Hierarchical Decomposition for Betweenness Centrality Measure of Complex Networks.
ABSTRACT: Betweenness centrality is an indicator of a node's centrality in a network. It is equal to the number of shortest paths from all vertices to all others that pass through that node. Most of real-world large networks display a hierarchical community structure, and their betweenness computation possesses rather high complexity. Here we propose a new hierarchical decomposition approach to speed up the betweenness computation of complex networks. The advantage of this new method is its effective utilization of the local structural information from the hierarchical community. The presented method can significantly speed up the betweenness calculation. This improvement is much more evident in those networks with numerous homogeneous communities. Furthermore, the proposed method features a parallel structure, which is very suitable for parallel computation. Moreover, only a small amount of additional computation is required by our method, when small changes in the network structure are restricted to some local communities. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated via the examples of two real-world power grids and one artificial network, which demonstrates that the performance of the proposed method is superior to that of the traditional method.
Project description:Betweenness centrality quantifies the importance of a vertex for the information flow in a network. The standard betweenness centrality applies to static single-layer networks, but many real world networks are both dynamic and made of several layers. We propose a definition of betweenness centrality for temporal multiplexes. This definition accounts for the topological and temporal structure and for the duration of paths in the determination of the shortest paths. We propose an algorithm to compute the new metric using a mapping to a static graph. We apply the metric to a dataset of [Formula: see text]k European flights and compare the results with those obtained with static or single-layer metrics. The differences in the airports rankings highlight the importance of considering the temporal multiplex structure and an appropriate distance metric.
Project description:This paper introduces two new closely related betweenness centrality measures based on the Randomized Shortest Paths (RSP) framework, which fill a gap between traditional network centrality measures based on shortest paths and more recent methods considering random walks or current flows. The framework defines Boltzmann probability distributions over paths of the network which focus on the shortest paths, but also take into account longer paths depending on an inverse temperature parameter. RSP's have previously proven to be useful in defining distance measures on networks. In this work we study their utility in quantifying the importance of the nodes of a network. The proposed RSP betweenness centralities combine, in an optimal way, the ideas of using the shortest and purely random paths for analysing the roles of network nodes, avoiding issues involving these two paradigms. We present the derivations of these measures and how they can be computed in an efficient way. In addition, we show with real world examples the potential of the RSP betweenness centralities in identifying interesting nodes of a network that more traditional methods might fail to notice.
Project description:Weighted networks have been extensively studied because they can represent various phenomena in which the diversity of edges is essential. To investigate the properties of weighted networks, various centrality measures have been proposed, such as strength, weighted clustering coefficients, and weighted betweenness centrality. In such measures, only direct connections or entire network connectivity from arbitrary nodes have been used to calculate the connectivity of each node. However, in weighted networks composed of autonomous elements such as humans, middle ranges from each node are also considered to be meaningful for characterizing each node's connectability. In this study, we define a new node property in weighted networks to consider connectability to nodes within a range of two degrees of separation, then apply this new centrality to face-to-face human communication networks in corporate organizations. Our results show that the proposed centrality distinguishes inherent communities corresponding to the job types in each organization with a high degree of accuracy. This indicates the possibility that connectability to nodes within two degrees of separation reveals potential trends of weighted networks that are not apparent from conventional measures.
Project description:Centrality of a node measures its relative importance within a network. There are a number of applications of centrality, including inferring the influence or success of an individual in a social network, and the resulting social network dynamics. While we can compute the centrality of any node in a given network snapshot, a number of applications are also interested in knowing the potential importance of an individual in the future. However, current centrality is not necessarily an effective predictor of future centrality. While there are different measures of centrality, we focus on degree centrality in this paper. We develop a method that reconciles preferential attachment and triadic closure to capture a node's prominence profile. We show that the proposed node prominence profile method is an effective predictor of degree centrality. Notably, our analysis reveals that individuals in the early stage of evolution display a distinctive and robust signature in degree centrality trend, adequately predicted by their prominence profile. We evaluate our work across four real-world social networks. Our findings have important implications for the applications that require prediction of a node's future degree centrality, as well as the study of social network dynamics.
Project description:The traditional full-scan method is commonly used for identifying critical links in road networks. This method simulates each link to be closed iteratively and measures its impact on the efficiency of the whole network. It can accurately identify critical links. However, in this method, traffic assignments are conducted under all scenarios of link disruption, making this process prohibitively time-consuming for large-scale road networks. This paper proposes an approach considering the traffic flow betweenness index (TFBI) to identify critical links, which can significantly reduce the computational burden compared with the traditional full-scan method. The TFBI consists of two parts: traffic flow betweenness and endpoint origin-destination (OD) demand (rerouted travel demand). There is a weight coefficient between these two parts. Traffic flow betweenness is established by considering the shortest travel-time path betweenness, link traffic flow and total OD demand. The proposed approach consists of the following main steps. First, a sample road network is selected to calibrate the weight coefficient between traffic flow betweenness and endpoint OD demand in the TFBI using the network robustness index. This index calculates changes in the whole-system travel time due to each link's closure under the traditional full-scan method. Then, candidate critical links are pre-selected according to the TFBI value of each link. Finally, a given number of real critical links are identified from the candidate critical links using the traditional full-scan method. The applicability and computational efficiency of the TFBI-based approach are demonstrated for the road network in Changchun, China.
Project description:This paper begins to build a theoretical framework that would enable the pharmaceutical industry to use network complexity measures as a way to identify drug targets. The variability of a betweenness measure for a network node is examined through different methods of network perturbation. Our results indicate a robustness of betweenness centrality in the identification of target genes.
Project description:In the multidisciplinary field of Network Science, optimization of procedures for efficiently breaking complex networks is attracting much attention from a practical point of view. In this contribution, we present a module-based method to efficiently fragment complex networks. The procedure firstly identifies topological communities through which the network can be represented using a well established heuristic algorithm of community finding. Then only the nodes that participate of inter-community links are removed in descending order of their betweenness centrality. We illustrate the method by applying it to a variety of examples in the social, infrastructure, and biological fields. It is shown that the module-based approach always outperforms targeted attacks to vertices based on node degree or betweenness centrality rankings, with gains in efficiency strongly related to the modularity of the network. Remarkably, in the US power grid case, by deleting 3% of the nodes, the proposed method breaks the original network in fragments which are twenty times smaller in size than the fragments left by betweenness-based attack.
Project description:The betweenness centrality, a path-based global measure of flow, is a static predictor of congestion and load on networks. Here we demonstrate that its statistical distribution is invariant for planar networks, that are used to model many infrastructural and biological systems. Empirical analysis of street networks from 97 cities worldwide, along with simulations of random planar graph models, indicates the observed invariance to be a consequence of a bimodal regime consisting of an underlying tree structure for high betweenness nodes, and a low betweenness regime corresponding to loops providing local path alternatives. Furthermore, the high betweenness nodes display a non-trivial spatial clustering with increasing spatial correlation as a function of the edge-density. Our results suggest that the spatial distribution of betweenness is a more accurate discriminator than its statistics for comparing static congestion patterns and its evolution across cities as demonstrated by analyzing 200 years of street data for Paris.
Project description:Must Investing more resources to protect every node in a network improve the robustness of the whole network subject to target attacks? To answer this question, we investigate the cascading dynamics in some typical networks. In real networks, the load on a node is generally correlated with the betweenness. Considering the weight of a node, we give a new method to define the initial load on a node by the revised betweenness. Then we present a simple cascading model. We investigate the cascading dynamics by disabling a single key node with the highest load. We find that in BA scale-free networks, the bigger the capacity of every node, the stronger the robustness of the whole network. However, in WS networks and some random networks, when we increase the capacity of every node, instead, the robustness of the whole network is weaker. In US power grid and the China power grid, we also observe this counterintuitive phenomenon. We give a reasonable explanation by a simple illusion. By the analysis, we think that resurrections of some nodes in a ring network structure after removing a node may be the reason of this phenomenon.
Project description:The network approach to psychopathology conceptualizes mental disorders as networks of mutually reinforcing nodes (i.e., symptoms). Researchers adopting this approach have suggested that network topology can be used to identify influential nodes, with nodes central to the network having the greatest influence on the development and maintenance of the disorder. However, because commonly used centrality indices do not distinguish between positive and negative edges, they may not adequately assess the nature and strength of a node's influence within the network. To address this limitation, we developed 2 indices of a node's expected influence (EI) that account for the presence of negative edges. To evaluate centrality and EI indices, we simulated single-node interventions on randomly generated networks. In networks with exclusively positive edges, centrality and EI were both strongly associated with observed node influence. In networks with negative edges, EI was more strongly associated with observed influence than was centrality. We then used data from a longitudinal study of bereavement to examine the association between (a) a node's centrality and EI in the complicated grief (CG) network and (b) the strength of association between change in that node and change in the remainder of the CG network from 6- to 18-months postloss. Centrality and EI were both correlated with the strength of the association between node change and network change. Together, these findings suggest high-EI nodes, such as emotional pain and feelings of emptiness, may be especially important to the etiology and treatment of CG. (PsycINFO Database Record