Pharmacogenetic variants in TPMT alter cellular responses to cisplatin in inner ear cell lines.
ABSTRACT: Cisplatin is a highly-effective and widely-used chemotherapeutic agent that causes ototoxicity in many patients. Pharmacogenomic studies of key genes controlling drug biotransformation identified variants in thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) as predictors of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, although the mechanistic basis of this interaction has not been reported. Expression constructs of TPMT*3A, *3B and *3C variants were generated and monitored in cultured cells. Cellular TPMT*3A levels were detected at >20-fold lower amounts than the wild type confirming the unstable nature of this variant. The expression of wild type TPMT (TPMT*1) in two murine ear cell lines, HEI-OC1 and UB/OC-1, significantly mitigated their susceptibility to cisplatin toxicity. Cisplatin treatment induced Tlr4 gene expression in HEI-OC1 cells and this response was blunted by the expression of wild type TPMT but not TPMT*3A. In line with the significant mitigation of TPMT*1-expressing cells to cisplatin cytotoxicity, these findings demonstrate a drug-gene interaction between increased TPMT activity and decreased susceptibility to cisplatin-induced toxicity of inner ear cells.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Cisplatin ototoxicity affects 42-88% of treated children. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and AYCP2 genetic variants have been associated with ototoxicity, but the findings have been contradictory. The aims of the study were as follows: (a) to investigate these associations in a carefully phenotyped cohort of UK children and (b) to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS:We recruited 149 children from seven UK centres using a retrospective cohort study design. All participants were clinically phenotyped carefully. Genotyping was performed for one ACYP2 (rs1872328), three TPMT (rs12201199, rs1142345 and rs1800460) and two COMT (rs4646316 and rs9332377) variants. RESULTS:For CTCAE grading, hearing loss was present in 91/120 (75.8%; worst ear) and 79/120 (65.8%; better ear). Using Chang grading, hearing loss was diagnosed in 85/119 (71.4%; worst ear) versus 75/119 (63.0%; better ear). No TPMT or COMT single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with ototoxicity. ACYP2 SNP rs1872328 was associated with ototoxicity (P=0.027; worst ear). Meta-analysis of our data with that reported in previous studies showed the pooled odds ratio (OR) to be statistically significant for both the COMT SNP rs4646316 (OR: 1.50; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-1.95) and the ACYP2 SNP rs1872328 (OR: 5.91; 95% confidence interval: 1.51-23.16). CONCLUSION:We showed an association between the ACYP2 polymorphism and cisplatin-induced ototoxicity, but not with the TPMT and COMT. A meta-analysis was statistically significant for both the COMT rs4646316 and the ACYP2 rs1872328 SNPs. Grading the hearing of children with asymmetric hearing loss requires additional clarification.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ototoxicity is one of the major side effects of platinum-based chemotherapy, especially cisplatin therapy. To date, no FDA approved agents to alleviate or prevent this ototoxicity are available. However, ototoxicity is generally believed to be produced by excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the inner ear, thus leading to the development of various antioxidants, which act as otoprotective agents. Astaxanthin (ATX) is an interesting candidate in the development of new therapies for preventing and treating oxidative stress-related pathologies, owing to its unique antioxidant capacity. METHODS AND RESULTS:In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential antioxidant properties of ATX in the inner ear by using the HEI-OC1 cell line, zebrafish, and guinea pigs. Because ATX has poor solubility and cannot pass through round window membranes (RWM), we established lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPN) for loading ATX. The LPN enabled ATX to penetrate RWM and maintain concentrations in the perilymph in the inner ear for 24 h after a single injection. ATX-LPN were found to have favorable biocompatibility and to strongly affect cisplatin-induced generation of ROS, on the basis of DCFHDA staining in HEI-OC1 cells. JC-1 and MitoTracker Green staining suggested that ATX-LPN successfully reversed the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential induced by cisplatin in vitro and rescued cells from early stages of apoptosis, as demonstrated by FACS stained with Annexin V-FITC/PI. Moreover, ATX-LPN successfully attenuated OHC losses in cultured organ of Corti and animal models (zebrafish and guinea pigs) in vivo. In investigating the protective mechanism of ATX-LPN, we found that ATX-LPN decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (caspase 3/9 and cytochrome-c) and increased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. In addition, the activation of JNK induced by CDDP was up-regulated and then decreased after the administration of ATX-LPN, while P38 stayed unchanged. CONCLUSIONS:To best of our knowledge, this is first study concluded that ATX-LPN as a new therapeutic agent for the prevention of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.
Project description:In our previous study, we clearly demonstrated the roles of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and IL-6, and subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation on the pathogenesis of cisplatin ototoxicity in vitro and in vivo. ROS generation in cisplatin-treated HEI-OC1 auditory cells was also correlated with changing mitochondrial membrane potential. However, the roles of NADPH oxidase in cisplatin-induced ROS generation and ototoxicity have not been fully elucidated. Herein, immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that treatment of cisplatin induced the expression of NADPH oxidase isoforms NOX-1 and NOX-4 in HEI-OC1 auditory cells. Expression of mRNA for NOX-1, NOX-4, NOXO1, NOXA1, p47(phox), and p67(phox) was also increased. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with diphenyleniodonium chloride or apocynin abolished ROS production and the subsequent apoptotic cell death in cisplatin-treated cells. Furthermore, suppression of NOX1 and NOX4 expression by small interfering RNA transfection markedly abolished the cytotoxicity and ROS generation by cisplatin. Together, our data suggest that ROS generated, in part, through the activation of NADPH oxidase plays an essential role in cisplatin ototoxicity.
Project description:Ototoxicity is a debilitating side effect of platinating agents with substantial interpatient variability. We sought to evaluate the association of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) genetic variations with cisplatin-related hearing damage in the context of frontline pediatric cancer treatment protocols. In 213 children from the St. Jude Medulloblastoma-96 and -03 protocols, hearing loss was related to younger age (P = 0.013) and craniospinal irradiation (P = 0.001), but did not differ by TPMT or COMT variants. Results were similar in an independent cohort of 41 children from solid-tumor frontline protocols. Functional hearing loss or hair cell damage was not different in TPMT knockout vs. wild-type mice following cisplatin treatment, and neither TPMT nor COMT variant was associated with cisplatin cytotoxicity in lymphoblastoid cell lines. In conclusion, our results indicated that TPMT or COMT genetic variation was not related to cisplatin ototoxicity in children with cancer and did not influence cisplatin-induced hearing damage in laboratory models.
Project description:We herein investigated the role of the STAT signaling cascade in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cisplatin ototoxicity. A significant hearing impairment caused by cisplatin injection was observed in Balb/c (wild type, WT) and STAT4(-/-), but not in STAT6(-/-) mice. Moreover, the expression levels of the protein and mRNA of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6, were markedly increased in the serum and cochlea of WT and STAT4(-/-), but not STAT6(-/-) mice. Organotypic culture revealed that the shape of stereocilia bundles and arrays of sensory hair cell layers in the organ of Corti from STAT6(-/-) mice were intact after treatment with cisplatin, whereas those from WT and STAT4(-/-) mice were highly distorted and disarrayed after the treatment. Cisplatin induced the phosphorylation of STAT6 in HEI-OC1 auditory cells, and the knockdown of STAT6 by STAT6-specific siRNA significantly protected HEI-OC1 auditory cells from cisplatin-induced cell death and inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We further demonstrated that IL-4 and IL-13 induced by cisplatin modulated the phosphorylation of STAT6 by binding with IL-4 receptor alpha and IL-13R?1. These findings suggest that STAT6 signaling plays a pivotal role in cisplatin-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine production and ototoxicity.
Project description:Cisplatin-induced early-onset ototoxicity is linked to hearing loss. The mechanism by which cisplatin causes ototoxicity remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the involvement of receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIP)3-dependent necroptosis in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Sprague-Dawley rats (SD, 8 week) were treated via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with cisplatin (16 mg/kg for 1 day), and their hearing thresholds were measured by the auditory brainstem response (ABR) method. Hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining, immunohistochemistry, and western blots were performed to determine the effect of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity on cochlear morphology. Inhibitor experiments with necrostatin 1 (Nec-1) and Z-VAD were also performed in HEI-OC1 cell line. H&E stains revealed that the necroptotic changes were increased in the organ of Corti (OC) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Moreover, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis showed that cisplatin treatment increased the protein levels of RIP3 in both OCs and SGNs. The treatment of Nec-1, a selective RIP1 inhibitor, resulted in markedly suppression of cisplatin-induced cell death in HEI-OC1 cells, whereas Z-VAD treatment did not change the cisplatin-induced cell death. Our results suggest that RIP3-dependent necroptosis was substantial in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity; inner cochlear regions, the OCs, and SGNs were especially sensitive to necroptosis.
Project description:Ototoxicity is a serious health problem that greatly affects millions of people worldwide. This condition is caused by the entry of aminoglycosides into auditory hair cells, subsequently inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and accumulation. Several strategies have been adopted to overcome irreversible ROS-induced hair cell loss in mammals. In recent years, icariin, a major active component of the traditional herb Epimedium, has been widely studied and revealed to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. In this study, we found that icariin pretreatment improved the survival rate of gentamicin-treated House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 (HEI-OC1) cells and cochlear explants. Icariin remarkably suppressed HEI-OC1 cell apoptosis and inhibited ROS production in cells. Notably, icariin upregulated PGC-1? (SIRT3 promoter) and SIRT3 expression in HEI-OC1 cells. In addition, SIRT3 inhibition significantly attenuated the anti-apoptotic effect of icariin. We also found that icariin can increase AMPK phosphorylation. Further studies showed that inhibition of SIRT3 activity had no significant effect on AMPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, the AMPK inhibitor compound C significantly suppressed SIRT3 expression, meaning that AMPK, as an upstream molecule, regulates SIRT3 expression. Meanwhile, inhibition of AMPK activity significantly reduced the protective effect of icariin on gentamicin ototoxicity. Based on these results, icariin exerts its protective effect on gentamicin-induced ototoxicity via activation of the AMPK-SIRT3 signaling pathway, thus providing a new strategy for treating ototoxicity caused by aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Project description:Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is one of the major adverse effects in cisplatin chemotherapy, and hearing protective approaches are unavailable in clinical practice. Recent work unveiled a critical role of autophagy in cell survival in various types of hearing loss. Since the excessive activation of autophagy can contribute to apoptotic cell death, whether the activation of autophagy increases or decreases the rate of cell death in CDDP ototoxicity is still being debated. In this study, we showed that CDDP induced activation of autophagy in the auditory cell HEI-OC1 at the early stage. We then used rapamycin, an autophagy activator, to increase the autophagy activity, and found that the cell death significantly decreased after CDDP injury. In contrast, treatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) significantly increased cell death. In accordance with in vitro results, rapamycin alleviated CDDP-induced death of hair cells in zebrafish lateral line and cochlear hair cells in mice. Notably, we found that CDDP-induced increase of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in the HEI-OC1 cells modulated the autophagy function. The specific SIRT1 activator SRT1720 could successfully protect against CDDP-induced cell loss in HEI-OC1 cells, zebrafish lateral line, and mice cochlea. These findings suggest that SIRT1 and autophagy activation can be suggested as potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of CDDP-induced ototoxicity.
Project description:Hair cells in the inner ear have been shown to be susceptible to ototoxicity from some beneficial pharmaceutical drugs, such as aminoglycosides and cisplatin. Thus, there is great interest in discovering new targets or compounds that protect hair cells from these ototoxic drugs. Epigenetic regulation is closely related to inner ear development; however, little is known about epigenetic regulation in the process of ototoxic drugs-induced hearing loss.Methods: In this study, we investigated the role of protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) in aminoglycoside- and cisplatin-induced hair cell loss by using EPZ020411, a selective small molecule PRMT6 inhibitor, in vitro in neonatal mouse cochlear explants and in vivo in C57BL/6 mice. We also took advantage of the HEI-OC1 cell line to evaluate the anti-apoptosis effects of PRMT6 knockdown on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Apoptotic cells were identified using cleaved caspase-3 staining and TUNEL assay. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by DCFH-DA and cellROX green staining. The mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) were determined by JC-1, TMRM, and rhodamine 123 staining.Results: We found that EPZ020411 significantly alleviated neomycin- and cisplatin-induced cell apoptosis and increased hair cell survival. Moreover, pretreatment with EPZ020411 could attenuate neomycin- and cisplatin-induced hearing loss in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that inhibition of PRMT6 could reverse the increased expression of caspase-3 and cytochrome c translocation, mitochondrial dysfunction, increased accumulation of ROS, and activation of cell apoptosis after cisplatin injury.Conclusions: Our findings suggested that PRMT6 might serve as a new therapeutic target to prevent hearing loss caused by aminoglycoside- and cisplatin-induced ototoxicity by preventing ROS formation and modulating the mitochondria-related damage and apoptosis.
Project description:Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug for treating various solid tumors. Ototoxicity is a major dose-limiting side effect of cisplatin, which causes progressive and irreversible sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we examined the protective effects of glucose-related protein (GRP) 78 and 94, also identified as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone proteins, on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Treating murine auditory cells (HEI-OC1) with 25 ?M cisplatin for 24 h increased cell death resulting from excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and caspase-involved apoptotic signaling pathway activation with subsequent DNA fragmentation. GRP78 and GRP94 expression was increased in cells treated with 3 nM thapsigargin or 0.1 ?g/mL tunicamycin for 24 h, referred to as mild ER stress condition. This condition, prior to cisplatin exposure, attenuated cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. The involvement of GRP78 and GRP94 induction was demonstrated by the knockdown of GRP78 or GRP94 expression using small interfering RNAs, which abolished the protective effect of mild ER stress condition on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. These results indicated that GRP78 and GRP94 induction plays a protective role in remediating cisplatin-ototoxicity.