Can Limited Education of Lung Ultrasound Be Conducted to Medical Students Properly? A Pilot Study.
ABSTRACT: Objectives. Lung ultrasonography (LUS) is a useful examination to identify lung problems. Unfortunately, there are currently no LUS educational programs for medical students. We designed a brief LUS training course for medical students during the ED rotation. The purpose of training was improving cognitive and psychomotor learning domains, knowledge of ultrasound, knowledge of LUS, image acquisition, and image interpretation. Methods. Forty students in their fourth year of medical school were enrolled in this study. Student achievement was evaluated through examinations of cognitive and psychomotor skills. A survey was administered following the training. Results. The average test result was 42.1 ± 13.7 before training and 82.6 ± 10.7 after training. With respect to the assessment of LUS performance, the acceptable rates for right and left anterior chest wall scanning and right and left posterolateral scanning were 95%, 97.5%, 92.5%, and 100%, respectively. The students felt a high level of confidence in their ability to administer LUS to patients after training and they agreed that inclusion of LUS training in the medical school curriculum is necessary. Conclusion. This study showed that, among the medical students without ultrasound experience, limited LUS education to improve their knowledge, image acquisition, and interpretation ability was successful.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The point-of-care ultrasound of the airway (POCUS-A) is a useful examination method but there are currently no educational programs for medical students regarding it. We designed a POCUS-A training curriculum for medical students to improve three cognitive and psychomotor learning domains: knowledge of POCUS-A, image acquisition, and image interpretation. METHODS:Two hours of training were provided to 52 medical students in their emergency medicine (EM) rotation. Students were evaluated for cognitive and psychomotor skills before and immediately after the training. The validity measures were established with the help of six specialists and eight EM residents. A survey was administered following the curriculum. RESULTS:Cognitive skill significantly improved after the training (38.7±12.4 vs. 91.2±7.7) and there was no significant difference between medical students and EM residents in posttest scores (91.2±7.7 vs. 90.8±4.6). The success rate of overall POCUS-A performance was 95.8%. The students were confident to perform POCUS-A on an actual patient and strongly agreed to incorporate POCUS-A training in their medical school curriculum. CONCLUSION:Cognitive and psychomotor skills of POCUS-A among medical students can be improved via a limited curriculum on EM rotation.
Project description:PURPOSE:Recently, some attempts have been made to integrate lung ultrasound (LUS) teaching into medical curricula. However, current education studies of LUS are extremely heterogeneous due to the lack of evidence-based guidelines on LUS education. In particular, the assessment of competencies is poorly standardized and mostly relies on non-validated scales. A new validated tool, the objective structured assessment of lung ultrasound skills (LUS-OSAUS), has the potential to overcome these limitations. Therefore, we adopted the LUS-OSAUS tool to assess the competencies of a group of LUS-trained undergraduates. Existing no prior practical applications of the LUS-OSAUS, our aim was to investigate the practical utility of this tool and its applicability in the evaluation of US-trained medical students. METHODS:Eight undergraduates (two males, six females) were enrolled on a voluntary basis to receive a theoretical and practical training in LUS. Once completed their training, each student performed an LUS examination on a different patient hospitalized for respiratory symptoms. The same eight patients were also scanned by a senior resident in emergency medicine for a comparison with students' results. Students and the senior resident were tested by an examiner using the LUS-OSAUS tool. We compared the scores obtained by operators in all areas of competence of the LUS-OSAUS, the total scores, and the time needed to complete the sonographic task. RESULTS:Median students' score in the single items of the scale was significantly lower than the ones obtained by the senior resident (4.0 [3.3-5.0] vs. 5.0 [5.0-5.0]; p?<?0.0001). Students scored significantly lower than the senior resident in each item, except for B-line identification, choice of the correct transducer, and suggested focused questions. Median total score was also lower for students compared to the senior resident (70.5 [61.0-74.8] vs. 84.0 [83.5-84.3] (p?=?0.0116). Median time required to complete the examination was significantly higher for students (14.1 [12.8-16.1] vs. 4.7 [3.9-5.2] min, p?=?0.0117). CONCLUSIONS:The LUS-OSAUS tool allowed for a standardized and comprehensive assessment of student's competencies in lung ultrasound, and helped to discriminate their level of expertise from that of a more experienced operator. The scale also specifically tests the theoretical knowledge of trainees, thus making redundant the use of questionnaires designed for this purpose.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Ultrasound, a versatile diagnostic modality that permits real-time visualization at the patient's bedside, can be used as an adjunct in teaching physical diagnosis (PD). AIMS: (1) to study the feasibility of incorporating ultrasound into PD courses and (2) determine whether learners can demonstrate image recognition and acquisition skills. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Three hundred seven second-year medical students were introduced to cardiovascular and abdominal ultrasound scanning after training in the physical examination. This consisted of a demonstration of the ultrasound examination, followed by practice on standardized patients (SPs). Pre-post tests were administered to evaluate students' knowledge and understanding of ultrasound. Students performed an ultrasound examination during the PD final examination. PROGRAM EVALUATION: Pre-post test data revealed significant improvements in image recognition. On the final exam, the highest scores (98.4%) were obtained for the internal jugular vein and lowest scores (74.6%) on the Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma images. Eighty-nine percent of students' surveyed felt ultrasound was a valuable tool for physicians. DISCUSSION: An introductory ultrasound course is effective in improving medical students' acquisition and recognition of basic cardiovascular and abdominal ultrasound images. This innovative program demonstrates the feasibility of incorporating portable ultrasound as a learning tool during medical school.
Project description:Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of hands-on training at a bedside ultrasound (US) symposium ("Ultrafest") to improve both clinical knowledge and image acquisition skills of medical students. Primary outcome measure was improvement in multiple choice questions on pulmonary or Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST) US knowledge. Secondary outcome was improvement in image acquisition for either pulmonary or FAST.Prospective cohort study of 48 volunteers at "Ultrafest," a free symposium where students received five contact training hours. Students were evaluated before and after training for proficiency in either pulmonary US or FAST. Proficiency was assessed by clinical knowledge through written multiple-choice exam, and clinical skills through accuracy of image acquisition. We used paired sample t-tests with students as their own controls.Pulmonary knowledge scores increased by a mean of 10.1 points (95% CI [8.9-11.3], p<0.00005), from 8.4 to a posttest average of 18.5/21 possible points. The FAST knowledge scores increased by a mean of 7.5 points (95% CI [6.3-8.7] p<0.00005), from 8.1 to a posttest average of 15.6/21. We analyzed clinical skills data on 32 students. The mean score was 1.7 pretest and 4.7 posttest of 12 possible points. Mean improvement was 3.0 points (p<0.00005) overall, 3.3 (p=0.0001) for FAST, and 2.6 (p=0.003) for the pulmonary US exam.This study suggests that a symposium on US can improve clinical knowledge, but is limited in achieving image acquisition for pulmonary and FAST US assessments. US training external to official medical school curriculum may augment students' education.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Psychomotor skills related to the use of medical ultrasound are a fundamental, but often overlooked component of this ubiquitous medical imaging technology. Although discussions of image production/orientation, sonographic planes, and imaging/scanning techniques are common in existing literature, these discussions rarely address practical skills related to these basic concepts. The cognitive load of transducer movements and machine operation, in conjunction with learning the ultrasound representation of anatomy, may overwhelm a novice learner. Our goal was to develop and evaluate a set of ultrasound puzzle phantoms for students to use as they learn isolated, specific transducer movements and sonographic concepts. We intentionally created phantoms that contain objects that are likely familiar to students to reduce the cognitive load associated with simultaneously learning the ultrasound interpretation of anatomy. METHODS:This preliminary evaluation of our novel, homemade, gelatin ultrasound puzzle phantoms was performed using pretests and posttests obtained by scanning an assessment phantom, and student questionnaires. Two phases of training and testing occurred with feedback from Phase 1 allowing for refinement of the puzzles and techniques for testing. Skills taught and evaluated included probe rotation, depth assessment, sliding, and tilting. RESULTS:Twenty-eight students attended the Phase 1 training session with positive trends in students' abilities to use rotation, sliding, and tilting to answer questions, while only depth showed statistically significant improvements (p?=?0.021). Overall students agreed the experience a productive use of time (86%), was beneficial (93%), and would recommend to others (93%). Fifteen (54%) students returned 3 months later. There was no significant decay in skills obtained from the prior training session. In Phase 2, 134 medical students participated, and 76 (57%) completed an online questionnaire. A majority of students agreed they had a better understanding of rotation (83%), depth (80%), sliding (88%) and tilting (55%). Similar to Phase 1, many students (75%) felt the experience was beneficial. CONCLUSIONS:This preliminary study gave us insight into student opinions, as well as information to guide future scalability and development of additional ultrasound puzzle phantoms to aid in medical student education of isolated transducer movements and sonographic concepts prior to imaging human anatomy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although only a limited number of medical schools require a formal educational rotation in urologic surgery, urology as a medical specialty continues to attract a large number of students into the match each year. The purpose of this study was to describe medical student awareness, perception, and knowledge of urology, to determine factors influencing students' consideration of urology as a career, and to determine if prior urology clerkship experience is associated with differences in these variables. METHODS:In this cross-sectional study, medical students were electronically surveyed in 07/2016. Self-reported and question-based knowledge of urology were determined. A total of 25 factors were assessed with a five-point Likert scale to determine their influence on students' consideration of urology as a career. Data analysis was performed using R. RESULTS:The survey was completed by 114 students (13.5% of all medical students). A total of 11(9.65%)students had previously participated in a urology clerkship. All students reported awareness of urology; however, only 74 students (64.9%) correctly identified the training pathway and job duties of urologists. Self-perceived knowledge of urology was poor but improved with increased medical school training. Question-based assessment also demonstrated increased knowledge with advanced medical school training (27% per year; p < 0.01). Prior urology clerkship experience appeared to be associated with increased urologic knowledge; however, this was confounded by year in medical school training. When assessing factors impacting students' consideration of a career in urology, 'combination of medicine and surgery' was the most positively influential and 'competitiveness of the specialty' was the most negatively influential. CONCLUSIONS:Although medical students are aware of urology as a specialty, they perceive their knowledge of urology as poor. However, knowledge of urology increases throughout medical school training. Multiple factors influence students' consideration of urology as a career choice. Additional studies are needed to further explore how participation in a formal urology experience alters students' perceptions and influences their consideration of urology as a career choice. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Retrospectively registered.
Project description:Over the past decade, medical students have witnessed a decline in the opportunities to perform technical skills during their clinical years. Ultrasound-guided central venous access (USG-CVA) is a critical procedure commonly performed by emergency medicine, anesthesia, and general surgery residents, often during their first month of residency. However, the acquisition of skills required to safely perform this procedure is often deficient upon graduation from medical school. To ameliorate this lack of technical proficiency, ultrasound simulation models have been introduced into undergraduate medical education to train venous access skills. Criticisms of simulation models are the innate lack of realistic tactile qualities, as well as the lack of anatomical variances when compared to living patients. The purpose of our investigation was to design and evaluate a life-like and reproducible training model for USG-CVA using a fresh cadaver.This was a cross-sectional study at an urban academic medical center. An 18-point procedural knowledge tool and an 18-point procedural skill evaluation tool were administered during a cadaver lab at the beginning and end of the surgical clerkship. During the fresh cadaver lab, procedure naïve third-year medical students were trained on how to perform ultrasound-guided central venous access of the femoral and internal jugular vessels. Preparation of the fresh cadaver model involved placement of a thin-walled latex tubing in the anatomic location of the femoral and internal jugular vein respectively.Fifty-six third-year medical students participated in this study during their surgical clerkship. The fresh cadaver model provided high quality and lifelike ultrasound images despite numerous cannulation attempts. Technical skill scores improved from an average score of 3 to 12 (p<0.001) and procedural knowledge scores improved from an average score of 4 to 8 (p<0.001).The use of this novel cadaver model prevented extravasation of fluid, maintained ultrasound-imaging quality, and proved to be an effective educational model allowing third-year medical students to improve and maintain their technical skills.
Project description:Background:Ultrasound imaging devices are becoming popular in clinical and teaching settings, but there is no systematic information on their use in medical education. We conducted a systematic review of hand-held ultrasound (HHU) devices in undergraduate medical education to delineate their role, significance, and limitations. Methods:We searched Cochrane, PubMed, Embase, and Medline using the strategy: [(Hand-held OR Portable OR Pocket OR "Point of Care Systems") AND Ultrasound] AND (Education OR Training OR Undergraduate OR "Medical Students" OR "Medical School"). We retained 12 articles focusing on undergraduate medical education. We summarised the patterns of HHU use, pooled and estimated sensitivity, and specificity of HHU for detection of left ventricular dysfunction. Results:Features reported were heterogeneous: training time (1-25 hours), number of students involved (1-an entire cohort), number of subjects scanned (27-211), and type of learning (self-directed vs. traditional lectures + hands-on sessions). Most studies reported cardiac HHU examinations, but other anatomical areas were examined, e.g. abdomen and thyroid. Pooled sensitivity 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.92] and specificity 0.86 (95% CI 0.81-0.90) were high for the detection of left ventricular systolic dysfunction by students. Conclusion:Data on HHU devices in medical education are scarce and incomplete, but following training students can achieve high diagnostic accuracy, albeit in a limited number of (mainly cardiac) pathologies. There is no consensus on protocols best-suited to the educational needs of medical students, nor data on long-term impact, decay in proficiency or on the financial implications of deploying HHU in this setting.
Project description:<b>Introduction.</b> We aimed to conduct a multinational cross-sectional online survey of medical students' attitudes toward, knowledge of, and experience with shared decision making (SDM). <b>Methods.</b> We conducted the survey from September 2016 until May 2017 using the following: 1) a convenience sample of students from four medical schools each in Canada, the United States, and the Netherlands (<i>n</i> = 12), and 2) all medical schools in the United Kingdom through the British Medical School Council (<i>n</i> = 32). We also distributed the survey through social media. <b>Results.</b> A total of 765 students read the information sheet and 619 completed the survey. Average age was 24, 69% were female. Mean SDM knowledge score was 83.6% (range = 18.8% to 100%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 82.8% to 84.5%). US students had the highest knowledge scores (86.2%, 95% CI = 84.8% to 87.6%). The mean risk communication score was 57.4% (range = 0% to 100%; 95% CI = 57.4% to 60.1%). Knowledge did not vary with age, race, gender, school, or school year. Attitudes were positive, except 46% believed SDM could only be done with higher educated patients, and 80.9% disagreed that physician payment should be linked to SDM performance (increased with years in training, <i>P</i> < 0.05). Attitudes did not vary due to any tested variable. Students indicated they were more likely than experienced clinicians to practice SDM (72.1% v. 48.8%). A total of 74.7% reported prior SDM training and 82.8% were interested in learning more about SDM. <b>Discussion.</b> SDM knowledge is high among medical students in all four countries. Risk communication is less well understood. Attitudes indicate that further research is needed to understand how medical schools deliver and integrate SDM training into existing curricula.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To explore medical students' views on and experiences of responding to out-of-hospital medical emergencies. SETTING:University College London (UCL). PARTICIPANTS:11 UCL Medical School students. STUDY DESIGN:Qualitative. METHODS AND OUTCOME MEASURES:We carried out 11 one-to-one semistructured interviews, with participant validation and reflective work. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS:Three core themes were identified. (1) 'We Did Debate a Bit: Should We Go? Should We Not?'-Students' decisions to respond were based on the appearance of the casualty; the presence and actions of bystanders; witnessing the incident; self-perceived competence, confidence and knowledge; and personal experiences and feelings associated with medical emergencies. (2) 'It Would Represent the Medical Profession Well if We Did Step In and Help'-Students felt that they had an ethical and/or professional duty to help. (3) 'No One Should Die Because of a Lack of… Basic Life-Saving Techniques'-Students felt that medical school training alone had not sufficiently prepared them to respond to out-of-hospital medical emergencies. Improvements to training were suggested: integrating first aid/response training into the horizontal (systems-based) modules; teaching both common and less common medical emergencies and presentations; training that is led by experienced first responders and that increases students' exposure to out-of-hospital medical emergencies; and providing more revision training sessions. CONCLUSIONS:Students felt that medical school training could be improved to better prepare them for responding to out-of-hospital medical emergencies, and wanted clarification on whether or not they have an ethical and/or professional duty to help. Further mixed-methods research using a larger sample needs to be carried out to confirm whether findings are transferable to other UK medical schools.