Project description:N-?-Acetyltransferase 10 protein (Naa10p) was reported to be an oncoprotein in androgen-dependent prostate cancer (PCa; ADPC) through binding and increasing transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR). PCa usually progresses from an androgen-dependent to an androgen-independent stage, leading to an increase in the metastatic potential and an incurable malignancy. At present, the role of Naa10p in androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) remains unclear. In this study, in silico and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that Naa10 transcripts or the Naa10p protein were more highly expressed in primary and metastatic PCa cancer tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues and non-metastatic cancer tissues, respectively. Knockdown and overexpression of Naa10p in AIPC cells (DU145 and PC-3M), respectively, led to decreased and increased cell clonogenic and invasive abilities in vitro as well as tumor growth and metastasis in AIPC xenografts. From the protease array screening, we identified a disintegrin and metalloprotease 9 (ADAM9) as a potential target of Naa10p, which was responsible for the Naa10p-induced invasion of AIPC cells. Naa10p can form a complex with ADAM9 to maintain ADAM9 protein stability and promote AIPC's invasive ability which were independent of its acetyltransferase activity. In contrast to the Naa10p-ADAM9 axis, ADAM9 exerted positive feedback regulation on Naa10p to modulate progression of AIPC in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, for the first time, our results reveal a novel cross-talk between Naa10p and ADAM9 in regulating the progression of AIPC. Disruption of Naa10p-ADAM9 interactions may be a potential intervention for AIPC therapy.
Project description:beta-Catenin/T-cell factor signaling (beta-CTS) plays multiple critical roles in carcinogenesis and is blocked by androgens in androgen receptor (AR)-responsive prostate cancer (PrCa) cells, primarily via AR sequestration of beta-catenin from T-cell factor. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), often used as an over-the-counter nutritional supplement, is metabolized to androgens and estrogens in humans. The efficacy and safety of unregulated use of DHEA are unclear. We now report that DHEA induces beta-CTS via increasing association of estrogen receptor (ER)-beta with Dishevelled2 (Dvl2) in AR nonresponsive human PrCa DU145 cells, a line of androgen-independent PrCa (AiPC) cells. The induction is temporal, as assessed by measuring kinetics of the association of ERbeta/Dvl2, protein expression of the beta-CTS targeted genes, c-Myc and cyclin D1, and cell growth. However, in PC-3 cells, another human AiPC cell line, DHEA exerts no detectible effects, partly due to their lower expression of Galpha-subunits and DHEA down-regulation of ERbeta/Dvl2 association. When Galphaq is overexpressed in PC-3 cells, beta-CTS is constitutively induced, including increasing c-Myc and cyclin D1 protein expression. This effect involved increasing associations of Galphaq/Dvl2 and ERbeta/Dvl2 and promoted cell growth. These activities require ERbeta in DU-145 and PC-3 cells because they are blocked by ICI 182-780 treatment inactivating ERbeta, small interfering RNA administration depleting ERbeta, or AR overexpression arresting ERbeta. These data suggest that novel pathways activating beta-CTS play roles in the progression of AiPC. Although DHEA may enhance PrCa cell growth via androgenic or estrogenic pathways, the effects of DHEA administration on clinical prostate function remain to be determined.
Project description:Celastrol is a natural proteasome inhibitor that exhibits promising anti-tumor effects in human malignancies, especially the androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) with constitutive NF-?B activation. Celastrol induces apoptosis by means of proteasome inhibition and suppresses prostate tumor growth. However, the detailed mechanism of action remains elusive. In the current study, we aim to test the hypothesis that celastrol suppresses AIPC progression via inhibiting the constitutive NF-?B activity as well as modulating the Bcl-2 family proteins.We examined the efficacy of celastrol both in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated the role of NF-?B in celastrol-mediated AIPC regression. We found that celastrol inhibited cell proliferation in all three AIPC cell lines (PC-3, DU145 and CL1), with IC?? in the range of 1-2 µM. Celastrol also suppressed cell migration and invasion. Celastrol significantly induced apoptosis as evidenced by increased sub-G1 population, caspase activation and PARP cleavage. Moreover, celastrol promoted cleavage of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and activated the pro-apoptotic protein Noxa. In addition, celastrol rapidly blocked cytosolic I?B? degradation and nuclear translocation of RelA. Likewise, celastrol inhibited the expression of multiple NF-?B target genes that are involved in proliferation, invasion and anti-apoptosis. Celastrol suppressed AIPC tumor progression by inhibiting proliferation, increasing apoptosis and decreasing angiogenesis, in PC-3 xenograft model in nude mouse. Furthermore, increased cellular I?B? and inhibited expression of various NF-?B target genes were observed in tumor tissues.Our data suggest that, via targeting the proteasome, celastrol suppresses proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis by inducing the apoptotic machinery and attenuating constitutive NF-?B activity in AIPC both in vitro and in vivo. Celastrol as an active ingredient of traditional herbal medicine could thus be developed as a new therapeutic agent for hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The progression of all cancers is characterized by increased-cell proliferation and decreased-apoptosis. The androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) is the terminal stage of the disease. Many chemokines and cytokines are suspects to cause this increased tumor cell survival that ultimately leads to resistance to therapy and demise of the host. The AIPC cells, but not androgen-responsive cells, constitutively express abundant amount of the pro-inflammatory chemokine, Interleukin-8 (IL-8). The mechanism of IL-8 mediated survival and therapeutic resistance in AIPC cells is unclear at present. The purpose of this report is to show the pervasive role of IL-8 in malignant progression of androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) and to provide a potential new therapeutic avenue, using RNA interference.<h4>Results</h4>The functional consequence of IL-8 depletion in AIPC cells was investigated by RNA interference in two IL-8 secreting AIPC cell lines, PC-3 and DU145. The non-IL-8 secreting LNCaP and LAPC-4 cells served as controls. Cells were transfected with RISC-free siRNA (control) or validated-pool of IL-8 siRNA. Transfection with 50 nM IL-8 siRNA caused >95% depletion of IL-8 mRNA and >92% decrease in IL-8 protein. This reduction in IL-8 led to cell cycle arrest at G1/S boundary and decreases in cell cycle-regulated proteins: Cyclin D1 and Cyclin B1 (both decreased >50%) and inhibition of ERK1/2 activity by >50%. Further, the spontaneous apoptosis was increased by >43% in IL-8 depleted cells, evidenced by increases in caspase-9 activation and cleaved-PARP. IL-8 depletion caused significant decreases in anti-apoptotic proteins, BCL-2, BCL-xL due to decrease in both mRNA and post-translational stability, and increased levels of pro-apoptotic BAX and BAD proteins. More significantly, depletion of intracellular IL-8 increased the cytotoxic activity of multiple chemotherapeutic drugs. Specifically, the cytotoxicity of Docetaxel, Staurosporine and Rapamycin increased significantly (>40% at IC50 dose) in IL-8 depleted cells as compared to that in C-siRNA transfected cells.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These results show the pervasive role of IL-8 in promoting tumor cell survival, and resistance to cytotoxic drugs, regardless of the cytotoxic mechanism of antiproliferative drugs, and point to potential therapeutic significance of IL-8 depletion in men with AIPC.
Project description:Androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) eventually progresses to androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC), that has a poor prognosis owing to its unclear mechanism and lack of effective therapeutic targets. The human positive cofactor 4 (PC4) is a transcriptional cofactor, and plays a potential role in cancer development. However, the significance and mechanism of PC4 in AIPC progression are unclear. By analyzing the clinical data, we find that PC4 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and closely correlated with the progression, metastasis and prognosis of patients. Additionally, PC4 is significantly upregulated in AIPC cells compared with ADPC cells, implying its importance in the development and progression of AIPC. Then, in vivo and in vitro studies reveal that loss of PC4 inhibits cell growth by suppressing c-Myc/P21 pathway and inducing cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase transition in AIPC. PC4 knockdown also attenuates EMT-mediated metastasis in AIPC. Moreover, for the first time, we find that PC4 exerts its oncogenic functions by promoting the expression of HIF-1? and activating ?-catenin signaling. Therefore, our findings determine the signatures and molecular mechanisms of PC4 in AIPC, and indicate that PC4 might be a promising therapeutic target for AIPC.
Project description:To explore the role of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) mRNA in transition of prostate cancer (PCa) cells to androgen independence, we used Arraystar Human LncRNA Microarray V3.0 to detect and compare the differential expression of PLD1 and its signaling pathway-related gene in standard androgen dependence prostate cancer (ADPC) cell line LNCaP before and after the occurrence of androgen independence prostate cancer (AIPC) transition. In addition, we used the shRNA lentiviral vector to inhibit the PLD1 mRNA expression and observed its effect on LNCaP cell proliferation after AIPC transition by using MTS method. The results showed that the expression level of PLD1 mRNA was increased by 373-fold after AIPC transition (P<0.05); the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway-related gene expression was also elevated (P<0.05); the growth rate of LNCaP cells that had transited to androgen independence was reduced by about 30% when the PLD1 mRNA expression was inhibited by the shRNA lentivirus as compared with the negative control group (P<0.05). All these results suggest that PLD1 mRNA and the related PI3K/AKT signaling pathway may play an important role in AIPC. Down-regulating the expression of PLD1 mRNA could to some extent inhibit the proliferation rate of PCa cells after AIPC transition.
Project description:Introduction:Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death in males in the United States. Despite the initial efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer (PCa) patients, most patients progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the androgen-independent progression of PCa remain largely unknown. Methods:In this study, we established a PCa cell line (LNCaP-AI) by maintaining LNCaP cells under androgen-depleted conditions. To explore the cellular and molecular mechanisms of androgen-independent growth of PCa, we analyzed the gene expression patterns in androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) compared with that in androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC). KEGG pathway analysis revealed that Wnt signaling pathways were activated after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). In vitro experiments showed that the inhibition of Wnt pathway reduced AIPC cell growth by inhibiting cell cycle progression and promoting apoptosis. Furthermore, WNT5A, LEF1 were identified as direct targets of AR by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and public ChIP-seq datasets analysis. Results:In the present study, we found a regulatory mechanism through which crosstalk between androgen receptor (AR) and Wnt signals promoted androgen-independent conversion of PCa. The Wnt pathway was inhibited by androgen in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells, but this blocking effect was not elicited in androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) cells. Moreover, Wnt pathway genes WNT5A and LEF1 were directly downregulated by AR. In vitro experiments showed that inhibition of the Wnt pathways repressed AIPC cell growth by inhibiting cell cycle progression and promoting apoptosis. We found that WNT5A and LEF1 were downregulated in low-grade PCa but upregulated in metastatic PCa. Conclusion:In summary, we revealed that crosstalk between AR and Wnt signaling pathways promotes androgen-independent growth of PCa, which may provide novel therapeutic opportunities for castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Project description:Novel palliative strategies for patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) include targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family. The aim of the present study was to investigate intrapatient changes of EGFRs during the development of AIPC. In total, 106 symptomatic AIPC patients were identified in whom prostatic biopsies (adenocarcinoma) were available both before the start of androgen deprivation (PRTR biopsy) and after the development of AIPC (AIPC biopsy). All four known subgroups of the EGFR family were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC): c-erbB-1 (EGFR), c-erbB-2 (HER2/neu), c-erbB-3 (HER3) and c-erbB-4 (HER4). Moderate to strong membrane-specific staining was recorded semiquantitatively (<10% vs >/=10%=IHC stained tumour cells: 'negative' vs 'positive' staining). The medical records were reviewed for clinical variables. During the development of AIPC, intrapatient changes occurred in two opposite directions for each of the four EGFRs: negativity changed to positivity, and vice versa, statistically significant only for the increase of c-erbB-1 expression (P=0.001). The c-erbB-2 expression in the AIPC biopsy was associated with a significantly shorter survival from the time of the AIPC biopsy (P=0.029). Our results support ongoing therapeutic attempts of EGFR inhibition in subgroups of patients with prostate cancer. Further research is needed to understand the function of EGFRs in this malignancy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is still considered incurable, even though the mechanisms of CRPC had been extensively researched. Studies have demonstrated that exosomes in the tumor microenvironment contribute to prostate cancer development and progression. However, the role of exosomes in the process of CRPC progression has not yet been determined.<h4>Methods</h4>Co-culturing and exosome treatment assays combined with in vitro and in vivo assays were performed to determine the function of exosomes in the transformation of androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) cells into androgen-independent cells. Then, the mRNA expression profiles of ADPC cells and ADPC cells co-cultured with androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) cell-derived exosomes were studied using microarrays. After silencing the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies, and MTS assay were used to confirm the mechanisms of exosome participation in CRPC progression.<h4>Results</h4>The results showed that ADPC cells acquired tolerance for androgen deprivation due to the exosome-mediated communication between cells. AIPC cell-derived exosomes promoted the transformation of ADPC cells into androgen-independent cells in vivo and in vitro. Microarray analysis revealed that HMOX1 in ADPC cells was up-regulated after treatment with AIPC cell-derived exosomes. Further results showed that HMOX1 is overexpressed in human AIPC specimens and protects ADPC cells from androgen deprivation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings revealed that exosomes contribute to CRPC progression via promoting the transition of prostate cancer cells into an androgen-independent growth stage by activating HMOX1.
Project description:Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in the progression of both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC). Ligand-independent activation of AR in AIPC or castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is often associated with poor prognosis. Recently, tyrosine kinase Ack1 has been shown to regulate AR activity by phosphorylating it at tyrosine 267 and this event was shown to be critical for AIPC growth. However, whether a small molecule inhibitor that can mitigate Ack1 activation is sufficient to abrogate AR activity on AR regulated promoters in androgen-depleted environment is not known.We have generated two key resources, antibodies that specifically recognize pTyr267-AR and synthesized a small molecule inhibitor of Ack1, 4-amino-5,6-biaryl-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (named here as AIM-100) to test whether AIM-100 modulates ligand-independent AR activity and inhibits prostate cell growth.Prostate tissue microarray analysis indicates that Ack1 Tyr284 phosphorylation correlates positively with disease progression and negatively with the survival of prostate cancer patients. Interestingly, neither pTyr267-AR expression nor its transcriptional activation was affected by anti-androgens in activated Ack1 expressing or EGF stimulated prostate cells. However, the Ack1 inhibitor, AIM-100, not only inhibited Ack1 activation but also able to suppress pTyr267-AR phosphorylation, binding of AR to PSA, NKX3.1, and TMPRSS2 promoters, and inhibit AR transcription activity.Ack1 Tyr284 phosphorylation is prognostic of progression of prostate cancer and inhibitors of Ack1 activity could be novel therapeutic agents to treat AIPC.