Effect of high-dose plerixafor on CD34+ cell mobilization in healthy stem cell donors: results of a randomized crossover trial.
ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells can be mobilized from healthy donors using single-agent plerixafor without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and, following allogeneic transplantation, can result in sustained donor-derived hematopoiesis. However, when a single dose of plerixafor is administered at a conventional 240 ?g/kg dose, approximately one-third of donors will fail to mobilize the minimally acceptable dose of CD34+ cells needed for allogeneic transplantation. We conducted an open-label, randomized trial to assess the safety and activity of high-dose (480 ?g/kg) plerixafor in CD34+ cell mobilization in healthy donors. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either a high dose or a conventional dose (240 ?g/kg) of plerixafor, given as a single subcutaneous injection, in a two-sequence, two-period, crossover design. Each treatment period was separated by a 2-week minimum washout period. The primary endpoint was the peak CD34+ count in the blood, with secondary endpoints of CD34+ cell area under the curve (AUC), CD34+ count at 24 hours, and time to peak CD34+ following the administration of plerixafor. We randomized 23 subjects to the two treatment sequences and 20 subjects received both doses of plerixafor. Peak CD34+ count in the blood was significantly increased (mean 32.2 versus 27.8 cells/?L, P=0.0009) and CD34+ cell AUC over 24 hours was significantly increased (mean 553 versus 446 h cells/?L, P<0.0001) following the administration of the 480 ?g/kg dose of plerixafor compared with the 240 ?g/kg dose. Remarkably, of seven subjects who mobilized poorly (peak CD34+ ?20 cells/?L) after the 240 ?g/kg dose of plerixafor, six achieved higher peak CD34+ cell numbers and all achieved higher CD34+ AUC over 24 hours after the 480 ?g/kg dose. No grade 3 or worse drug-related adverse events were observed. This study establishes that high-dose plerixafor can be safely administered in healthy donors and mobilizes greater numbers of CD34+ cells than conventional-dose plerixafor, which may improve CD34+ graft yields and reduce the number of apheresis procedures needed to collect sufficient stem cells for allogeneic transplantation. (ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT00322127).
Project description:Plerixafor, a direct antagonist of CXCR4/stromal-derived factor 1, can safely and rapidly mobilize allografts without the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). We conducted a phase 2, multicenter, prospective study of plerixafor-mobilized HLA-identical sibling allografts for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in recipients with hematological malignancies. Donors (n = 64) were treated with subcutaneous plerixafor (240 µg/kg) and started leukapheresis (LP) 4 hours later. The primary objective was to determine the proportion of donors who were successfully mobilized: defined as collection of ≥2.0 × 106 CD34+ cells per kilogram recipient weight in ≤2 LP sessions. Recipients subsequently received reduced intensity (RIC; n = 33) or myeloablative (MAC; n = 30) conditioning. Sixty-three of 64 (98%) donors achieved the primary objective. The median CD34+ cell dose per kilogram recipient weight collected within 2 days was 4.7 (0.9-9.6). Plerixafor was well tolerated with only grade 1 or 2 drug-related adverse events noted. Bone pain was not observed. Plerixafor-mobilized grafts engrafted promptly. One-year progression-free and overall survivals were 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36% to 71%) and 63% (95% CI, 46% to 79%) for MAC and 64% (95% CI, 47% to 79%) and 70% (95% CI, 53% to 84%) for RIC recipients, respectively. Donor toxicity was reduced relative to G-CSF mobilized related donors. This is the first multicenter trial to demonstrate that, as an alternative to G-CSF, plerixafor rapidly and safely mobilizes sufficient numbers of CD34+ cells from matched sibling donors for HCT. Engraftment was prompt, and outcomes in recipients were encouraging. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01696461.
Project description:Novel therapies for sickle cell disease (SCD) based on genetically engineered autologous hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are critically dependent on a safe and effective strategy for cell procurement. We sought to assess the safety and efficacy of plerixafor when used in transfused patients with SCD for HSC mobilization. Six adult patients with SCD were recruited to receive a single dose of plerixafor, tested at lower than standard (180 µg/kg) and standard (240 µg/kg) doses, followed by CD34+ cell monitoring in peripheral blood and apheresis collection. The procedures were safe and well-tolerated. Mobilization was successful, with higher peripheral CD34+ cell counts in the standard vs the low-dose group. Among our 6 donors, we improved apheresis cell collection results by using a deep collection interface and starting apheresis within 4 hours after plerixafor administration. In the subjects who received a single standard dose of plerixafor and followed the optimized collection protocol, yields of up to 24.5 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg were achieved. Interestingly, the collected CD34+ cells were enriched in immunophenotypically defined long-term HSCs and early progenitors. Thus, we demonstrate that plerixafor can be employed safely in patients with SCD to obtain sufficient HSCs for potential use in gene therapy.
Project description:Gene therapy for sickle cell disease is limited by the yield of hematopoietic progenitor cells that can be harvested for transduction or gene editing. We therefore performed a phase I dose-escalation study of the hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilizing agent plerixafor to evaluate the efficacy and safety of standard dosing on peripheral blood CD34+ cell mobilization. Of 15 patients enrolled to date, only one was chronically transfused and ten were on hydroxyurea. Of eight patients who achieved a CD34+ cell concentration >30 cells/?L, six were on hydroxyurea. There was no clear dose response to increasing plerixafor dosage. There was a low rate of serious adverse events; two patients developed vaso-occlusive crises, at the doses of 80 ?g/kg and 240 ?g/kg. Hydroxyurea may have contributed to the limited CD34+ mobilization by affecting baseline peripheral blood CD34 counts, which correlated strongly with peak peripheral blood CD34 counts. Plerixafor administration did not induce significant increases in the fraction of activated neutrophils, monocytes, or platelets. However, increased neutrophils positive for activated ?2 integrin and Mac-1 were associated with serious adverse events. In summary, plerixafor was well tolerated but did not achieve consistent CD34+ cell mobilization in this cohort of patients, most of whom were being actively treated with hydroxyurea and only one was chronically transfused. The study will continue with escalation of the dose of plerixafor and modification of hydroxyurea administration. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02193191.
Project description:A single subcutaneous (SC) injection of plerixafor results in rapid mobilization of hematopoietic progenitors, but fails to mobilize 33% of normal allogeneic sibling donors in 1 apheresis. We hypothesized that changing the route of administration of plerixafor from SC to IV may overcome the low stem cell yields and allow collection in 1 day. A phase 1 trial followed by a phase 2 efficacy trial was conducted in allogeneic sibling donors. The optimal dose of IV plerixafor was determined to be 0.32 mg/kg. The primary outcome of reducing the failure to collect ≥2 × 106 CD34+/kg recipient weight in 1 apheresis collection to ≤10% was not reached. The failure rate was 34%. Studies evaluating the stem cell phenotype and gene expression revealed a novel plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursor preferentially mobilized by plerixafor with high interferon-α producing ability. The observed cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia rate for patients at risk was low (15%), as were the rates of acute grade 2-4 graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (21%). Day 100 treatment related mortality was low (3%). In conclusion, plerixafor results in rapid stem cell mobilization regardless of route of administration and resulted in novel cellular composition of the graft and favorable recipient outcomes. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00241358 and #NCT00914849.
Project description:This study (NCT01288573) investigated plerixafor's safety and efficacy in children with cancer. Stage 1 investigated the dosage, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and safety of plerixafor?+?standard mobilization (G-CSF?±?chemotherapy). The stage 2 primary endpoint was successful mobilization (doubling of peripheral blood CD34+ cell count in the 24?h prior to first apheresis) in patients treated with plerixafor?+?standard mobilization vs. standard mobilization alone. In stage 1, three patients per age group (2-<6, 6-<12, and 12-<18 years) were treated at each dose level (160, 240, and 320?µg/kg). Based on PK and PD data, the dose proposed for stage 2 was 240?µg/kg (patients 1-<18 years), in which 45 patients were enrolled (30 plerixafor arm, 15 standard arm). Patient demographics and characteristics were well balanced across treatment arms. More patients in the plerixafor arm (24/30, 80%) met the primary endpoint of successful mobilization than in the standard arm (4/14, 28.6%, p?=?0.0019). Adverse events reported as related to study treatment were mild, and no new safety concerns were identified. Plerixafor?+?standard G-CSF?±?chemotherapy mobilization was generally well tolerated and efficacious when used to mobilize CD34+ cells in pediatric cancer patients.
Project description:High-dose chemotherapy and autologous transplantation of hematopoietic cells is a crucial treatment option for hematologic malignancy patients. Current mobilization regimes often do not provide adequate numbers of CD34(+) cells. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and ligand SDF-1 are integrally involved in homing and mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Disruption of the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis by the CXCR4 antagonist, plerixafor, has been demonstrated in Phase II and Phase III trials to improve mobilization when used in conjunction with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). This approach is safe with few adverse events and produces significantly greater numbers of CD34(+) cells when compared to G-CSF alone. New plerixafor initiatives include use in volunteer donors for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant and in other disease targets.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-stimulated hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) collected by apheresis have become the predominant graft source for HPC transplantation in adults. Among healthy allogeneic donors, demographic characteristics (age, sex, body mass index [BMI]) and baseline hematologic counts affect HPC mobilization, leading to variability in CD34+ apheresis yields. Racial differences in HPC mobilization are less well characterized. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed data from 1096 consecutive G-CSF-stimulated leukapheresis procedures in healthy allogeneic African American (AA) or Caucasian donors. RESULTS:In a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, baseline platelet and mononuclear cell counts, and daily G-CSF dose, peak CD34+ cell mobilization was significantly higher among AAs (n?=?215) than Caucasians (n?=?881; 123?±?87 × 10(6) cells/L vs. 75?±?47 × 10(6) cells/L; p?<?0.0001). A ceiling effect was observed with increasing G-CSF dose (10 µg/kg/day vs. 16 µg/kg/day) in AAs (123?±?88 × 10(6) cells/L vs. 123?±?87 × 10(6) cells/L) but not in Caucasians (74?±?46 × 10(6) cells/L vs. 93?±?53 × 10(6) cells/L; p?<?0.001). In AA donors, the presence of sickle cell trait (SCT; n?=?41) did not affect CD34+ mobilization (peak CD34+ 123?±?91 × 10(6) cells/L vs. 107?±?72 × 10(6) cells/L, HbAS vs. HbAA; p?=?0.34). Adverse events were minimal and similar across race. CONCLUSIONS:AAs demonstrated significantly better CD34 mobilization responses to G-CSF than Caucasians. This was independent of other demographic and hematologic variables. Studying race-associated pharmacogenomics in relation to G-CSF may improve dosing strategies. Adverse event profile and CD34 mobilization were similar in AA donors with and without SCT. Our findings suggest that it would be safe to include healthy AA donors with SCT in unrelated donor registries.
Project description:We hypothesized that during conditioning chemotherapy for allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT), the disruption of stromal-leukemia interactions using G-CSF in combination with the CXCR4-specific inhibitor, plerixafor, may promote the release of leukemic cells from the niche and increase tumor elimination. In a phase 1/2 investigation, we treated 45 AML/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/CML patients (34 AML, 7 MDS and 4 CML) with G-CSF (10 ?g/kg daily for 6 days starting on day -9) plus plerixafor (doses of 0, 80, 160 or 240 ?g/kg daily for 4 days starting on day -7) along with the busulfan-fludarabine (Bu-Flu) conditioning regimen. In the phase 1 part, we determined that G-CSF plus plerixafor is safe in this setting. We compared the clinical effects and outcomes of AML/MDS study patients (n=40) with 164 patients from a historical data set who received Bu-Flu alone before allo-SCT by stratifying on cytogenetics and disease status to correct for bias. Study patients had increased myeloid chimerism and lower rates of GvHD. There was no significant difference in relapse-free survival or overall survival. The G-CSF plus plerixafor combination increased circulating WBCs, CD34+ cells and CXCR4+ cells, and preferentially mobilized FISH+ leukemic cells.
Project description:CD34+-selected stem cell boost (SCB) without conditioning has recently been utilized for poor graft function (PGF) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with promising results. Unfortunately, many patients have been unable to receive the boost infusion as their donors were unwilling or unable to undergo an additional stem cell collection. Therefore, we conducted this study utilizing either fresh or cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cell products to create CD34+-selected boost infusions for the treatment of PGF. Additionally, to explore relationship of CD34+ dose and response, we included a cohort of donors mobilized with plerixafor in addition to the standard granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Twenty-six patients with PGF were included in this study. Seventeen donor-recipient pairs were enrolled onto the prospective study; an additional 9 patients treated off protocol were reviewed retrospectively. Three different donor products were used for CD34+ selection: (1) fresh mobilized product using G-CSF only, (2) fresh mobilized products using G-CSF and plerixafor, and (3) cryopreserved cells mobilized with G-CSF. CD34+ cell selection was performed using a CliniMACS. The infusion was not preceded by administration of any chemotherapy or conditioning regimen. The primary objective was hematologic response rate and secondary objectives included CD34+ yields, incidence and severity of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), overall survival (OS), and relapse-free survival (RFS). The median post-selection CD34+ counts per kilogram of recipient weight were 3.1 × 106, 10.9 × 106, and 1 × 106 for G-CSF only, G-CSF plus plerixafor, and cryopreserved products, respectively. The median CD34+ yields (defined as the number of CD34+ cells after selection/CD34+ cells before CD34+ selection) were 69%, 66%, and 28% for G-CSF only, G-CSF plus plerixafor, and cryopreserved products, respectively. After SCB, 16 of the 26 recipients (62%) had a complete response, including 5 of 8 (63%) who received cryopreserved products. Five had a partial response (19%), resulting in an overall response rate of 81%. One-year RFS and OS were 50% and 65%, respectively. There was no treatment-related toxicity reported other than GVHD: 6 (23%) developed acute GVHD (2 grade I and 4 grade II) and 8 (31%) developed chronic GVHD (2 limited and 6 extensive). Cryopreserved products are viable alternatives to create SCB for the treatment of PGF. When collecting fresh products is an option, the addition of plerixafor increases CD34+ yield over G-CSF alone; however, it is currently unclear if the CD34+ cell dose impacts the efficacy of the SCB.
Project description:The purpose of this report is to analyze long-term clinical outcomes of patients exposed to plerixafor plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for stem cell mobilization. This was a study of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; n?=?167) and multiple myeloma (MM; n?=?163) who were enrolled in the long-term follow-up of 2 pivotal phase III studies (NCT00741325 and NCT00741780) of 240?µg/kg plerixafor plus 10?µg/kg G-CSF, or placebo plus 10?µg/kg G-CSF to mobilize and collect CD34+ cells for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated over a 5-year period following the first dose of plerixafor or placebo. The probability of OS was not significantly different in patients with NHL or MM treated with plerixafor or placebo (NHL: 64%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 56% to 71% versus 56%; 95% CI, 44% to 67%, respectively; MM: 64%; 95% CI, 54% to 72% versus 64%; 95% CI, 53% to 73%, respectively). In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in the probability of PFS over 5 years between treatment groups in patients with NHL (50%; 95% CI, 44% to 67% for plerixafor versus 43%; 95% CI, 31% to 54% for placebo) or those with MM (17%; 95% CI, 10% to 24% for plerixafor versus 30%; 95% CI, 21% to 40% for placebo). In this long-term follow-up study, the addition of plerixafor to G-CSF for stem cell mobilization did not affect 5-year survival in patients with NHL or patients with MM.