Human Bub1 protects centromeric sister-chromatid cohesion through Shugoshin during mitosis.
ABSTRACT: Sister chromatids in mammalian cells remain attached mostly at their centromeres at metaphase because of the loss of cohesion along chromosome arms in prophase. Here, we report that Bub1 retains centromeric cohesion in mitosis of human cells. Depletion of Bub1 or Shugoshin (Sgo1) in HeLa cells by RNA interference causes massive missegregation of sister chromatids that originates at centromeres. Surprisingly, loss of chromatid cohesion in Bub1 and Sgo1 RNA-interference cells does not appear to require the full activation of separase but, instead, triggers a mitotic arrest that depends on Mad2 and Aurora B. Bub1 maintains the steady-state levels and centromeric localization of Sgo1. Therefore, Bub1 protects centromeric cohesion through Shugoshin in mitosis.
Project description:The different regulation of sister chromatid cohesion at centromeres and along chromosome arms is obvious during meiosis, because centromeric cohesion, but not arm cohesion, persists throughout anaphase of the first division. A protein required to protect centromeric cohesin Rec8 from separase cleavage has been identified and named shugoshin (or Sgo1) after shugoshin ("guardian spirit" in Japanese). It has become apparent that shugoshin shows marginal homology with Drosophila Mei-S332 and several uncharacterized proteins in other eukaryotic organisms. Because Mei-S332 is a protein previously shown to be required for centromeric cohesion in meiosis, it is now established that shugoshin represents a conserved protein family defined as a centromeric protector of Rec8 cohesin complexes in meiosis. The regional difference of sister chromatid cohesion is also observed during mitosis in vertebrates; the cohesion is much more robust at the centromere at metaphase, where it antagonizes the pulling force of spindle microtubules that attach the kinetochores from opposite poles. The human shugoshin homologue (hSgo1) is required to protect the centromeric localization of the mitotic cohesin, Scc1, until metaphase. Bub1 plays a crucial role in the localization of shugoshin to centromeres in both fission yeast and humans.
Project description:Cohesion between sister chromatids is essential for their bi-orientation on mitotic spindles. It is mediated by a multisubunit complex called cohesin. In yeast, proteolytic cleavage of cohesin's alpha kleisin subunit at the onset of anaphase removes cohesin from both centromeres and chromosome arms and thus triggers sister chromatid separation. In animal cells, most cohesin is removed from chromosome arms during prophase via a separase-independent pathway involving phosphorylation of its Scc3-SA1/2 subunits. Cohesin at centromeres is refractory to this process and persists until metaphase, whereupon its alpha kleisin subunit is cleaved by separase, which is thought to trigger anaphase. What protects centromeric cohesin from the prophase pathway? Potential candidates are proteins, known as shugoshins, that are homologous to Drosophila MEI-S332 and yeast Sgo1 proteins, which prevent removal of meiotic cohesin complexes from centromeres at the first meiotic division. A vertebrate shugoshin-like protein associates with centromeres during prophase and disappears at the onset of anaphase. Its depletion by RNA interference causes HeLa cells to arrest in mitosis. Most chromosomes bi-orient on a metaphase plate, but precocious loss of centromeric cohesin from chromosomes is accompanied by loss of all sister chromatid cohesion, the departure of individual chromatids from the metaphase plate, and a permanent cell cycle arrest, presumably due to activation of the spindle checkpoint. Remarkably, expression of a version of Scc3-SA2 whose mitotic phosphorylation sites have been mutated to alanine alleviates the precocious loss of sister chromatid cohesion and the mitotic arrest of cells lacking shugoshin. These data suggest that shugoshin prevents phosphorylation of cohesin's Scc3-SA2 subunit at centromeres during mitosis. This ensures that cohesin persists at centromeres until activation of separase causes cleavage of its alpha kleisin subunit. Centromeric cohesion is one of the hallmarks of mitotic chromosomes. Our results imply that it is not an intrinsically stable property, because it can easily be destroyed by mitotic kinases, which are kept in check by shugoshin.
Project description:Proper regulation of centromeric cohesion is required for faithful chromosome segregation that prevents chromosomal instability. Extensive studies have identified and established the conserved protein Shugoshin (Sgo1/2) as an essential protector for centromeric cohesion. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of how Shugoshin-1 (Sgo1) protects centromeric cohesion at the molecular level. Targeting of Sgo1 to inner centromeres is required for its proper function of cohesion protection. We therefore discuss about the molecular mechanisms that install Sgo1 onto inner centromeres. At metaphase-to-anaphase transition, Sgo1 at inner centromeres needs to be disabled for the subsequent sister-chromatid segregation. A few recent studies suggest interesting models to explain how it is achieved. These models are discussed as well.
Project description:Human Shugoshin 1 (Sgo1) protects centromeric sister-chromatid cohesion during prophase and prevents premature sister-chromatid separation. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) has been proposed to protect centromeric sister-chromatid cohesion by directly targeting Sgo1 to centromeres in mitosis. Here we show that HP1? is targeted to mitotic centromeres by INCENP, a subunit of the chromosome passenger complex (CPC). Biochemical and structural studies show that both HP1-INCENP and HP1-Sgo1 interactions require the binding of the HP1 chromo shadow domain to PXVXL/I motifs in INCENP or Sgo1, suggesting that the INCENP-bound, centromeric HP1? is incapable of recruiting Sgo1. Consistently, a Sgo1 mutant deficient in HP1 binding is functional in centromeric cohesion protection and localizes normally to centromeres in mitosis. By contrast, INCENP or Sgo1 mutants deficient in HP1 binding fail to localize to centromeres in interphase. Therefore, our results suggest that HP1 binding by INCENP or Sgo1 is dispensable for centromeric cohesion protection during mitosis of human cells, but might regulate yet uncharacterized interphase functions of CPC or Sgo1 at the centromeres.
Project description:Centromeric chromatin containing the histone H3 variant centromere protein A (CENP-A) directs kinetochore assembly through a hierarchical binding of CENPs, starting with CENP-C and CENP-T. Centromeres are also the chromosomal regions where cohesion, mediated by cohesin, is most prominently maintained in mitosis. While most cohesin dissociates from chromosome arms in prophase, Shugoshin 1 (Sgo1) prevents this process at centromeres. Centromeric localization of Sgo1 depends on histone H2A phosphorylation by the kinase Bub1, but whether additional interactions with kinetochore components are required for Sgo1 recruitment is unclear. Using the Xenopus egg cell-free system, we here show that both CENP-C and CENP-T can independently drive centromeric accumulation of Sgo1 through recruitment of Bub1 to the KNL1, MIS12, NDC80 (KMN) network. The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) kinase Mps1 is also required for this pathway even in the absence of checkpoint signaling. Sgo1 recruitment is abolished in chromosomes lacking kinetochore components other than CENP-A. However, forced targeting of Bub1 to centromeres is sufficient to restore Sgo1 localization under this condition.
Project description:Chromatin remodelers regulate the nucleosome barrier during transcription, DNA replication, and DNA repair. The chromatin remodeler RSF1 is enriched at mitotic centromeres, but the functional consequences of this enrichment are not completely understood. Shugoshin (Sgo1) protects centromeric cohesion during mitosis and requires BuB1-dependent histone H2A phosphorylation (H2A-pT120) for localization. Loss of Sgo1 at centromeres causes chromosome missegregation. Here, we show that RSF1 regulates Sgo1 localization to centromeres through coordinating a crosstalk between histone acetylation and phosphorylation. RSF1 interacts with and recruits HDAC1 to centromeres, where it counteracts TIP60-mediated acetylation of H2A at K118. This deacetylation is required for the accumulation of H2A-pT120 and Sgo1 deposition, as H2A-K118 acetylation suppresses H2A-T120 phosphorylation by Bub1. Centromeric tethering of HDAC1 prevents premature chromatid separation in RSF1 knockout cells. Our results indicate that RSF1 regulates the dynamics of H2A histone modifications at mitotic centromeres and contributes to the maintenance of chromosome stability.
Project description:Timely dissolution of sister-chromatid cohesion in mitosis ensures accurate chromosome segregation to guard against aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. The complex of shugoshin and protein phosphatase 2A (SGO1-PP2A) protects cohesin at centromeres from premature removal by mitotic kinases and WAPL in prophase. Here we address the regulation and mechanism of human SGO1 in centromeric cohesion protection, and show that cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-mediated, mitosis-specific phosphorylation of SGO1 activates its cohesion-protection function and enables its direct binding to cohesin. The phospho-SGO1-bound cohesin complex contains PP2A, PDS5 and hypophosphorylated sororin, but lacks WAPL. Expression of non-phosphorylatable sororin bypasses the requirement for SGO1-PP2A in centromeric cohesion. Thus, mitotic phosphorylation of SGO1 targets SGO1-PP2A to cohesin, promotes dephosphorylation of PDS5-bound sororin and protects centromeric cohesin from WAPL. PP2A-orchestrated, site-selective dephosphorylation of cohesin and its regulators underlies centromeric cohesion protection.
Project description:Correct bioriented attachment of sister chromatids to the mitotic spindle is essential for chromosome segregation. In budding yeast, the conserved protein shugoshin (Sgo1) contributes to biorientation by recruiting the protein phosphatase PP2A-Rts1 and the condensin complex to centromeres. Using peptide prints, we identified a Serine-Rich Motif (SRM) of Sgo1 that mediates the interaction with condensin and is essential for centromeric condensin recruitment and the establishment of biorientation. We show that the interaction is regulated via phosphorylation within the SRM and we determined the phospho-sites using mass spectrometry. Analysis of the phosphomimic and phosphoresistant mutants revealed that SRM phosphorylation disrupts the shugoshin-condensin interaction. We present evidence that Mps1, a central kinase in the spindle assembly checkpoint, directly phosphorylates Sgo1 within the SRM to regulate the interaction with condensin and thereby condensin localization to centromeres. Our findings identify novel mechanisms that control shugoshin activity at the centromere in budding yeast.
Project description:Orderly termination of sister-chromatid cohesion during mitosis is critical for accurate chromosome segregation. During prophase, mitotic kinases phosphorylate cohesin and its protector sororin, triggering Wapl-dependent cohesin release from chromosome arms. The shugoshin (Sgo1)-PP2A complex protects centromeric cohesin until its cleavage by separase at anaphase onset. Here, we report the crystal structure of a human cohesin subcomplex comprising SA2 and Scc1. Multiple HEAT repeats of SA2 form a dragon-shaped structure. Scc1 makes extensive contacts with SA2, with one binding hotspot. Sgo1 and Wapl compete for binding to a conserved site on SA2-Scc1. At this site, mutations of SA2 residues that disrupt Wapl binding bypass the Sgo1 requirement in cohesion protection. Thus, in addition to recruiting PP2A to dephosphorylate cohesin and sororin, Sgo1 physically shields cohesin from Wapl. This unexpected, direct antagonism between Sgo1 and Wapl augments centromeric cohesion protection.
Project description:The inner centromere region of a mitotic chromosome critically regulates sister chromatid cohesion and kinetochore-microtubule attachments. However, the molecular mechanism underlying inner centromere assembly remains elusive. Here, using CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing in HeLa cells, we disrupted the interaction of Shugoshin 1 (Sgo1) with histone H2A phosphorylated on Thr-120 (H2ApT120) to selectively release Sgo1 from mitotic centromeres. Interestingly, cells expressing the H2ApT120-binding defective mutant of Sgo1 have an elevated rate of chromosome missegregation accompanied by weakened centromeric cohesion and decreased centromere accumulation of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), an integral part of the inner centromere and a key player in the correction of erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments. When artificially tethered to centromeres, a Sgo1 mutant defective in binding protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is not able to support proper centromeric cohesion and CPC accumulation, indicating that the Sgo1-PP2A interaction is essential for the integrity of mitotic centromeres. We further provide evidence indicating that Sgo1 protects centromeric cohesin to create a binding site for the histone H3-associated protein kinase Haspin, which not only inhibits the cohesin release factor Wapl and thereby strengthens centromeric cohesion but also phosphorylates histone H3 at Thr-3 to position CPC at inner centromeres. Taken together, our findings reveal a positive feedback-based mechanism that ensures proper assembly of the functional inner centromere during mitosis. They further suggest a causal link between centromeric cohesion defects and chromosomal instability in cancer cells.