Multidrug Resistance Salmonella Genomic Island 1 in a Morganella morganii subsp. morganii Human Clinical Isolate from France.
ABSTRACT: Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is a multidrug resistance integrative mobilizable element that harbors a great diversity of antimicrobial resistance gene clusters described in numerous Salmonella enterica serovars and also in Proteus mirabilis. A serious threat to public health was revealed in the recent description in P. mirabilis of a SGI1-derivative multidrug resistance island named PGI1 (Proteus genomic island 1) carrying extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-?-lactamase resistance genes, blaVEB-6 and blaNDM-1, respectively. Here, we report the first description of Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) in a multidrug-resistant clinical Morganella morganii subsp. morganii strain isolated from a patient in France in 2013. Complete-genome sequencing of the strain revealed SGI1 variant SGI1-L carrying resistance genes dfrA15, floR, tetA(G), blaPSE-1 (now referred to as blaCARB-2), and sul1, conferring resistance to trimethoprim, phenicols, tetracyclines, amoxicillin, and sulfonamides, respectively. The SGI1-L variant was integrated into the usual chromosome-specific integration site at the 3' end of the trmE gene. Beyond Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, the SGI1 integrative mobilizable element may thus also disseminate its multidrug resistance phenotype in another genus belonging to the Proteae tribe of the family Enterobacteriaceae. IMPORTANCE Since its initial identification in epidemic multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 strains, several SGI1 variants, SGI1 lineages, and SGI1-related elements (SGI2, PGI1, and AGI1) have been described in many bacterial genera (Salmonella, Proteus, Morganella, Vibrio, Shewanella, etc.). They constitute a family of multidrug resistance site-specific integrative elements acquired by horizontal gene transfer, SGI1 being the best-characterized element. The horizontal transfer of SGI1/PGI1 elements into other genera is of public health concern, notably with regard to the spread of critically important resistance genes such as ESBL and carbapenemase genes. The identification of SGI1 in Morganella morganii raises the issue of (i) the potential for SGI1 to emerge in other human pathogens and (ii) its bacterial host range. Further surveillance and research are needed to understand the epidemiology, the spread, and the importance of the members of this SGI1 family of integrative elements in contributing to antibiotic resistance development.
Project description:Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is an integrative mobilisable element that plays an important role in the capture and spread of multiple drug resistance. To date, SGI1 has been found in clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica serovars, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Providencia stuartii, Enterobacter spp, and recently in Escherichia coli. SGI1 preferentially targets the 3´-end of trmE, a conserved gene found in the Enterobacteriaceae and among members of the Gammaproteobacteria. It is, therefore, hypothesised that SGI1 and SGI1-related elements (SGI1-REs) may have been acquired by diverse bacterial genera. Here, Bitsliced Genomic Signature Indexes (BIGSI) was used to screen the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) for putative SGI1-REs in Gammaproteobacteria. Novel SGI-REs were identified in diverse genera including Cronobacter spp, Klebsiella spp, and Vibrio spp and in two additional isolates of Escherichia coli. An extensively drug-resistant human clonal lineage of Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying an SGI1-RE in the United Kingdom and an SGI1-RE that lacks a class 1 integron were also identified. These findings provide insight into the origins of this diverse family of clinically important genomic islands and expand the knowledge of the potential host range of SGI1-REs within the Gammaproteobacteria.
Project description:Proteae, and especially Proteus mirabilis, are often the cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in humans. They were reported as carriers of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) genes, and recently of carbapenemases, mostly carried by the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) and Proteus genomic island 1 (PGI1). Proteae have also lately become an increasing cause of UTIs in companion animals, but antimicrobial susceptibility data in animals are still scarce. Here, we report the characterization of 468 clinical epidemiologically unrelated Proteae strains from animals collected between 2013 and 2015 in France. Seventeen P. mirabilis strains (3.6%) were positive for SGI1/PGI1 and 18 Proteae (3.8%) were resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC). The 28 isolates carrying SGI1/PGI1 and/or ESC-resistance genes were isolated from cats, dogs, and horses. ESBL genes were detected in six genetically related P. mirabilis harboring blaV EB-6 on the SGI1-V variant, but also independently of the SGI1-V, in 3 P. mirabilis strains (blaVEB-6 and blaCTX-M-15) and 1 Providencia rettgeri strain (blaCTX-M-1). The AmpC resistance genes blaCMY -2 and/or blaDHA-16 were detected in 9 P. mirabilis strains. One strain presented both an ESBL and AmpC gene. Interestingly, the majority of the ESBL/AmpC resistance genes were located on the chromosome. In conclusion, multiple ESC-resistance genetic determinants are circulating in French animals, even though SGI1-V-carrying P. mirabilis seems to be mainly responsible for the spread of the ESBL gene blaVEB-6 in dogs and horses. These results are of public health relevance and show that companion animals in close contact with humans should be regarded as a potential reservoir of ESC-resistant bacteria as well as a reservoir of ESC-resistance genes that could further disseminate to human pathogens.
Project description:Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is an integrative genetic island first described in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium DT104 and Agona in 2000. Variants of it have since been described in multiple serovars of S. enterica, as well as in Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Morganella morganii, and several other genera. The island typically confers resistance to older, first-generation antimicrobials; however, some variants carry bla NDM-1, bla VEB-6, and bla CTX-M15 genes that encode resistance to frontline, clinically important antibiotics, including third-generation cephalosporins. Genome sequencing studies of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) identified a sequence type 117 (ST117) isolate (AVC96) with genetic features found in SGI1. The complete genome sequence of AVC96 was assembled from a combination of Illumina and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequence data. Analysis of the AVC96 chromosome identified a variant of SGI1-B located 18?bp from the 3' end of trmE, also known as the attB site, a known hot spot for the integration of genomic islands. This is the first report of SGI1 in wild-type E. coli The variant, here named SGI1-B-Ec1, was otherwise unremarkable, apart from the identification of ISEc43 in open reading frame (ORF) S023.IMPORTANCE SGI1 and variants of it carry a variety of antimicrobial resistance genes, including those conferring resistance to extended-spectrum ?-lactams and carbapenems, and have been found in diverse S. enterica serovars, Acinetobacter baumannii, and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae SGI1 integrates into Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria by targeting a conserved site 18?bp from the 3' end of trmE For the first time, we describe a novel variant of SGI1 in an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolate. The presence of SGI1 in E. coli is significant because it represents yet another lateral gene transfer mechanism to enhancing the capacity of E. coli to acquire and propagate antimicrobial resistance and putative virulence genes. This finding underscores the importance of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to microbial genomic epidemiology, particularly within a One Health context. Further studies are needed to determine how widespread SGI1 and variants of it may be in Australia.
Project description:Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is an integrative mobilizable element integrated into the chromosome of bacteria, which plays an important role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes. Lots of SGI1 variants are found mainly in Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis. In this study, a total of 157 S. enterica and 132 P. mirabilis strains were collected from food-producing animals in Sichuan Province of China between December 2016 and November 2017. Detection of the SGI1 integrase gene showed that three S. enterica and five P. mirabilis strains were positive for SGI1, which displayed different multidrug resistance profiles. Five different SGI1 variants, including two novel variants (SGI1-PmBC1123 and SGI1-PmSC1111), were characterized by whole genome sequencing and PCR linkage. In two novel SGI1 variants, IS26-mediated rearrangements resulted in large sequence inversions of the MDR regions extending outside the SGI1 backbone. The sul3-type III class 1 integron (5'CS-sat-psp-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3) and gene cassettes aac(6')-Ib-cr-bla OXA- 1-catB3-arr-3 are found in SGI1-PmSC1111. Mobilization experiments indicated that three known variants were conjugally mobilized in trans to Escherichia coli with the help of a conjugative IncC plasmid. However, the two novel variants seemed to lose the mobilization, which might result from the sequence inversion of partial SGI1 backbone. The identification of the two novel SGI1 variants in this study suggested that IS26-mediated rearrangements promote the diversity of SGI1.
Project description:Integrative mobilizable elements belonging to the SGI1-H, -K, and -L Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) variant groups are distinguished by the presence of an alteration in the backbone (IS1359 replaces 2.8?kb of the backbone extending from within traN [S005] to within S009). Members of this SGI1-HKL group have been found in Salmonella enterica serovars and in Proteus mirabilis Two novel variants from this group, designated SGI1-LK1 and SGI1-LK2, were found in the draft genomes of antibiotic-resistant P. mirabilis isolates from two French hospitals. Both variants can be derived from SGI1-PmGUE, a configuration found previously in another P. mirabilis isolate from France. SGI1-LK1 could arise via an IS26-mediated inversion in the complex class 1 integron that duplicated the IS26 element and the target site in IS6100 SGI1-LK1 also has a larger 8.59-kb backbone deletion extending from traN to within S013 and removing traG and traH. However, SGI1-LK1 was mobilized by an IncC plasmid. SGI1-LK2 can be derived from a hypothetical progenitor, SGI1-LK0, that is related to SGI1-PmGUE but lacks the aphA1 gene and one copy of IS26. The integron of SGI1-LK2 could arise via deletion of DNA adjacent to an IS26 and a deletion occurring via homologous recombination between duplicated copies of part of the integron 3'-conserved segment. SGI1-K can also be derived from SGI1-LK0. This would involve an IS26-mediated deletion and an inversion via homologous recombination of a segment between inversely oriented IS26s. Similar events can explain the configuration of the integrons in other SGI1-LK variants.IMPORTANCE Members of the SGI1-HKL subgroup of SGI1-type integrative mobilizable elements have a characteristic alteration in their backbone. They are widely distributed among multiply antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovars and Proteus mirabilis isolates. The SGI1-K type, found in the globally disseminated multiply antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky clone ST198 (sequence type 198), and various configurations in the original SGI1-LK group, found in other multiresistant S. enterica serovars and Proteus mirabilis isolates, have complex and highly plastic resistance regions due to the presence of IS26 However, how these complex forms arose and the relationships between them had not been analyzed. Here, a hypothetical progenitor, SGI1-LK0, that can be formed from the simpler SGI1-H is proposed, and the pathways to the formation of new variants, SGI1-LK1 and SGI1-LK2, found in P. mirabilis and other reported configurations via homologous recombination and IS26-mediated events are proposed. This led to a better understanding of the evolution of the SGI1-HKL group.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Salmonella genomic island 1 is an integrative mobilizable element (IME) originally identified in epidemic multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) DT104. SGI1 contains a complex integron, which confers various multidrug resistance phenotypes due to its genetic plasticity. Previous studies have shown that SGI1 integrates site-specifically into the S. enterica, Escherichia coli, or Proteus mirabilis chromosome at the 3' end of thdF gene (attB site). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the transfer of SGI1 to a Delta thdF mutant of S. Typhimurium LT2. In the absence of thdF, the frequency of transconjugant formation was reduced by around thirty times of magnitude. Through DNA sequencing SGI1 was shown to integrate specifically into a secondary attachment site (2(nd)attB), which is located in the intergenic region between the chromosomal sodB and purR genes. At this 2(nd)attB site, we found that a significant fraction of SGI1 transconjugants (43% of wild type and 100% of Delta thdF mutant) contained tandem SGI1 arrays. Moreover, in wild type S. Typhimurium LT2 transconjugants, SGI1 integrated into both attachment sites, i.e., thdF and sodB-purR. The formation of SGI1 tandem arrays occurred in both specific attB sites. There was heterogeneity in the size of the SGI1 tandem arrays detected in single transconjugant colonies. Some arrays consisted as far as six SGI1s arranged in tandem. These tandem arrays were shown to persist during serial passages with or without antibiotic selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ability of integration into two distinct chromosomal sites and tandem array formation of SGI1 could contribute to its spread and persistence. The existence of a secondary attachment site in the Salmonella chromosome has potential implications for the mobility of SGI1, which may integrate in other attachment sites of other bacterial pathogens that do not possess the 1(st) or 2(nd) specific SGI1 attB sites of Salmonella.
Project description:Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is a resistance-conferring chromosomal genomic island that contains an antibiotic resistance gene cluster. The international spread of SGI1-containing strains drew attention to the role of genomic islands in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in Salmonella and other Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, five SGI1 variants conferring multidrug and heavy metal resistance were identified and characterized in Proteus mirabilis strains: SGI1-PmCAU, SGI1-PmABB, SGI1-PmJN16, SGI1-PmJN40, and SGI1-PmJN48. The genetic structures of SGI1-PmCAU and SGI1-PmABB were identical to previously reported SGI1s, while structural analysis showed that SGI1-PmJN16, SGI1-PmJN40, and SGI1-PmJN48 are new SGI1 variants. SGI1-PmJN16 is derived from SGI1-Z with the MDR region containing a new gene cassette array dfrA12-orfF-aadA2-qacE?1-sul1-chrA-orf1. SGI1-PmJN40 has an unprecedented structure that contains two right direct repeat sequences separated by a transcriptional regulator-rich DNA fragment, and is predicted to form two different extrachromosomal mobilizable DNA circles for dissemination. SGI1-PmJN48 lacks a common ORF S044, and its right junction region exhibits a unique genetic organization due to the reverse integration of a P. mirabilis chromosomal gene cluster and the insertion of part of a P. mirabilis plasmid, making it the largest known SGI1 to date (189.1 kb). Further mobility functional analysis suggested that these SGIs can be excised from the chromosome for transfer between bacteria, which promotes the horizontal transfer of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes. The identification and characterization of the new SGI1 variants in this work suggested the diversity of SGI1 structures and their significant roles in the evolution of bacteria.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is a Salmonella enterica-derived integrative mobilizable element (IME) containing various complex multiple resistance integrons identified in several S. enterica serovars and in Proteus mirabilis. Previous studies have shown that SGI1 transfers horizontally by in trans mobilization in the presence of the IncA/C conjugative helper plasmid pR55. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the ability of different prevalent multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids including extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) gene-carrying plasmids to mobilize the multidrug resistance genomic island SGI1. Through conjugation experiments, none of the 24 conjugative plasmids tested of the IncFI, FII, HI2, I1, L/M, N, P incompatibility groups were able to mobilize SGI1 at a detectable level (transfer frequency <10(-9)). In our collection, ESBL gene-carrying plasmids were mainly from the IncHI2 and I1 groups and thus were unable to mobilize SGI1. However, the horizontal transfer of SGI1 was shown to be specifically mediated by conjugative helper plasmids of the broad-host-range IncA/C incompatibility group. Several conjugative IncA/C MDR plasmids as well as the sequenced IncA/C reference plasmid pRA1 of 143,963 bp were shown to mobilize in trans SGI1 from a S. enterica donor to the Escherichia coli recipient strain. Depending on the IncA/C plasmid used, the conjugative transfer of SGI1 occurred at frequencies ranging from 10(-3) to 10(-6) transconjugants per donor. Of particular concern, some large IncA/C MDR plasmids carrying the extended-spectrum cephalosporinase bla(CMY-2) gene were shown to mobilize in trans SGI1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ability of the IncA/C MDR plasmid family to mobilize SGI1 could contribute to its spread by horizontal transfer among enteric pathogens. Moreover, the increasing prevalence of IncA/C plasmids in MDR S. enterica isolates worldwide has potential implications for the epidemic success of the antibiotic resistance genomic island SGI1 and its close derivatives.
Project description:Six out of the 64 studied Proteus mirabilis isolates from 11 poultry farms in China contained Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). PCR mapping showed that the complete nucleotide sequences of SGI1s ranged from 33.2 to 42.5 kb. Three novel variants, SGI1-W, SGI1-X, and SGI1-Y, have been characterized. Resistance genes lnuF, dfrA25, and qnrB2 were identified in SGI1 for the first time.
Project description:Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is a 43-kb integrative mobilizable element that harbors a great diversity of multidrug resistance gene clusters described in numerous Salmonella enterica serovars and also in Proteus mirabilis. The majority of SGI1 variants contain an In104-derivative complex class 1 integron inserted between resolvase gene res and open reading frame (ORF) S044 in SGI1. Recently, the international spread of ciprofloxacin-resistant S. enterica serovar Kentucky sequence type 198 (ST198) containing SGI1-K variants has been reported. A retrospective study was undertaken to characterize ST198 S. Kentucky strains isolated before the spread of the epidemic ST198-SGI1-K population in Africa and the Middle East. Here, we characterized 12 ST198 S. Kentucky strains isolated between 1969 and 1999, mainly from humans returning from Southeast Asia (n = 10 strains) or Israel (n = 1 strain) or from meat in Egypt (n = 1 strain). All these ST198 S. Kentucky strains did not belong to the XbaI pulsotype X1 associated with the African epidemic clone but to pulsotype X2. SGI1-J subgroup variants containing different complex integrons with a partial transposition module and inserted within ORF S023 of SGI1 were detected in six strains. The SGI1-J4 variant containing a partially deleted class 1 integron and thus showing a narrow resistance phenotype to sulfonamides was identified in two epidemiologically unrelated strains from Indonesia. The four remaining strains harbored a novel SGI1-J variant, named SGI1-J6, which contained aadA2, floR2, tetR(G)-tetA(G), and sul1 resistance genes within its complex integron. Moreover, in all these S. Kentucky isolates, a novel insertion sequence related to the IS630 family and named ISSen5 was found inserted upstream of the SGI1 complex integron in ORF S023. Thus, two subpopulations of S. Kentucky ST198 independently and exclusively acquired the SGI1 during the 1980s and 1990s. Unlike the ST198-X1 African epidemic subpopulation, the ST198-X2 subpopulation mainly from Asia harbors variants of the SGI1-J subgroup that are encountered mainly in the Far East, as previously described for S. enterica serovars Emek and Virchow.