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Gut Microbiota Colonization and Transmission in the Burying Beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides throughout Development.

ABSTRACT: Carrion beetles in the genus Nicrophorus rear their offspring on decomposing carcasses where larvae are exposed to a diverse community of decomposer bacteria. Parents coat the carcass with antimicrobial secretions prior to egg hatch (defined as prehatch care) and also feed regurgitated food, and potentially bacteria, to larvae throughout development (defined as full care). Here, we partition the roles of prehatch and posthatch parental care in the transmission and persistence of culturable symbiotic bacteria to larvae. Using three treatment groups (full care, prehatch care only, and no care), we found that larvae receiving full care are predominantly colonized by bacteria resident in the maternal gut while larvae receiving no care are colonized with bacteria from the carcass. More importantly, larvae receiving only prehatch care were also predominantly colonized by maternal bacteria; this result indicates that parental treatment of the carcass, including application of bacteria to the carcass surface, is sufficient to ensure symbiont transfer even in the absence of direct larval feeding. Later in development, we found striking evidence that pupae undergo an aposymbiotic stage, after which they are recolonized at eclosion with bacteria similar to those found on the molted larval cuticle and on the wall of the pupal chamber. Our results clarify the importance of prehatch parental care for symbiont transmission in Nicrophorus vespilloides and suggest that these bacteria successfully outcompete decomposer bacteria during larval and pupal gut colonization.IMPORTANCE Here, we examine the origin and persistence of the culturable gut microbiota of larvae in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides This insect is particularly interesting for this study because larvae are reared on decomposing vertebrate carcasses, where they are exposed to high densities of carrion-decomposing microbes. Larvae also receive extensive parental care in the form of carcass preservation and direct larval feeding. We find that parents transmit their gut bacteria to larvae both directly, through regurgitation, and indirectly via their effects on the carcass. In addition, we find that larvae become aposymbiotic during pupation but are recolonized apparently from bacteria shed onto the insect cuticle before adult eclosion. Our results highlight the diverse interactions between insect behavior and development on microbiota composition. They further suggest that competitive interactions mediate the bacterial composition of Nicrophorus larvae together with or apart from the influence of beetle immunity, suggesting that the bacterial communities of these insects may be highly coevolved with those of their host species.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC5394326 | BioStudies | 2017-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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