Racial-ethnic disparities in mortality and kidney transplant outcomes among pediatric dialysis patients.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies in adult hemodialysis patients have shown that African-American and Hispanic patients have a lower risk of mortality in addition to a lower likelihood of kidney transplantation. However, studies of the association between race and outcomes in pediatric dialysis are sparse and often do not examine outcomes in Hispanic children. The objective was to determine if racial-ethnic disparities in mortality and kidney transplantation outcomes exist in pediatric dialysis patients.This was a retrospective cohort analysis of 2,697 pediatric dialysis patients (aged 0-20 years) from a large national dialysis organization (entry period 2001-2011) of non-Hispanic white, African-American, and Hispanic race-ethnicity. Associations between race-ethnicity with mortality and kidney transplantation outcomes were examined separately using competing risks methods. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between race-ethnicity, with outcomes within 1 year of dialysis initiation.Of the 2,697 pediatric patients in this cohort, 895 were African-American, 778 were Hispanic, and 1,024 were non-Hispanic white. After adjusting for baseline demographics, competing risk survival analysis revealed that compared with non-Hispanic whites, African-Americans had a 64 % higher mortality risk (hazards ratio [HR]?=?1.64; 95 % CI 1.24-2.17), whereas Hispanics had a 31 % lower mortality risk (HR?=?0.69; 95 % CI 0.47-1.01) that did not reach statistical significance. African-Americans also had higher odds of 1-year mortality after starting dialysis (odds ratio [OR]?=?2.08; 95 % CI 0.95-4.58), whereas both African-Americans and Hispanics had a lower odds of receiving a transplant within 1 year of starting dialysis (OR?=?0.28; 95 % CI 0.19-0.41 and OR?=?0.43; 95 % CI 0.31-0.59 respectively).In contrast to adults, African-American pediatric dialysis patients have worse survival than their non-Hispanic white counterparts, whereas Hispanics have a similar to lower mortality risk. Both African-American and Hispanic pediatric dialysis patients had a lower likelihood of kidney transplantation than non-Hispanic whites, similar to observations in the adult dialysis population.
Project description:Prior studies show that African-American and Hispanic dialysis patients have lower mortality risk than whites. Recent age-stratified analyses suggest this survival advantage may be limited to younger age groups, but did not concurrently compare Hispanic, African-American, and white patients, nor account for differences in nutritional and inflammatory status as potential confounders. Minorities experience inequities in kidney transplantation access, but it is unknown whether these racial/ethnic disparities differ across age groups.The associations between race/ethnicity with all-cause mortality and kidney transplantation were separately examined among 130,909 adult dialysis patients from a large national dialysis organization (entry period 2001-2006, follow-up through 2009) within 7 age categories using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for case-mix and malnutrition and inflammatory surrogates.African-Americans had similar mortality versus whites in younger age groups (18-40 years), but decreased mortality in older age groups (>40 years). In contrast, Hispanics had lower mortality versus whites across all ages. In sensitivity analyses using competing risk regression to account for differential kidney transplantation rates across racial/ethnic groups, the African-American survival advantage was limited to >60-years age categories. African-Americans and Hispanics were less likely to undergo kidney transplantation from all donor types versus whites across all ages, and these disparities were even more pronounced for living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT).Hispanic dialysis patients have greater survival versus whites across all ages; in African-Americans, this survival advantage is limited to patients >40 years of age. Minorities are less likely to undergo kidney transplantation, particularly LDKT, across all ages.
Project description:Observational studies indicate greater survival in African American and Hispanic maintenance hemodialysis patients compared with their non-Hispanic white counterparts, although African Americans have shorter life expectancy than whites in the general population. We hypothesized that this apparent survival advantage is due to a more favorable nutritional/inflammatory profile in minority hemodialysis patients.We examined the association between race/ethnicity and 5-year survival before and after adjustment for case-mix and surrogates of the malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) using Cox regression with or without matched sampling in a large cohort of adult hemodialysis patients.124,029 adult hemodialysis patients, including 16% Hispanics, 49% non-Hispanic whites, and 35% African Americans.Race/ethnicity before and after adjustment for MICS, including values for body mass index, serum albumin, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, creatinine, phosphorus, calcium, bicarbonate, white blood cell count, lymphocyte percentage, hemoglobin, and protein intake.5-year (July 2001 to June 2006) survival.In dialysis patients, blacks and Hispanics had lower mortality overall than non-Hispanic whites after traditional case-mix adjustment. However, after additional control for MICS, Hispanics had mortality similar to non-Hispanic whites, and African Americans had even higher mortality. Unadjusted, case-mix-, and MICS-adjusted HRs for African Americans versus whites were 0.68 (95% CI, 0.66-0.69), 0.89 (95% CI, 0.86-0.91), and 1.06 (95% CI, 1.03-1.09) in the unmatched cohort and, 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90-0.99), 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84-0.94), and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.07-1.26) in the matched cohort, and for Hispanics versus whites, 0.66 (95% CI, 0.64-0.69), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.81-0.87), and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.94-1.00) in the unmatched cohort and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84-0.95), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.83-0.95), and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.91-1.06) in the matched cohort, respectively.Adjustment cannot be made for unmeasured confounders.Survival advantages of African American and Hispanic hemodialysis patients may be related to differences in nutritional and inflammatory status. Further studies are required to explore these differences.
Project description:Hispanic patients undergoing long-term dialysis experience better survival compared with non-Hispanic whites. It is unknown whether this association differs by age, has changed over time, or is due to differential access to kidney transplantation.National retrospective cohort study.Using the US Renal Data System, we identified 615,618 white patients 18 years or older who initiated dialysis therapy between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2007.Hispanic ethnicity (vs non-Hispanic whites), year of end-stage renal disease incidence, age (as potential effect modifier).All-cause and cause-specific mortality.We found that Hispanics initiating dialysis therapy experienced lower mortality, but age modified this association (P < 0.001). Compared with non-Hispanic whites, mortality in Hispanics was 33% lower at ages 18-39 years (adjusted cause-specific HR [HRcs], 0.67; 95% CI, 0.64-0.71) and 40-59 years (HRcs, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.66-0.68), 19% lower at ages 60-79 years (HRcs, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.80-0.82), and 6% lower at 80 years or older (HRcs, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.97). Accounting for the differential rates of kidney transplantation, the associations were attenuated markedly in the younger age strata; the survival benefit for Hispanics was reduced from 33% to 10% at ages 18-39 years (adjusted subdistribution-specific HR [HRsd], 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.94) and from 33% to 19% among those aged 40-59 years (HRsd, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.80-0.83).Inability to analyze Hispanic subgroups that may experience heterogeneous mortality outcomes.Overall, Hispanics experienced lower mortality, but differential access to kidney transplantation was responsible for much of the apparent survival benefit noted in younger Hispanics.
Project description:Obesity is a major risk factor for several chronic diseases including diabetes, fatty liver disease and cancer. Despite similar propensities for obesity, Hispanics and African Americans exhibit unique and distinct differences in obesity related outcomes such as greater risk of, obesity-related cancers in AA and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Hispanics. This study was aimed to determine whether differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression in obese, Hispanic and AA young adults might explain ethnic differences in obesity-related phenotypes. cross-sectional study design to compare subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression profiles of 19 Hispanic and 17 African American young adults
Project description:Obesity is a major risk factor for several chronic diseases including diabetes, fatty liver disease and cancer. Despite similar propensities for obesity, Hispanics and African Americans exhibit unique and distinct differences in obesity related outcomes such as greater risk of, obesity-related cancers in AA and non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Hispanics. This study was aimed to determine whether differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression in obese, Hispanic and AA young adults might explain ethnic differences in obesity-related phenotypes. Overall design: cross-sectional study design to compare subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression profiles of 19 Hispanic and 17 African American young adults
Project description:Hyperkalemia is observed in chronic kidney disease patients and may be a risk factor for life-threatening arrhythmias and death. Race/ethnicity may be important modifiers of the potassium-mortality relationship in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients given that potassium intake and excretion vary among minorities.We examined racial/ethnic differences in baseline serum potassium levels and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazard models and restricted cubic splines in a cohort of 102,241 incident MHD patients. Serum potassium was categorized into 6 groups: ?3.6, >3.6 to ?4.0, >4.0 to ?4.5 (reference), >4.5 to ?5.0, >5.0 to ?5.5, and >5.5 mEq/L. Models were adjusted for case-mix and malnutrition-inflammation cachexia syndrome (MICS) covariates.The cohort was composed of 50% whites, 34% African-Americans, and 16% Hispanics. Hispanics tended to have the highest baseline serum potassium levels (mean ± SD: 4.58 ± 0.55 mEq/L). Patients in our cohort were followed for a median of 1.3 years (interquartile range 0.6-2.5). In our cohort, associations between higher potassium (>5.5 mEq/L) and higher mortality risk were observed in African-American and whites, but not Hispanic patients in models adjusted for case-mix and MICS covariates. While in Hispanics only, lower serum potassium (<3.6 mEq/L) levels were associated with higher mortality risk. Similar trends were observed for cardiovascular mortality.Higher potassium levels were associated with higher mortality risk in white and African-American MHD patients, whereas lower potassium levels were associated with higher death risk in Hispanics. Further studies are needed to determine the underlying mechanisms for the differential association between potassium and mortality across race/ethnicity.
Project description:The racial/ethnic disparities in prostate cancer rates are well documented, with the highest incidence and mortality rates observed among African-Americans followed by non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Whether socioeconomic status (SES) can account for these differences in risk has been investigated in previous studies, but with conflicting results. Furthermore, previous studies have focused primarily on the differences between African-Americans and non-Hispanic Whites, and little is known for Hispanics and Asian/Pacific Islanders.To further investigate the relationship between SES and prostate cancer among African-Americans, non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders, we conducted a large population-based cross-sectional study of 98,484 incident prostate cancer cases and 8,997 prostate cancer deaths from California.Data were abstracted from the California Cancer Registry, a population-based surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) registry. Each prostate cancer case and death was assigned a multidimensional neighborhood-SES index using the 2000 US Census data. SES quintile-specific prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates and rate ratios were estimated using SEER*Stat for each race/ethnicity categorized into 10-year age groups.For prostate cancer incidence, we observed higher levels of SES to be significantly associated with increased risk of disease [SES Q1 vs. Q5: relative risk (RR) = 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25-1.30]. Among younger men (45-64 years), African-Americans had the highest incidence rates followed by non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders for all SES levels. Yet, among older men (75-84 years) Hispanics, following African-Americans, displayed the second highest incidence rates of prostate cancer. For prostate cancer deaths, higher levels of SES were associated with lower mortality rates of prostate cancer deaths (SES Q1 vs. Q5: RR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.92-0.94). African-Americans had a twofold to fivefold increased risk of prostate cancer deaths in comparison to non-Hispanic Whites across all levels of SES.Our findings suggest that SES alone cannot account for the greater burden of prostate cancer among African-American men. In addition, incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer display different age and racial/ethnic patterns across gradients of SES.
Project description:AIMS:This study investigated outcomes after continuous flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) implantation as bridge to heart transplantation (BTT) in advanced heart failure patients stratified by race. METHODS AND RESULTS:De-identified data from the United Network for Organ Sharing database was obtained for all patients who had a CF-LVAD as BTT from 2008 to 2018. Patients were stratified into four groups on the basis of ethnicity [Caucasian, African American (AA), Hispanic, and others (Asian, Pacific Islanders, and American Indian)]. Outcomes investigated were waitlist mortality or delisting and post-transplant 5 year survival. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to identify independent predictors of waitlist mortality or delisting and post-transplant survival. We used Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the log-rank test to estimate and compare survival among groups. A total of 14 234 patients who had CF-LVADs as BTT were identified. Of these, 64% (n = 9058) were Caucasians, 26% (n = 3677) were AA, 7% (n = 997) were Hispanic, and 3% (n = 502) had a different race. Compared with Caucasian, AA, and Hispanic patients had higher body mass indexes and a lower level of education and are more likely to be public health insurance beneficiaries. There was a significantly lower incidence of transplantation in AAs compared with Caucasians, Hispanics, and others at 12, 24, and 60 months, respectively (Gray's test, P < 0.001). The AA race was a significant predictor of waitlist mortality or delisting owing to worsening clinical status [hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.10 (1.01 to 1.16; P < 0.001)]. Among those who were successfully BTT, risk-adjusted post-transplant survival was similar among the four groups (log-rank test: P = 0.589). CONCLUSIONS:Disparities exist among different races that receive a CF-LVAD as a BTT. These disparities translate into increased waitlist morbidity and mortality but not long-term post-transplant survival among those who successfully reach transplant.
Project description:Hispanic patients undergoing chronic dialysis are less likely to receive a kidney transplant compared with non-Hispanic whites. This study sought to elucidate disparities in the path to receipt of a deceased donor transplant between Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites.Using the US Renal Data System, 417,801 Caucasians who initiated dialysis between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2007 with follow-up through 2008 were identified. This study investigated time from first dialysis to first kidney transplantation, time from first dialysis to waitlisting, and time from waitlisting to kidney transplantation. Multivariable Cox regression estimated cause-specific hazard ratios (HRCS) and subdistribution (competing risk) hazard ratios (HRSD) for Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites.Hispanics experienced lower adjusted rates of deceased donor kidney transplantation than non-Hispanic whites (HRCS, 0.77; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 0.80) measured from dialysis initiation. No meaningful differences were found in time from dialysis initiation to placement on the transplant waitlist. Once waitlisted, Hispanics had lower adjusted rates of deceased donor kidney transplantation (HRCS, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.68), and the association attenuated once accounting for competing risks (HRSD, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.81). Additionally controlling for blood type and organ procurement organization further reduced the disparity (HRSD, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.02).After accounting for geographic location and controlling for competing risks (e.g., Hispanic survival advantage), the disparity in access to deceased donor transplantation was markedly attenuated among Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic whites. To overcome the geographic disparities that Hispanics encounter in the path to transplantation, organ allocation policy revisions are needed to improve donor organ equity.