A Comprehensive Model of Colorectal Cancer by Risk Factor Status and Subsite Using Data From the Nurses' Health Study.
ABSTRACT: We expanded and updated our colon cancer risk model to evaluate colorectal cancer (CRC) and whether subsite-specific risk models are warranted. Using data from 1980-2010 for 90,286 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study, we performed competing-risks regression and tests for subsite heterogeneity (proximal colon: n = 821; distal colon: n = 521; rectum: n = 376). Risk factors for CRC were consistent with those in our colon cancer model. Processed meat consumption was associated with a higher risk of distal (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.45; P = 0.02) but not proximal (HR = 0.95; P = 0.72) colon cancer. Smoking was associated with both colon (HR = 1.21) and rectal (HR = 1.27) cancer and was more strongly associated with proximal (HR = 1.31) than with distal (HR = 1.04) colon cancer (P = 0.029). We observed a significant trend of cancer risk for smoking in subsites from the cecum (HR = 1.41) to the proximal colon (excluding the cecum; HR = 1.27) to the distal colon (HR = 1.04; P for trend = 0.040). The C statistics for colorectal (C = 0.607), colon (C = 0.603), and rectal (C = 0.639) cancer were similar, although C was slightly higher for rectal cancer. Despite evidence for site-specific differences for several risk factors, overall our findings support the application of risk prediction models for colon cancer to CRC.
Project description:Although incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States has declined in recent years, rates remain higher in men than in women and the male-to-female incidence rate ratio (MF IRR) increases progressively across the colon from the cecum to the rectum. Rates among races/ethnicities other than Whites or Blacks have not been frequently reported. To examine CRC rates by sex across anatomic subsite, age and racial/ethnic groups, we used the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program for cases diagnosed among residents of 13 registries during 1992-2006. Incidence rates were expressed per 100,000 person-years and age-adjusted to the 2000 US Standard Population; MF IRR and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. Among each racial/ethnic group, the MF IRR increased fairly monotonically from close to unity for cecal cancers to 1.81 (Hispanics) for rectal cancers. MF IRRs increased with age most rapidly for distal colon cancers from <1.0 at ages <50 years to 1.4-1.9 at older ages. The MF IRR for rectal cancers also rose with age from about 1.0 to 2.0. For proximal cancer, the MF IRR was consistently <1.5; among American Indian/Alaska Natives, it was <1.0 across all ages. The MF IRRs for CRC vary markedly according to subsite and age but less by racial/ethnic group. These findings may partially reflect differences in screening experiences and access to medical care but also suggest that etiologic factors may be playing a role.
Project description:<h4>Background & aims</h4>The molecular features of colorectal tumors differ with their anatomic location. Colorectal tumors are usually classified as proximal or distal. We collected data from 3 cohorts to identify demographic, clinical, anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC) at 7 anatomic subsites. We examined whether the associations differ among refined subsites and whether there are trends in associations from cecum to rectum.<h4>Methods</h4>We collected data from the Nurses' Health Study, Nurses' Health Study 2, and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (45,351 men and 178,016 women, followed for a median 23 years) on 24 risk factors in relation to risk of cancer in cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectosigmoid junction, and rectum. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. We tested for linear and nonlinear trends in associations with CRC among subsites and within proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum.<h4>Results</h4>We documented 3058 cases of CRC (474 in cecum, 633 in ascending colon, 250 in transverse colon, 221 in descending colon, 750 in sigmoid colon, 202 in rectosigmoid junction, and 528 in rectum). The positive associations with cancer risk decreased, from cecum to rectum, for age and family history of CRC. In contrast, the inverse associations with cancer risk increased, from cecum to rectum, for endoscopic screening and intake of whole grains, cereal fiber, and processed red meat. There was a significant nonlinear trend in the association between CRC and female sex, with hazard ratios ranging from 1.73 for ascending colon cancer to 0.54 for sigmoid colon cancer. For proximal colon cancers, the association with alcohol consumption and smoking before age 30 years increased from the cecum to transverse colon. For distal colon cancers, the positive association with waist circumference in men was greater for descending vs sigmoid colon cancer.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In an analysis of 3058 cases of CRC, we found that risk factor profiles differed for cancers along the colorectum. Proximal vs distal classifications are not sufficient to encompass the regional variations in colorectal tumor features and risk factors.
Project description:Radiation effects on colorectal cancer rates, adjusted for smoking, alcohol intake and frequency of meat consumption and body mass index (BMI) by anatomical subsite (proximal colon, distal colon and rectum) were examined in a cohort of 105,444 atomic bomb survivors. Poisson regression methods were used to describe radiation-associated excess relative risks (ERR) and excess absolute rates (EAR) for the 1958-2009 period. There were 2,960 first primary colorectal cancers including 894 proximal, 871 distal and 1,046 rectal cancers. Smoking, alcohol intake and BMI were associated with subsite-specific cancer background rates. Significant linear dose-responses were found for total colon (sex-averaged ERR/Gy for 70?years old exposed at age 30?=?0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34; 0.98), proximal [ERR?=?0.80, 95% CI: 0.32; 1.44] and distal colon cancers [ERR?=?0.50, 95% CI: 0.04; 0.97], but not for rectal cancer [ERR?=?0.023, 95% CI: -0.081; 0.13]. The ERRs for proximal and distal colon cancers were not significantly different (p?=?0.41). The ERR decreased with attained age for total colon, but not for proximal colon cancer, and with calendar year for distal colon cancer. The ERRs and EARs did not vary by age at exposure, except for decreasing trend in EAR for proximal colon cancer. In conclusion, ionizing radiation is associated with increased risk of proximal and distal colon cancers. The ERR for proximal cancer persists over time, but that for distal colon cancer decreases. There continues to be no indication of radiation effects on rectal cancer incidence in this population.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined.<h4>Design</h4>To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling.<h4>Results</h4>We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10<sup>-8</sup>) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Colorectal cancer located at different anatomical subsites may have distinct etiologies and risk factors. Previous studies that have examined this hypothesis have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because most studies have been of insufficient size to identify heterogeneous associations with precision. METHODS:In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, we used multivariable joint Cox proportional hazards models, which accounted for tumors at different anatomical sites (proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum) as competing risks, to examine the relationships between 14 established/suspected lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive/menstrual risk factors with colorectal cancer risk. Heterogeneity across sites was tested using Wald tests. RESULTS:After a median of 14.9 years of follow-up of 521,330 men and women, 6291 colorectal cancer cases occurred. Physical activity was related inversely to proximal colon and distal colon cancer, but not to rectal cancer (P heterogeneity = .03). Height was associated positively with proximal and distal colon cancer only, but not rectal cancer (P heterogeneity = .0001). For men, but not women, heterogeneous relationships were observed for body mass index (P heterogeneity = .008) and waist circumference (P heterogeneity = .03), with weaker positive associations found for rectal cancer, compared with proximal and distal colon cancer. Current smoking was associated with a greater risk of rectal and proximal colon cancer, but not distal colon cancer (P heterogeneity = .05). No heterogeneity by anatomical site was found for alcohol consumption, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and reproductive/menstrual factors. CONCLUSIONS:The relationships between physical activity, anthropometry, and smoking with colorectal cancer risk differed by subsite, supporting the hypothesis that tumors in different anatomical regions may have distinct etiologies.
Project description:The association between fish, ?-3 and ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains inconclusive. Recent prospective studies suggest that the relationship may vary by gender, subsite and duration of follow-up. We followed 123,529 US adults (76,386 women and 47,143 men) without a history of cancer at baseline for 24 to 26 years. Fish and PUFA intake was assessed at baseline and updated every 4 years by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We found no overall association between fish, ?-3 and ?-6 PUFA intake and CRC risk with hazard ratio (HR) of 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89-1.20] comparing marine ?-3 intake of ? 0.30 g/d versus <0.15 g/d among women and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.85-1.30) comparing intake of ? 0.41 g/d versus <0.16 g/d among men. However, fish and marine ?-3 PUFA intake appeared to be positively associated with risk of distal colon cancer in both men and women and inversely with risk of rectal cancer in men. In an analysis based on a limited number of cases, marine ?-3 PUFA intake assessed 12-16 years before diagnosis tended to be inversely associated with CRC risk in men (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.52-1.10). In conclusion, although no overall association between fish, ?-3 or ?-6 PUFA intake was observed with CRC risk, marine ?-3 PUFA may be differentially associated with risk of distal colon and rectal cancers and a long latency may be needed for its protection against CRC in men.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Evidence suggests a possible role of Fusobacterium nucleatum in colorectal carcinogenesis, especially in right-sided proximal colorectum. Considering a change in bowel contents and microbiome from proximal to distal colorectal segments, we hypothesized that the proportion of colorectal carcinoma enriched with F. nucleatum might gradually increase along the bowel subsites from rectum to cecum.<h4>Methods</h4>A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 1,102 colon and rectal carcinomas in molecular pathological epidemiology databases of the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We measured the amount of F. nucleatum DNA in colorectal tumor tissue using a quantitative PCR assay and equally dichotomized F. nucleatum-positive cases (high vs. low). We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the relationship of a bowel subsite variable (rectum, rectosigmoid junction, sigmoid colon, descending colon, splenic flexure, transverse colon, hepatic flexure, ascending colon, and cecum) with the amount of F. nucleatum.<h4>Results</h4>The proportion of F. nucleatum-high colorectal cancers gradually increased from rectal cancers (2.5%; 4/157) to cecal cancers (11%; 19/178), with a statistically significant linear trend along all subsites (P<0.0001) and little evidence of non-linearity. The proportion of F. nucleatum-low cancers was higher in rectal, ascending colon, and cecal cancers than in cancers of middle segments.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The proportion of F. nucleatum-high colorectal cancers gradually increases from rectum to cecum. Our data support the colorectal continuum model that reflects pathogenic influences of the gut microbiota on neoplastic and immune cells and challenges the prevailing two-colon (proximal vs. distal) dichotomy paradigm.
Project description:Considerable evidence suggests that cigarette smoking is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). What is unclear, however, is the impact of quitting smoking on risk attenuation and whether other risk factors for CRC modify this association.We conducted a pooled analysis of eight studies, including 6,796 CRC cases and 7,770 controls, to evaluate the association between cigarette smoking history and CRC risk and to investigate potential effect modification by other risk factors.Current smokers [OR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.43] and former smokers (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.09-1.27), relative to never smokers, showed higher risks of CRC. Former smokers remained at higher CRC risk, relative to never smokers, for up to about 25 years after quitting. The impact of time since quitting varied by cancer subsite: The excess risk due to smoking decreased immediately after quitting for proximal colon and rectal cancer but not until about 20 years post-quitting for distal colon cancer. Furthermore, we observed borderline statistically significant additive interactions between smoking status and body mass index [BMI; relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI]), 0.15; 95% CI, -0.01 to 0.31; P = 0.06] and significant additive interaction between smoking status and fruit consumption (RERI, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.01-0.30; P = 0.04).CRC risk remained increased for about 25 years after quitting smoking, and the pattern of decline in risk varied by cancer subsite. BMI and fruit intake modified the risk associated with smoking.These results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms through which smoking impacts CRC etiology.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Patients with suspected colorectal cancer (CRC) usually undergo colonoscopy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) may be preferred if proximal cancer risk is low. We investigated which patients could undergo FS alone.<h4>Methods</h4>Cohort study of 7375 patients (≥55 years) referred with suspected CRC to 21 English hospitals (2004-2007), followed using hospital records and cancer registries. We calculated yields and number of needed whole-colon examinations (NNE) to diagnose one cancer by symptoms/signs and subsite. We considered narrow (haemoglobin <11 g/dL men; <10 g/dL women) and broad (<13 g/dL men; <12 g/dL women) anaemia definitions and iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA).<h4>Results</h4>One hundred and twenty-seven proximal and 429 distal CRCs were diagnosed. A broad anaemia definition identified 80% of proximal cancers; a narrow definition with IDA identified 39%. In patients with broad definition anaemia and/or abdominal mass, proximal cancer yield and NNE were 4.8% (97/2022) and 21. In patients without broad definition anaemia and/or abdominal mass, with rectal bleeding or increased stool frequency (41% of cohort), proximal cancer yield and NNE were 0.4% (13/3031) and 234.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Most proximal cancers are accompanied by broad definition anaemia. In patients without broad definition anaemia and/or abdominal mass, with rectal bleeding or increased stool frequency, proximal cancer is rare and FS should suffice.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Inflammatory processes have been suggested to have an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology. Chemerin is a recently discovered inflammatory biomarker thought to exert chemotactic, adipogenic, and angiogenic functions. However, its potential link with CRC has not been sufficiently explored.<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate the prospective association of circulating plasma chemerin concentrations with incident CRC.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>Prospective case-cohort study based on 27?548 initially healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort who were followed for up to 16 years. Baseline study information and samples were collected between August 23, 1994, and September 25, 1998. Recruitment was according to random registry sampling from the geographical area of Potsdam, Germany, and surrounding municipalities. The last date of study follow-up was May 10, 2010. Statistical analysis was conducted in 2018.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Incident CRC, colon cancer, and rectal cancer. Baseline chemerin plasma concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.<h4>Results</h4>A random subcohort of 221 incident CRC cases and 2329 participants free of CRC with available blood sample measurements were included in the analysis. The participants' mean (SD) age was 50 (9) years, 62.1% were female, and 16.5% had a body mass index greater than 30. In multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models taking into account established CRC risk factors, higher chemerin concentrations were associated with a greater risk of CRC, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.81 (95% CI, 1.08-3.05; P for trend?=?.007) for the highest chemerin quartile vs the lowest. Analyses by cancer subsite indicated a stronger association with colon cancer (HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.18-4.34 for the highest quartile vs the lowest; P for trend?=?.005) compared with rectal cancer (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.57-2.85; P for trend?=?.35). The association was particularly strong for proximal colon cancer (HR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.51-10.50; P for trend = .001).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>This study found that the association between chemerin concentration and the risk of incident CRC was linear and independent of established CRC risk factors. Further studies are warranted to evaluate chemerin as a novel immune-inflammatory agent in colorectal carcinogenesis.