Site-selective 13C labeling of proteins using erythrose.
ABSTRACT: NMR-spectroscopy enables unique experimental studies on protein dynamics at atomic resolution. In order to obtain a full atom view on protein dynamics, and to study specific local processes like ring-flips, proton-transfer, or tautomerization, one has to perform studies on amino-acid side chains. A key requirement for these studies is site-selective labeling with 13C and/or 1H, which is achieved in the most general way by using site-selectively 13C-enriched glucose (1- and 2-13C) as the carbon source in bacterial expression systems. Using this strategy, multiple sites in side chains, including aromatics, become site-selectively labeled and suitable for relaxation studies. Here we systematically investigate the use of site-selectively 13C-enriched erythrose (1-, 2-, 3- and 4-13C) as a suitable precursor for 13C labeled aromatic side chains. We quantify 13C incorporation in nearly all sites in all 20 amino acids and compare the results to glucose based labeling. In general the erythrose approach results in more selective labeling. While there is only a minor gain for phenylalanine and tyrosine side-chains, the 13C incorporation level for tryptophan is at least doubled. Additionally, the Phe ? and Trp ?2 positions become labeled. In the aliphatic side chains, labeling using erythrose yields isolated 13C labels for certain positions, like Ile ? and His ?, making these sites suitable for dynamics studies. Using erythrose instead of glucose as a source for site-selective 13C labeling enables unique or superior labeling for certain positions and is thereby expanding the toolbox for customized isotope labeling of amino-acid side-chains.
Project description:Experimental studies on protein dynamics at atomic resolution by NMR-spectroscopy in solution require isolated <sup>1</sup>H-X spin pairs. This is the default scenario in standard <sup>1</sup>H-<sup>15</sup>N backbone experiments. Side chain dynamic experiments, which allow to study specific local processes like proton-transfer, or tautomerization, require isolated <sup>1</sup>H-<sup>13</sup>C sites which must be produced by site-selective <sup>13</sup>C labeling. In the most general way this is achieved by using site-selectively <sup>13</sup>C-enriched glucose as the carbon source in bacterial expression systems. Here we systematically investigate the use of site-selectively <sup>13</sup>C-enriched ribose as a suitable precursor for <sup>13</sup>C labeled histidines and tryptophans. The <sup>13</sup>C incorporation in nearly all sites of all 20 amino acids was quantified and compared to glucose based labeling. In general the ribose approach results in more selective labeling. 1-<sup>13</sup>C ribose exclusively labels His ?2 and Trp ?1 in aromatic side chains and helps to resolve possible overlap problems. The incorporation yield is however only 37% in total and 72% compared to yields of 2-<sup>13</sup>C glucose. A combined approach of 1-<sup>13</sup>C ribose and 2-<sup>13</sup>C glucose maximizes <sup>13</sup>C incorporation to 75% in total and 150% compared to 2-<sup>13</sup>C glucose only. Further histidine positions ?, ? and CO become significantly labeled at around 50% in total by 3-, 4- or 5-<sup>13</sup>C ribose. Interestingly backbone CO of Gly, Ala, Cys, Ser, Val, Phe and Tyr are labeled at 40-50% in total with 3-<sup>13</sup>C ribose, compared to 5% and below for 1-<sup>13</sup>C and 2-<sup>13</sup>C glucose. Using ribose instead of glucose as a source for site-selective <sup>13</sup>C labeling enables a very selective labeling of certain positions and thereby expanding the toolbox for customized isotope labeling of amino-acids.
Project description:Soybean lipoxygenase-1 (SLO-1) catalyzes the C-H abstraction from the reactive carbon (C-11) in linoleic acid as the first and rate-determining step in the formation of alkylhydroperoxides. While previous labeling strategies have focused on deuterium labeling to ascertain the primary and secondary kinetic isotope effects for this reaction, there is an emerging interest and need for selectively enriched 13C isotopologues. In this report, we present synthetic strategies for site-specific 13C labeled linoleic acid substrates. We take advantage of a Corey-Fuchs formyl to terminal 13C-labeled alkyne conversion, using 13CBr4 as the labeling source, to reduce the number of steps from a previous fatty acid 13C synthetic labeling approach. The labeled linoleic acid substrates are useful as nuclear tunneling markers and for extracting active site geometries of the enzyme-substrate complex in lipoxygenase.
Project description:NMR relaxation experiments often require site-specific isotopic enrichment schemes in order to allow for quantitative interpretation. Here we describe a new labeling scheme for site-specific (13)C-(1)H enrichment of a single ortho position of aromatic amino acid side chains in an otherwise perdeuterated background by employing a combination of [4-(13)C]erythrose and deuterated pyruvate during growth on deuterium oxide. This labeling scheme largely eliminates undesired contributions to (13)C relaxation and greatly simplifies the fitting of relaxation data using the Lipari-Szabo model-free formalism. This approach is illustrated with calcium-saturated vertebrate calmodulin and oxidized flavodoxin from Cyanobacterium anabaena . Analysis of (13)C relaxation in the aromatic groups of calcium-saturated calmodulin indicates a wide range of motion in the subnanosecond time regime.
Project description:Recent work has raised a question as to the involvement of erythrose-4-phosphate, a product of the pentose phosphate pathway, in the metabolism of the methanogenic archaea (R. H. White, Biochemistry 43:7618-7627, 2004). To address the possible absence of erythrose-4-phosphate in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, we have assayed cell extracts of this methanogen for the presence of this and other intermediates in the pentose phosphate pathway and have determined and compared the labeling patterns of sugar phosphates derived metabolically from [6,6-2H2]- and [U-13C]-labeled glucose-6-phosphate incubated with cell extracts. The results of this work have established the absence of pentose phosphate pathway intermediates erythrose-4-phosphate, xylose-5-phosphate, and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate in these cells and the presence of D-arabino-3-hexulose-6-phosphate, an intermediate in the ribulose monophosphate pathway. The labeling of the D-ara-bino-3-hexulose-6-phosphate, as well as the other sugar-Ps, indicates that this hexose-6-phosphate was the precursor to ribulose-5-phosphate that in turn was converted into ribose-5-phosphate by ribose-5-phosphate isomerase. Additional work has demonstrated that ribulose-5-phosphate is derived by the loss of formaldehyde from D-arabino-3-hexulose-6-phosphate, catalyzed by the protein product of the MJ1447 gene.
Project description:Conformational dynamics play a key role in the properties and functions of proteins and nucleic acids. Heteronuclear NMR spin relaxation is a uniquely powerful site-specific probe of dynamics in proteins and has found increasing applications to nucleotide base side chains and anomeric sites in RNA. Applications to the nucleic acid ribose backbone, however, have been hampered by strong magnetic coupling among ring carbons in uniformly 13C-labeled samples. In this work, we apply a recently developed, metabolically directed isotope labeling scheme that places 13C with high efficiency and specificity at the nucleotide ribose C2' and C4' sites. We take advantage of this scheme to explore backbone dynamics in the well-studied GCAA RNA tetraloop. Using a combination of CPMG (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill) and R(1rho) relaxation dispersion spectroscopy to explore exchange processes on the microsecond to millisecond time scale, we find an extensive pattern of dynamic transitions connecting a set of relatively well-defined conformations. In many cases, the observed transitions appear to be linked to C3'-endo/C2'-endo sugar pucker transitions of the corresponding nucleotides, and may also be correlated across multiple nucleotides within the tetraloop. These results demonstrate the power of NMR spin relaxation based on alternate-site isotope labeling to open a new window into the dynamic properties of ribose backbone groups in RNA.
Project description:Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has provided considerable insight into the structures, dynamics, and formation mechanisms of amyloid fibrils. IR probes, such as main chain 13C?18O, have been widely employed to obtain site-specific structural information, yet only secondary structures and strand-to-strand arrangements can be probed. Very few nonperturbative IR probes are available to report on the side-chain conformation and environments, which are critical to determining sheet-to-sheet arrangements in steric zippers within amyloids. Polar residues, such as glutamine, contribute significantly to the stability of amyloids and thus are frequently found in core regions of amyloid peptides/proteins. Furthermore, polyglutamine (polyQ) repeats form toxic aggregates in several neurodegenerative diseases. Here we report the synthesis and application of a new nonperturbative IR probe-glutamine side chain 13C?18O. We use side chain 13C?18O labeling and isotope dilution to detect the presence of intermolecularly hydrogen-bonded arrays of glutamine side chains (Gln ladders) in amyloid-forming peptides. Moreover, the line width of the 13C?18O peak is highly sensitive to its local hydration environment. The IR data from side chain labeling allows us to unambiguously determine the sheet-to-sheet arrangement in a short amyloid-forming peptide, GNNQQNY, providing insight that was otherwise inaccessible through main chain labeling. With several different fibril samples, we also show the versatility of this IR probe in studying the structures and aggregation kinetics of amyloids. Finally, we demonstrate the capability of modeling amyloid structures with IR data using the integrative modeling platform (IMP) and the potential of integrating IR with other biophysical methods for more accurate structural modeling. Together, we believe that side chain 13C?18O will complement main chain isotope labeling in future IR studies of amyloids and integrative modeling using IR data will significantly expand the power of IR spectroscopy to elucidate amyloid assemblies.
Project description:Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) is a powerful tool for the characterization of protein structure and dynamics; however, its application in many systems is hampered by the reliance on unique and benign cysteine substitutions for the site-specific attachment of the spin label. An elegant solution to this problem involves the use of genetically encoded unnatural amino acids (UAAs) containing reactive functional groups that are chemically orthogonal to those of the 20 amino acids found naturally in proteins. These unique functional groups can then be selectively reacted with an appropriately functionalized spin probe. In this chapter, we detail the genetic incorporation of the ketone-bearing amino acid p-acetyl phenylalanine (pAcPhe) into recombinant proteins expressed in E. coli. Incorporation of pAcPhe is followed by chemoselective reaction of the ketone side chain with a hydroxylamine-functionalized nitroxide to afford the spin-labeled side chain "K1," and we present two protocols for successful K1 labeling of proteins bearing site-specific pAcPhe. We outline the basic requirements for pAcPhe incorporation and labeling, with an emphasis on practical aspects that must be considered by the researcher if high yields of UAA incorporation and efficient labeling reactions are to be achieved. To this end, we highlight recent advances that have led to increased yields of pAcPhe incorporation, and discuss the use of aniline-based catalysts allowing for facile conjugation of the hydroxylamine spin label under mild reaction conditions. To illustrate the utility of K1 labeling in proteins where traditional cysteine-based SDSL methods are problematic, we site-specifically K1 label the cellular prion protein at two positions in the C-terminal domain and determine the interspin distance using double electron-electron resonance EPR. Recent advances in UAA incorporation and ketone-based bioconjugation, in combination with the commercial availability of all requisite reagents, should make K1 labeling an increasingly viable alternative to cysteine-based methods for SDSL in proteins.
Project description:The power of combining sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy to quantify, with site specificity and atomic resolution, the orientation and dynamics of side chains in synthetic model peptides adsorbed onto polystyrene (PS) surfaces is demonstrated in this study. Although isotopic labeling has long been used in ssNMR studies to site-specifically probe the structure and dynamics of biomolecules, the potential of SFG to probe side chain orientation in isotopically labeled surface-adsorbed peptides and proteins remains largely unexplored. The 14 amino acid leucine-lysine peptide studied in this work is known to form an alpha-helical secondary structure at liquid-solid interfaces. Selective, individual deuteration of the isopropyl group in each leucine residue was used to probe the orientation and dynamics of each individual leucine side chain of LKalpha14 adsorbed onto PS. The selective isotopic labeling methods allowed SFG analysis to determine the orientations of individual side chains in adsorbed peptides. Side chain dynamics were obtained by fitting the deuterium ssNMR line shape to specific motional models. Through the combined use of SFG and ssNMR, the dynamic trends observed for individual side chains by ssNMR have been correlated with side chain orientation relative to the PS surface as determined by SFG. This combination provides a more complete and quantitative picture of the structure, orientation, and dynamics of these surface-adsorbed peptides than could be obtained if either technique were used separately.
Project description:We identified small-molecule dimer disruptors that inhibit an essential dimeric protease of human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) by screening an alpha-helical mimetic library. Next, we synthesized a second generation of low-micromolar inhibitors with improved potency and solubility. Complementary methods including size exclusion chromatography and 1H-13C HSQC titration using selectively labeled 13C-Met samples revealed that monomeric protease is enriched in the presence of inhibitor. 1H-15N HSQC titration studies mapped the inhibitor binding site to the dimer interface, and mutagenesis studies targeting this region were consistent with a mechanism where inhibitor binding prevents dimerization through the conformational selection of a dynamic intermediate. These results validate the interface of herpesvirus proteases and other similar oligomeric interactions as suitable targets for the development of small-molecule inhibitors.
Project description:Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy in combination with site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) has been established as a valuable biophysical technique to provide site-specific local secondary structure of membrane proteins. This pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method can successfully distinguish between ?-helices, ?-sheets, and 310-helices by strategically using 2H-labeled amino acids and SDSL. In this study, we have explored the use of 13C-labeled residues as the NMR active nuclei for this approach for the first time. 13C-labeled d5-valine (Val) or 13C-labeled d6-leucine (Leu) were substituted at a specific Val or Leu residue (i), and a nitroxide spin label was positioned 2 or 3 residues away (denoted i-2 and i-3) on the acetylcholine receptor M2? (AChR M2?) in a lipid bilayer. The 13C ESEEM peaks in the FT frequency domain data were observed for the i-3 samples, and no 13C peaks were observed in the i-2 samples. The resulting spectra were indicative of the ?-helical local secondary structure of AChR M2? in bicelles. This study provides more versatility and alternative options when using this ESEEM approach to study the more challenging recombinant membrane protein secondary structures.