A Consult Service to Support and Promote Community-Based Research: Tracking and Evaluating a Community-based Research Consult Service.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:This study describes the design, operation and evaluation of a community-based research (CBR) consult service within the setting of a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) institution. To our knowledge, there are no published evaluations of a CBR consult service at a CTSA hub. METHODS:A community-based research Consult Service was created to support faculty, health care providers/research coordinators, trainees, community-based organizations and community members. A framework was developed to assess the stages of client engagement and to foster clear articulation of client needs and challenges. A developmental evaluation system was integrated with the framework to track progress, store documents, continuously improve the consult service and assess research outcomes. RESULTS:This framework provides information on client numbers, types, services used and successful outreach methods. Tracking progress reveals reasons that prevent clients from completing projects and facilitates learning outcomes relevant to clients and funding agencies. Clients benefit from the expert knowledge, community connections and project guidance provided by the Consult Service team, increasing the likelihood of study completion and achieving research outcomes. CONCLUSION:This study offers a framework by which CTSA institutions can expand their capacity to conduct and evaluate community-based research while addressing challenges that inhibit community engagement.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To implement, refine and evaluate an assertive community health nurse (CHN) model of support for people experiencing or at risk of homelessness that aims to improve their access to health and social care services. METHODS:Participants were recruited between 30 August 2013 and 31 October 2015, including clients residing in a Victorian southern Melbourne metropolitan suburb, who registered with the CHN and stakeholders from local service provider organisations engaging with the CHN. A collaborative approach using demographic data collected from client records to identify need and measure the time clients took to engage and access services, qualitative data gathered during Stakeholder Advisory Group meetings and feedback from face-to-face interviews with service organisation representatives informed refinement of the CHN model. RESULTS:Thirty-nine clients (22 Female, mean age 50±11 years) participated. Clients engaged with services after an average of seven CHN visits. Eighteen clients independently accessed services after approximately 9?weeks, including medical and housing services. Client need and feedback from 20 stakeholders and three community nurses contributed to refining the model to ensure it met local needs and informed the necessary organisational framework, the CHN role and the attributes, knowledge and the skills required. CONCLUSION:A collaborative CHN model of support for people at risk of or experiencing homelessness has been articulated. Evaluation of the role demonstrated increased client engagement with health and community services and social activities. Additionally, the CHN assisted other service providers in their delivery of care to this very complex client group.
Project description:Preventive care to address client chronic disease risks is not frequently provided in community mental health services. Offering clients an additional preventive care consultation has been shown to increase client receipt of such care. The ability of this approach to have a beneficial impact at the population level is however dependent on its level of acceptability and uptake among clients. No studies have previously reported these outcomes when the additional consultation is universally offered to all clients of a community mental health service. To address this evidence gap, this descriptive study was undertaken to determine community mental health clients' (1) reported acceptability, in principle, of such a model of care, (2) of those who were offered the additional consultation, the level of uptake, and (3) clinical and socio-demographic characteristics associated with uptake. Participants were clients of one community mental health service in Australia. Data were collected in 2017 by telephone interviews and study records. Data from three distinct participant sub-groups are reported. In response to a hypothetical question, 79.3% of participants (n = 157) agreed that an offer of an additional preventive care consultation would be acceptable (Aim 1). Of the participants who were offered such a consultation (n = 264), 37.8% took up the offer (Aim 2); and no clinical or sociodemographic characteristics were significantly associated with uptake (Aim 3). Findings support the feasibility of this model of care. However, further research is needed to identify barriers to uptake, and effective strategies to enhance consultation uptake. Trial registration: ACTRN12616001519448.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine the feasibility of case-tracking methods in documenting client journeys at primary healthcare (PHC) services in order to investigate the comprehensiveness of service responses and the experiences of clients. DESIGN:Prospective pilot study. Quantitative and qualitative case management data were collected from staff via questionnaire or interview. SETTING:Five Australian multidisciplinary PHC services were involved including four South Australian state-managed and one Northern Territory Aboriginal community-controlled PHC service. PARTICIPANTS:Clients using services for depression (95) or diabetes (185) at the PHC services were case tracked over a 12-month period to allow construction of client journeys for these two conditions. Clients being tracked were invited to participate in two semi-structured interviews (21) and complete a health log. RESULTS:Though a number of challenges were encountered, the case-tracking methods were useful in documenting the complex nature of client journeys for those with depression or diabetes accessing PHC services and the need to respond to the social determinants of health. A flexible research design was crucial to respond to the needs of staff and changing organisational environments. CONCLUSIONS:The client journeys provided important information about the services' responses to depression and diabetes, and about aspects unique to comprehensive PHC such as advocacy and work that takes into account the social determinants of health.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcome and workload of a community based, nurse led comprehensive sexual health and contraceptive service for clients aged less than 25. METHODS: Review of appointment diaries and clinic records of clients who attended the Brook genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic. The workload, case mix, and achievement of national targets in the first year of the service were compared with those for the same age group of clients attending the nearby hospital based GUM clinic. A limited client satisfaction questionnaire was carried out 8 months after the clinic opened. RESULTS: 1061/1700 (62.4%) clients (185, 17.4% male) attended booked appointments. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 16.1% of women and 20.5% of men at Brook (p<0.05), where 22.6% of women and 50% of men had at least one sexually transmitted infection (p<0.001). HIV testing was offered to 98.5% of clients. 60.7% of all identified contacts attended a clinic for testing and/or treatment. Client responses to a questionnaire about the service were very favourable. Only 2.3% of Brook GUM clients needed referral to a physician. CONCLUSIONS: Nurse led community based GUM services, such as the one provided at the Merseyside Brook Centre, appeal to young people and our success should encourage others to consider similar ventures.
Project description:Subspecialty consultation in inpatient medicine is increasing, and enhancing performance of consultation services may have a broad-reaching impact. Multisource feedback is an important tool in assessing competence and improving performance. A mechanism for primary team resident feedback on performance of consult services has not been described.We developed and evaluated an instrument designed to assess internal medicine (IM) subspecialty inpatient consult service performance. We hypothesized that the instrument would be feasible to administer and provide important information to fellowship directors.The instrument was administered in 2015 and 2016 at a single academic center. All IM residents were invited to evaluate 10 IM subspecialty consult services on 4 items and an overall satisfaction rating. The instrument allowed for free-text feedback to fellows. Program directors completed another survey assessing the impact of the consult service evaluation.A total of 113 residents responded (47 in 2015 and 66 in 2016, for a combined response rate of 35%). Each of the 4 items measured (communication, professionalism, teaching, and pushback) correlated significantly with the overall satisfaction rating in univariate and multivariate analyses. There were no differences in ratings across postgraduate year or year of administration. There was considerable variation in ratings among the services evaluated. The 7 program directors who provided feedback found the survey useful and made programmatic changes following evaluation implementation.A primary team resident evaluation of inpatient medicine subspecialty consult services is feasible, provides valuable information, and is associated with changes in consult service structure and curricula.
Project description:In 2011, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) implemented electronic consults (e-consults) as an alternative to in-person specialty visits to improve access and reduce travel for veterans. We conducted an evaluation to understand variation in the use of the new e-consult mechanism and the causes of variable implementation, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR).Qualitative case studies of 3 high- and 5 low-implementation e-consult pilot sites. Participants included e-consult site leaders, primary care providers, specialists, and support staff identified using a modified snowball sample.We used a 3-step approach, with a structured survey of e-consult site leaders to identify key constructs, based on the CFIR. We then conducted open-ended interviews, focused on key constructs, with all participants. Finally, we produced structured, site-level ratings of CFIR constructs and compared them between high- and low-implementation sites.Site leaders identified 14 initial constructs. We conducted 37 interviews, from which 4 CFIR constructs distinguished high implementation e-consult sites: compatibility, networks and communications, training, and access to knowledge and information. For example, illustrating compatibility, a specialist at a high-implementation site reported that the site changed the order of consult options so that all specialties listed e-consults first to maintain consistency. High-implementation sites also exhibited greater agreement on constructs.By using the CFIR to analyze results, we facilitate future synthesis with other findings, and we better identify common patterns of implementation determinants common across settings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Providing HIV/STD testing and prevention education, medical and nonmedical case management, housing assistance, transportation services, and patient navigation are just a few examples of how community-based HIV/AIDS service organizations will help the United States realize the goals of the updated National HIV/AIDS Strategy. OBJECTIVE:In this study, the aim was to assess electronic data security confidence level, electronic communication behaviors, and interest in using eHealth communication tools with clients of staff at community-based HIV/AIDS service organizations. METHODS:Staff were recruited from 7 community-based HIV/AIDS service organizations in the southern United States (3 in South Carolina and 4 in Texas). The principal investigator used state department of health websites to identify community-based HIV/AIDS service organizations. Staff were included if they provided HIV/STD prevention education to clients. A recruitment letter was sent to community-based HIV/AIDS service organization leaders who then used snowball sampling to recruit eligible staff. Chi-square tests were used. RESULTS:Among staff (n=59) who participated in the study, 66% (39/59) were very or completely confident that safeguards are in place to keep electronically shared information from being seen by other people; 68% (40/59) used email, 58% (34/59) used text messages, 25% (15/59) used social media, 15% (9/59) used a mobile app, 8% (5/59) used web-enabled videoconferencing, and 3% (2/59) used other tools (eg, electronic medical record, healthnavigator.com website) to communicate electronically with their clients. More than half were very interested in using eHealth communication tools in the future for sharing appointment reminders (67%, 38/59) and general health tips (61%, 34/59) with their clients. Half were very interested in using eHealth communication tools in the future to share HIV medication reminders with their clients (50%, 29/59). Forty percent (23/59) were very interested in using eHealth communication tools to share vaccination reminders with their clients. CONCLUSIONS:Community-based HIV/AIDS service organization staff had some level of confidence that safeguards were in place to keep electronically shared information from being seen by other people. This is critically important given the sensitivity of the information shared between community-based HIV/AIDS service organization staff and their clients, and because many staff were very interested in using eHealth communication tools with their clients in the future. It is very likely that eHealth communication tools can be used in community settings to improve health outcomes across the HIV care continuum; in the interim, more research is needed to better understand factors that may facilitate or impede community-based HIV/AIDS service organization staff use and client acceptability.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Clinical practice guidelines recommend that community mental health services provide preventive care for clients' chronic disease risk behaviours; however, such care is often not routinely provided. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of offering clients an additional consultation with a specialist clinician embedded within a community mental health service, in increasing client-reported receipt of, and satisfaction with, preventive care. METHOD:A randomised controlled trial was undertaken in one Australian community mental health service. Participants (N?=?811) were randomised to receive usual care (preventive care in routine consultations; n?=?405) or usual care plus the offer of an additional consultation with a specialist preventive care clinician (n?=?406). Blinded interviewers assessed at baseline and 1-month follow-up the client-reported receipt of preventive care (assessment, advice and referral) for four key risk behaviours individually (smoking, poor nutrition, alcohol overconsumption and physical inactivity) and all applicable risks combined, acceptance of referrals and satisfaction with preventive care received. RESULTS:Analyses indicated significantly greater increases in 12 of the 18 preventive care delivery outcomes in the intervention compared to the usual care condition from baseline to follow-up, including assessment for all risks combined (risk ratio?=?4.00; 95% confidence interval?=?[1.57, 10.22]), advice for all applicable risks combined (risk ratio?=?2.40; 95% confidence interval?=?[1.89, 6.47]) and offer of referral to applicable telephone services combined (risk ratio?=?20.13; 95% confidence interval?=?[2.56, 158.04]). For each component of care, there was a significant intervention effect for at least one of the individual risk behaviours. Participants reported high levels of satisfaction with preventive care received, ranging from 77% (assessment) to 87% (referral), with no significant differences between conditions. CONCLUSION:The intervention had a significant effect on the provision of the majority of recommended elements of preventive care. Further research is needed to maximise its impact, including identifying strategies to increase client uptake.
Project description:Communication and courtesy are important elements of consultations, but there is limited published data about the quality of trainee consults.This study assessed residents' views on consult interactions, evaluated the impact of the consult interactions on patient care, and developed and implemented a pocket card and training on trainee consults.We surveyed resident and fellow physicians at Mount Sinai Hospital to assess perceptions, created a CONSULT card that uses a mnemonic for key elements, and developed a training session for how to call consults. We also conducted a consult training session using the CONSULT card as part of orientation in 2011 for all interns. We assessed the acceptability, feasibility, and sustainability of this intervention.Of 1001 trainees, 403 (40%) responded. Respondents reported that the most important components of calling consults included giving patient name, medical record number, and location (91%), and giving a clear question/reason (89%). Respondents also reported that these behaviors are done consistently for only 64%, and 10% of consults, respectively. Trainees reported that consult interactions affect the timeliness of treatment (62%), timeliness of tests performed (57%), appropriateness of diagnosis (56%), and discharge planning (49%). Approximately 300 interns attended the consult training session, and their feedback demonstrated acceptability and utility of the session.Trainees believe that consult interactions impact patient care, but important components of the consult call are often missing. Our training and CONSULT card is an acceptable, feasible, and novel training intervention. Once developed, the training session and CONSULT card require minimal faculty time to deliver.
Project description:Objective:The Vanderbilt Children's Hospital launched an innovative Technology-Based Patient and Family Engagement Consult Service in 2014. This paper describes our initial experience with this service, characterizes health-related needs of families of hospitalized children, and details the technologies recommended to promote engagement and meet needs. Materials and Methods:We retrospectively reviewed consult service documentation for patient characteristics, health-related needs, and consultation team recommendations. Needs were categorized using a consumer health needs taxonomy. Recommendations were classified by technology type. Results:Twenty-two consultations were conducted with families of patients ranging in age from newborn to 15 years, most with new diagnoses or chronic illnesses. The consultation team identified 99 health-related needs (4.5 per consultation) and made 166 recommendations (7.5 per consultation, 1.7 per need). Need categories included 38 informational needs, 26 medical needs, 23 logistical needs, and 12 social needs. The most common recommendations were websites (50, 30%) and mobile applications (30, 18%). The most frequent recommendations by need category were websites for informational needs (39, 50%), mobile applications for medical needs (15, 40%), patient portals for logistical needs (12, 44%), and disease-specific support groups for social needs (19, 56%). Discussion:Families of hospitalized pediatric patients have a variety of health-related needs, many of which could be addressed by technology recommendations from an engagement consult service. Conclusion:This service is the first of its kind, offering a potentially generalizable and scalable approach to assessing health-related needs, meeting them with technologies, and promoting patient and family engagement in the inpatient setting.