PINK1 and BECN1 relocalize at mitochondria-associated membranes during mitophagy and promote ER-mitochondria tethering and autophagosome formation.
ABSTRACT: Mitophagy is a highly specialized process to remove dysfunctional or superfluous mitochondria through the macroautophagy/autophagy pathway, aimed at protecting cells from the damage of disordered mitochondrial metabolism and apoptosis induction. PINK1, a neuroprotective protein mutated in autosomal recessive Parkinson disease, has been implicated in the activation of mitophagy by selectively accumulating on depolarized mitochondria, and promoting PARK2/Parkin translocation to them. While these steps have been characterized in depth, less is known about the process and site of autophagosome formation upon mitophagic stimuli. A previous study reported that, in starvation-induced autophagy, the proautophagic protein BECN1/Beclin1 (which we previously showed to interact with PINK1) relocalizes at specific regions of contact between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria called mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), from which the autophagosome originates. Here we show that, following mitophagic stimuli, autophagosomes also form at MAM; moreover, endogenous PINK1 and BECN1 were both found to relocalize at MAM, where they promoted the enhancement of ER-mitochondria contact sites and the formation of omegasomes, that represent autophagosome precursors. PARK2 was also enhanced at MAM following mitophagy induction. However, PINK1 silencing impaired BECN1 enrichment at MAM independently of PARK2, suggesting a novel role for PINK1 in regulating mitophagy. MAM have been recently implicated in many key cellular events. In this light, the observed prevalent localization of PINK1 at MAM may well explain other neuroprotective activities of this protein, such as modulation of mitochondrial calcium levels, mitochondrial dynamics, and apoptosis.
Project description:The autophagy protein BECN1/Beclin 1 is known to play a central role in autophagosome formation and maturation. The results presented here demonstrate that BECN1 interacts with the Parkinson disease-related protein PARK2. This interaction does not require PARK2 translocation to mitochondria and occurs mostly in cytosol. However, our results suggest that BECN1 is involved in PARK2 translocation to mitochondria because loss of BECN1 inhibits CCCP- or PINK1 overexpression-induced PARK2 translocation. Our results also demonstrate that the observed PARK2-BECN1 interaction is functionally important. Measurements of the level of MFN2 (mitofusin 2), a PARK2 substrate, demonstrate that depletion of BECN1 prevents PARK2 translocation-induced MFN2 ubiquitination and loss. BECN1 depletion also rescues the MFN2 loss-induced suppression of mitochondrial fusion. In sum, our results demonstrate that BECN1 interacts with PARK2 and regulates PARK2 translocation to mitochondria as well as PARK2-induced mitophagy prior to autophagosome formation.
Project description:Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced mitochondrial damage with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been implicated in COPD pathogenesis by accelerating senescence. Mitophagy may play a pivotal role for removal of CS-induced damaged mitochondria, and the PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1)-PARK2 pathway has been proposed as a crucial mechanism for mitophagic degradation. Therefore, we sought to investigate to determine if PINK1-PARK2-mediated mitophagy is involved in the regulation of CS extract (CSE)-induced cell senescence and in COPD pathogenesis. Mitochondrial damage, ROS production, and cell senescence were evaluated in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC). Mitophagy was assessed in BEAS-2B cells stably expressing EGFP-LC3B, using confocal microscopy to measure colocalization between TOMM20-stained mitochondria and EGFP-LC3B dots as a representation of autophagosome formation. To elucidate the involvement of PINK1 and PARK2 in mitophagy, knockdown and overexpression experiments were performed. PINK1 and PARK2 protein levels in lungs from patients were evaluated by means of lung homogenate and immunohistochemistry. We demonstrated that CSE-induced mitochondrial damage was accompanied by increased ROS production and HBEC senescence. CSE-induced mitophagy was inhibited by PINK1 and PARK2 knockdown, resulting in enhanced mitochondrial ROS production and cellular senescence in HBEC. Evaluation of protein levels demonstrated decreased PARK2 in COPD lungs compared with non-COPD lungs. These results suggest that PINK1-PARK2 pathway-mediated mitophagy plays a key regulatory role in CSE-induced mitochondrial ROS production and cellular senescence in HBEC. Reduced PARK2 expression levels in COPD lung suggest that insufficient mitophagy is a part of the pathogenic sequence of COPD.
Project description:The PINK1 protein kinase activates the PARK2 ubiquitin ligase to promote mitochondrial ubiquitylation and recruitment of ubiquitin-binding mitophagy receptors typified by OPTN and TAX1BP1. Here, we combine proximity biotinylation of OPTN and TAX1BP1 with CRISPR-Cas9-based screens for mitophagic flux to develop a spatial proteogenetic map of PARK2-dependent mitophagy. Proximity labeling of OPTN allowed visualization of a "mitochondrial-autophagosome synapse" upon mitochondrial depolarization. Proximity proteomics of OPTN and TAX1BP1 revealed numerous proteins at the synapse, including both PARK2 substrates and autophagy components. Parallel mitophagic flux screens identified proteins with roles in autophagy, vesicle formation and fusion, as well as PARK2 targets, many of which were also identified via proximity proteomics. One protein identified in both approaches, HK2, promotes assembly of a high-molecular weight complex of PINK1 and phosphorylation of ubiquitin in response to mitochondrial damage. This work provides a resource for understanding the spatial and molecular landscape of PARK2-dependent mitophagy.
Project description:Defective mitochondria exert deleterious effects on host cells. To manage this risk, mitochondria display several lines of quality control mechanisms: mitochondria-specific chaperones and proteases protect against misfolded proteins at the molecular level, and fission/fusion and mitophagy segregate and eliminate damage at the organelle level. An increase in unfolded proteins in mitochondria activates a mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)) to increase chaperone production, while the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase PARK2/Parkin, whose mutations cause familial Parkinson disease, remove depolarized mitochondria through mitophagy. It is unclear, however, if there is a connection between those different levels of quality control (QC). Here, we show that the expression of unfolded proteins in the matrix causes the accumulation of PINK1 on energetically healthy mitochondria, resulting in mitochondrial translocation of PARK2, mitophagy and subsequent reduction of unfolded protein load. Also, PINK1 accumulation is greatly enhanced by the knockdown of the LONP1 protease. We suggest that the accumulation of unfolded proteins in mitochondria is a physiological trigger of mitophagy.
Project description:Mitophagy, the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy, is crucial for the maintenance of healthy mitochondrial pool in cells. The critical event in mitophagy is the translocation of cytosolic Parkin, a ubiquitin ligase, to the surface of defective mitochondria. This study elucidates a novel role of SESN2/Sestrin2, a stress inducible protein, in mitochondrial translocation of PARK2/Parkin during mitophagy. The data demonstrates that SESN2 downregulation inhibits BECN1/Beclin1 and Parkin interaction, thereby preventing optimum mitochondrial accumulation of Parkin. SESN2 interacts with ULK1 (unc-51 like kinase 1) and assists ULK1 mediated phosphorylation of Beclin1 at serine-14 position required for binding with Parkin prior to mitochondrial translocation. The trigger for SESN2 activation and regulation of Parkin translocation is the generation of mitochondrial superoxide. Scavenging of mitochondrial superoxide lower the levels of SESN2, resulting in retardation of Parkin translocation. Importantly, we observe that SESN2 mediated cytosolic interaction of Parkin and Beclin1 is PINK1 independent but mitochondrial translocation of Parkin is PINK1 dependent. Together, these findings suggest the role of SESN2 as a positive regulator of Parkin mediated mitophagy.
Project description:Down syndrome (DS), a complex genetic disorder caused by chromosome 21 trisomy, is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction leading to the accumulation of damaged mitochondria. Here we report that mitophagy, a form of selective autophagy activated to clear damaged mitochondria is deficient in primary human fibroblasts derived from individuals with DS leading to accumulation of damaged mitochondria with consequent increases in oxidative stress. We identified two molecular bases for this mitophagy deficiency: PINK1/PARKIN impairment and abnormal suppression of macroautophagy. First, strongly downregulated PARKIN and the mitophagic adaptor protein SQSTM1/p62 delays PINK1 activation to impair mitophagy induction after mitochondrial depolarization by CCCP or antimycin A plus oligomycin. Secondly, mTOR is strongly hyper-activated, which globally suppresses macroautophagy induction and the transcriptional expression of proteins critical for autophagosome formation such as ATG7, ATG3 and FOXO1. Notably, inhibition of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and complex 2 (mTORC2) using AZD8055 (AZD) restores autophagy flux, PARKIN/PINK initiation of mitophagy, and the clearance of damaged mitochondria by mitophagy. These results recommend mTORC1-mTORC2 inhibition as a promising candidate therapeutic strategy for Down Syndrome.
Project description:PARK2, which encodes Parkin, is a disease-causing gene for both neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. Parkin can function as a neuroprotector that plays a crucial role in the regulation of mitophagy, and germline mutations in PARK2 are associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Intriguingly, recent studies suggest that Parkin can also function as a tumor suppressor and that somatic and germline mutations in PARK2 are associated with various human cancers, including lung cancer. However, it is presently unknown how the tumor suppressor activity of Parkin is affected by these mutations and whether it is associated with mitophagy. Herein, we show that wild-type (WT) Parkin can rapidly translocate onto mitochondria following mitochondrial damage and that Parkin promotes mitophagic clearance of mitochondria in lung cancer cells. However, lung cancer-linked mutations inhibit the mitochondrial translocation and ubiquitin-associated activity of Parkin. Among all lung cancer-linked mutants that we tested, A46T Parkin failed to translocate onto mitochondria and could not recruit downstream mitophagic regulators, including optineurin (OPTN) and TFEB, whereas N254S and R275W Parkin displayed slower mitochondrial translocation than WT Parkin. Moreover, we found that deferiprone (DFP), an iron chelator that can induce mitophagy, greatly increased the death of A46T Parkin-expressing lung cancer cells. Taken together, our results reveal a novel mitophagic mechanism in lung cancer, suggesting that lung cancer-linked mutations in PARK2 are associated with impaired mitophagy and identifying DFP as a novel therapeutic agent for PARK2-linked lung cancer and possibly other types of cancers driven by mitophagic dysregulation.
Project description:Damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria are toxic to the cell by producing reactive oxygen species and releasing cell death factors. Therefore, timely removal of these organelles is critical to cellular homeostasis and viability. Mitophagy is the mechanism of selective degradation of mitochondria via autophagy. The significance of mitophagy in kidney diseases, including ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI), has yet to be established, and the involved pathway of mitophagy remains poorly understood. Here, we show that mitophagy is induced in renal proximal tubular cells in both in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic AKI. Mitophagy under these conditions is abrogated by Pink1 and Park2 deficiency, supporting a critical role of the PINK1-PARK2 pathway in tubular cell mitophagy. Moreover, ischemic AKI is aggravated in pink1 andpark2 single- as well as double-knockout mice. Mechanistically, Pink1 and Park2 deficiency enhances mitochondrial damage, reactive oxygen species production, and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results indicate that PINK1-PARK2-mediated mitophagy plays an important role in mitochondrial quality control, tubular cell survival, and renal function during AKI.
Project description:The Parkinson's Disease-associated protein kinase PINK1 and ubiquitin ligase Parkin coordinate the ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins, which marks mitochondria for degradation. Miro1, an atypical GTPase involved in mitochondrial trafficking, is one of the substrates tagged by Parkin after mitochondrial damage. Here, we demonstrate that a small pool of Parkin interacts with Miro1 before mitochondrial damage occurs. This interaction does not require PINK1, does not involve ubiquitination of Miro1 and also does not disturb Miro1 function. However, following mitochondrial damage and PINK1 accumulation, this initial pool of Parkin becomes activated, leading to the ubiquitination and degradation of Miro1. Knockdown of Miro proteins reduces Parkin translocation to mitochondria and suppresses mitophagic removal of mitochondria. Moreover, we demonstrate that Miro1 EF-hand domains control Miro1's ubiquitination and Parkin recruitment to damaged mitochondria, and they protect neurons from glutamate-induced mitophagy. Together, our results suggest that Miro1 functions as a calcium-sensitive docking site for Parkin on mitochondria.
Project description:The Parkinson's disease-associated protein kinase PINK1 and ubiquitin ligase Parkin coordinate the ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins, which marks mitochondria for degradation. Miro1, an atypical GTPase involved in mitochondrial trafficking, is one of the substrates tagged by Parkin after mitochondrial damage. Here, we demonstrate that a small pool of Parkin interacts with Miro1 before mitochondrial damage occurs. This interaction does not require PINK1, does not involve ubiquitination of Miro1 and also does not disturb Miro1 function. However, following mitochondrial damage and PINK1 accumulation, this initial pool of Parkin becomes activated, leading to the ubiquitination and degradation of Miro1. Knockdown of Miro proteins reduces Parkin translocation to mitochondria and suppresses mitophagic removal of mitochondria. Moreover, we demonstrate that Miro1 EF-hand domains control Miro1's ubiquitination and Parkin recruitment to damaged mitochondria, and they protect neurons from glutamate-induced mitophagy. Together, our results suggest that Miro1 functions as a calcium-sensitive docking site for Parkin on mitochondria.