to activate ATR kinase in this system, supporting the conclusion that this system is a faithful representation of the in vivo reaction. Interestingly, we find that an alternative form of RPA (aRPA), which does not support DNA replication, can substitute for the checkpoint function of RPA in vitro, thus revealing a potential role for aRPA in the activation of ATR kinase. We also find that TopBP1 is recruited to RPA-ssDNA in a manner dependent on ATRIP and that the N terminus of TopBP1 is required for efficient recruitment and activation of ATR kinase.
Project description:DNA damage checkpoint activation can be subdivided in two steps: initial activation and signal amplification. The events distinguishing these two phases and their genetic determinants remain obscure. TopBP1, a mediator protein containing multiple BRCT domains, binds to and activates the ATR/ATRIP complex through its ATR-Activation Domain (AAD). We show that Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rad4(TopBP1) AAD-defective strains are DNA damage sensitive during G1/S-phase, but not during G2. Using lacO-LacI tethering, we developed a DNA damage-independent assay for checkpoint activation that is Rad4(TopBP1) AAD-dependent. In this assay, checkpoint activation requires histone H2A phosphorylation, the interaction between TopBP1 and the 9-1-1 complex, and is mediated by the phospho-binding activity of Crb2(53BP1). Consistent with a model where Rad4(TopBP1) AAD-dependent checkpoint activation is ssDNA/RPA-independent and functions to amplify otherwise weak checkpoint signals, we demonstrate that the Rad4(TopBP1) AAD is important for Chk1 phosphorylation when resection is limited in G2 by ablation of the resecting nuclease, Exo1. We also show that the Rad4(TopBP1) AAD acts additively with a Rad9 AAD in G1/S phase but not G2. We propose that AAD-dependent Rad3(ATR) checkpoint amplification is particularly important when DNA resection is limiting. In S. pombe, this manifests in G1/S phase and relies on protein-chromatin interactions.
Project description:TopBP1, a multiple-BRCT-containing protein, plays diverse functions in DNA metabolism including DNA replication, DNA damage response and transcriptional regulation. The cytoplasmic localization of TopBP1 has been found to be associated with breast cancer susceptibility in clinical studies, suggesting the biological significance of TopBP1's sub-cellular localization. However, it remains elusive how TopBP1 is shuttled into nucleus and recruited to chromatin under normal or stressful conditions. Taking advantage of Xenopus egg extract, we identified Importin ? as a new interacting protein of the TopBP1 C-terminus. We verified the TopBP1-Importin ? association via GST pulldown and coimmunoprecipitation assays. We then demonstrated that TopBP1's C-terminal motif (designated as CTM, 23 amino acids) containing a putative NLS (nuclear localization signal) was required for Importin ? interaction and that CT100 of Importin ? (100 amino acids of extreme C-terminus of Importin ?) was required for TopBP1 interaction. Further structure-function analysis reveals that the CTM of TopBP1 is essential for TopBP1's nuclear import and subsequent chromatin recruitment, thereby playing important roles in DNA replication and mitomycin C (MMC)-induced Chk1 phosphorylation. In addition, Importin ?-specific inhibitor importazole inhibits TopBP1's nuclear import and the MMC-induced Chk1 phosphorylation. With ongoing DNA replication, the Importin ?-dependent nuclear import of TopBP1 was indeed required for the MMC-induced Chk1 phosphorylation. Our data also suggest that checkpoint activation requires more TopBP1 than DNA replication does. The requirement of TopBP1's CTM motif for ATR-Chk1 checkpoint can be bypassed in a nucleus-free AT70 system. Taken together, our findings suggest that the CTM motif-mediated TopBP1 shuttling into nucleus via Importin ? plays an important role in the ATR-Chk1 checkpoint signaling in Xenopus egg extracts.
Project description:Hyperthermia is widely used to treat patients with cancer, especially in combination with other treatments such as radiation therapy. Heat treatment per se activates DNA damage responses mediated by the ATR-Chk1 and ATM-Chk2 pathways but it is not fully understood how these DNA damage responses are activated and affect heat tolerance. By performing a genetic analysis of human HeLa cells and chicken B lymphoma DT40 cells, we found that heat-induced Chk1 Ser345 phosphorylation by ATR was largely dependent on Rad9, Rad17, TopBP1 and Claspin. Activation of the ATR-Chk1 pathway by heat, however, was not associated with FancD2 monoubiquitination or RPA32 phosphorylation, which are known as downstream events of ATR kinase activation when replication forks are stalled. Downregulation of ATR, Rad9, Rad17, TopBP1 or Claspin drastically reduced clonogenic cell viability upon hyperthermia, while gene knockout or inhibition of ATM kinase reduced clonogenic viability only modestly. Suppression of the ATR-Chk1 pathway activation enhanced heat-induced phosphorylation of Chk2 Thr68 and simultaneous inhibition of ATR and ATM kinases rendered severe heat cytotoxicity. These data indicate that essential factors for activation of the ATR-Chk1 pathway at stalled replication forks are also required for heat-induced activation of ATR kinase, which predominantly contributes to heat tolerance in a non-overlapping manner with ATM kinase.
Project description:The DNA damage response (DDR) is brought about by a protein kinase cascade that orchestrates DNA repair through transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. Cell cycle arrest is a hallmark of the DDR. We screened for cells that lacked damage-induced cell cycle arrest and uncovered a critical role for Fanconi anemia and homologous recombination proteins in ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related) signaling. Three DDR candidates, the RNA processing protein INTS7, the circadian transcription factor CLOCK, and a previously uncharacterized protein RHINO, were recruited to sites of DNA damage. RHINO independently bound the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex (9-1-1) and the ATR activator TopBP1. RHINO was recruited to sites of DNA damage by the 9-1-1 complex to promote Chk1 activation. We suggest that RHINO functions together with the 9-1-1 complex and TopBP1 to fully activate ATR.
Project description:DNA replication is executed only when cells have sufficient metabolic resources and undamaged DNA. Nutrient limitation and DNA damage cause a metabolic checkpoint and DNA damage checkpoint, respectively. Although SIRT1 activity is regulated by metabolic stress and DNA damage, its function in these stress-mediated checkpoints remains elusive. Here we report that the SIRT1-TopBP1 axis functions as a switch for both checkpoints. With glucose deprivation, SIRT1 is activated and deacetylates TopBP1, resulting in TopBP1-Treslin disassociation and DNA replication inhibition. Conversely, SIRT1 activity is inhibited under genotoxic stress, resulting in increased TopBP1 acetylation that is important for the TopBP1-Rad9 interaction and activation of the ATR-Chk1 pathway. Mechanistically, we showed that acetylation of TopBP1 changes the conformation of TopBP1, thereby facilitating its interaction with distinct partners in DNA replication and checkpoint activation. Taken together, our studies identify the SIRT1-TopBP1 axis as a key signaling mode in the regulation of the metabolic checkpoint and the DNA damage checkpoint.
Project description:Three phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-related protein kinases implement cellular responses to DNA damage. DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated respond primarily to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Ataxia-telangiectasia and RAD3-related (ATR) signals the accumulation of replication protein A (RPA)-covered single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which is caused by replication obstacles. Stalled replication intermediates can further degenerate and yield replication-associated DSBs. In this paper, we show that the juxtaposition of a double-stranded DNA end and a short ssDNA gap triggered robust activation of endogenous ATR and Chk1 in human cell-free extracts. This DNA damage signal depended on DNA-PKcs and ATR, which congregated onto gapped linear duplex DNA. DNA-PKcs primed ATR/Chk1 activation through DNA structure-specific phosphorylation of RPA32 and TopBP1. The synergistic activation of DNA-PKcs and ATR suggests that the two kinases combine to mount a prompt and specific response to replication-born DSBs.