Antimicrobial resistance in coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from companion animals in Australia: A one year study.
ABSTRACT: Methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) have become increasingly recognised as opportunistic pathogens that limit therapeutic options in companion animals. The frequency of methicillin resistance amongst clinical isolates on an Australia-wide level is unknown. This study determined antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for CoPS isolated from clinical infections in companion animals (dogs, cats and horses) as part of the first nation-wide survey on antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens in Australia for a one-year period (January 2013 to January 2014). Clinical Staphylococcus spp. isolates (n = 888) obtained from 22 veterinary diagnostic laboratories were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing for 16 antimicrobials, representing 12 antimicrobial classes. Potential risk factors associated with methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs were analysed based on demographic factors and clinical history, including gender, age, previous antimicrobial treatment, chronic and/or recurrent diseases and site of infections. The most commonly identified CoPS were S. pseudintermedius (70.8%; dogs n = 616, cats n = 13) and S. aureus (13.2%, horses n = 53, dogs n = 47 and cats n = 17). Overall, the frequency of methicillin resistance among S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) and S. aureus (MRSA) was 11.8% and 12.8%, respectively. MRSP isolates were strongly associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones (OR 287; 95%CI 91.2-1144.8) and clindamycin (OR 105.2, 95%CI 48.5-231.9). MRSA isolates from dogs and cats were also more likely to be resistant to fluoroquinolones (OR 5.4, 95%CI 0.6-252.1), whereas MRSA from horses were more likely to be resistant to rifampicin. In multivariate analysis, MRSP-positive status was significantly associated with particular infection sites, including surgical (OR 8.8; 95%CI 3.74-20.7), and skin and soft tissue (OR 3.9; 95%CI 1.97-7.51). S. pseudintermedius isolated from dogs with surgical site infections were three times more likely to be methicillin-resistant if cases had received prior antimicrobial treatment. Whilst the survey results indicate the proportion of CoPS obtained from Australian companion animals that are methicillin-resistant is currently moderate, the identified risk factors suggest that it could rapidly increase without adequate biosecurity and infection control procedures in veterinary practice.
Project description:The objective of this study was to compare virulence and resistance factors of mucosal and cutaneous staphylococci from dogs with pyoderma in the UK and Romania, two countries with different approaches to antimicrobial use in companion animals. Staphylococcal isolates (n = 166) identified to the species level as being Staphylococcus pseudintermedius or coagulase negative (CoNS) were analyzed for their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profile and presence of resistance and virulence genes. Of the investigated isolates, 26 were methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP), 89 were methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP) and 51 were coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS). A significantly larger number of isolates originating from Romania were resistant to clindamycin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol compared to the UK isolates (P < 0.05). Resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole was more evident in UK isolates. Fusidic acid resistance was common in Staphylococcus spp. isolates from both countries. Most isolates carried virulence factors associated with siet (exfoliative toxin) and luk (leucocidin) genes. All MRSP UK isolates exhibited fusidic acid resistance genes whilst this was very rare in the MRSP isolates from Romania. The chlorhexidine resistance gene qacA/B was frequently identified in CoNS isolates from the UK (P < 0.001). The current study documented differences in antimicrobial resistance profiles of Staphylococcus spp. isolates from dogs in two geographical locations in Europe, which could reflect differences in antimicrobial prescribing patterns. The study also highlights the need for further studies and interventions on antimicrobial use, prescribing patterns and AMR surveillance in companion animals in Romania.
Project description:Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal bacterium and a major opportunistic pathogen of dogs. The emergence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) is also becoming a serious concern. We carried out a population genomics study of 130 clinical S. pseudintermedius isolates from dogs and cats in the New England region of the United States. Results revealed the co-circulation of phylogenetically diverse lineages that have access to a large pool of accessory genes. Many MRSP and multidrug-resistant clones have emerged through multiple independent, horizontal acquisition of resistance determinants and frequent genetic exchange that disseminate DNA to the broader population. When compared to a Texas population, we found evidence of clonal expansion of MRSP lineages that have disseminated over large distances. These findings provide unprecedented insight into the diversification of a common cutaneous colonizer of man's oldest companion animal and the widespread circulation of multiple high-risk resistant clones.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mupirocin is one of the few antimicrobials active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and is frequently used for the eradication of MRSA nasal colonisation in humans. Initially, mupirocin resistance was recognised in human S. aureus, including MRSA isolates, then also among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Nowadays, mupirocin resistance is occasionally observed in canine staphylococci, along with Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) strains, as well as CoNS, which usually show methicillin resistance. In the current study, high-level mupirocin resistance in methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from diseased dogs and cats was investigated. RESULTS:Among 140 methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolates from dogs and cats, three showed high-level mupirocin resistance in a screening test using the agar disk diffusion method. One was recognised as methicillin-resistant S. aureus, one as methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius, and one as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus. S. pseudintermedius and S. aureus were isolated from dogs, S. haemolyticus was obtained from a cat. All isolates showed high-level mupirocin resistance, confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of above 1024 μg/ml and the presence of the plasmid-located gene ileS2. This is the first report on the detection of high-level mupirocin resistance (HLMR) in S. haemolyticus of feline origin. CONCLUSIONS:This study revealed the occurrence of HLMR in three Staphylococcus isolates obtained from companion animals in Poland. The results of this study indicate that the monitoring of mupirocin resistance in staphylococci of animal origin, especially in methicillin-resistant isolates, is strongly recommended.
Project description:Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an opportunistic and emerging zoonotic pathogen that primarily colonises the skin of dogs. Many common variants are methicillin resistant (MRSP) or multidrug resistant (MDR), and drug resistance is increasingly reported across the globe. In New Zealand, MRSP isolation remains rare in clinics. To pre-emptively inform diagnostic and antimicrobial stewardship practices, we examine isolates of S. pseudintermedius, MRSP and MDR-MRSP from New Zealand dogs using a combination of methodologies. Genetic and genomic data combined with antimicrobial susceptibility screening identify common drug-resistance profiles and their genetic determinants. We demonstrate that sensitive and specific species-level identification of S. pseudintermedius can be achieved using Bruker MALDI-TOF MS and, further, that this technique can be used to identify some common subtype variants, providing a level of categorical precision that falls somewhere between single-locus and multi-locus sequence typing. Comparative genomics analysis of global S. pseudintermedius data shows that MRSP moves frequently across the globe, but that horizontal gene transfer events resulting in the acquisition of the SCCmec cassette (responsible for beta-lactam antibiotic resistance) are infrequent. This suggests that biosecurity and surveillance in addition to antibiotic stewardship should play important roles in mitigating the risk of MRSP, especially in countries such as New Zealand where MRSP is still rare.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus pseudintermedius</i> (MRSP) in dogs treated with oral cephalexin monohydrate. Ten dogs with superficial pyoderma were monitored longitudinally for carriage of MRSP for up to 1 year after treatment; the strains were typed and antibiograms were determined. Methicillin-susceptible <i>S. pseudintermedius</i> (MSSP) was recovered prior to treatment in all dogs and could be isolated after 12 months in 1 dog. Methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus pseudintermedius</i> was detected within 1 week of treatment in all dogs, and 3 clones represented by ST45, ST112, and ST181 were consistently present for up to 12 months after treatment. All MRSP isolates were resistant to at least 7 common antimicrobials. Oral cephalexin monohydrate treatment selected for strains of multi-resistant MRSP, which were still present after 1 year.
Project description:The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in healthy dogs and further to determine genetic relatedness between carrier isolates and clinical MRSP from dogs in Norway. A total of 189 healthy dogs visiting ten veterinary clinics were screened for MRSP during the period February to April 2013. Carrier isolates were susceptibility tested with disk diffusion and genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Forty-nine clinical MRSP were characterized for comparison. These isolates were collected from July 2008 to April 2013 and represent all MRSP index isolates from each MRSP-positive dog detected in Norway until April 2013. Geographical distribution of all MRSP cases was investigated using the ArcGIS 9.3 Software. MRSP was detected from five (2.6%) healthy dogs, sampled at three different clinics. The isolates grouped into three sequence types (STs): ST252 (two isolates), ST71 (two isolates) and ST306 (one isolate). MRSP from dogs sampled at the same animal clinic belonged to the same ST and produced identical PFGE pattern. The 49 clinical MRSP grouped into 15 STs; ST258 (n = 17), ST71 (n = 10), and ST305 (n = 4) were the most prevalent. The MRSP carrier isolates were genetically related to MRSP variants from dogs with infections as ST306 (from a carrier) is related to ST258. MRSP ST252, found in two carriers, was also present among the clinical MRSP isolates. Altogether the MRSP isolates were genetically diverse and MRSP of other lineages than ST71 continues to disseminate in Norway. Susceptibility testing showed that MRSP isolates of the ST71 lineage were the most multiresistant. Our study showed that MRSP could be detected in healthy dogs without infections and with no recent history of antimicrobial therapy stressing the need for future monitoring, infection control and prudent use of antimicrobial agents.
Project description:To investigate antimicrobial susceptibility in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and the occurrence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP), to explore the molecular structure of the MRSP population and to analyse risk factors for MRSP.Susceptibility data for clinical S. pseudintermedius isolates in 2011-15 were analysed using WHONET. All MRSP isolates in 2010-14 ( n? = ? 362) were typed using PFGE. Representative isolates ( n ?= ? 87) of clusters were analysed using MLST and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ) typing. Risk factors were analysed using logistic regression.Of the clinical S. pseudintermedius ( n ?= ? 1958; 98% from dogs), 14% were MRSP. Resistance to other antimicrobials varied between 12% and 39%. No trends were observed over time. Among clinical specimens (from infection sites) and screening specimens (from potential carriers), respectively, 2.5% (267/10?813) and 9% (211/2434) revealed MRSP. MLST revealed 42 different STs, including 19 new ones. Clonal complexes 71, 45 and 258 were the most common, but the MRSP population diversified over the years. A clinical S. pseudintermedius isolate was more likely to be MRSP if the patient was on antimicrobials at the time of sampling or was male. The presence of MRSP in screening specimens was more likely if the patient was on multiple antimicrobials at the time of sampling. Specimens from private clinics (versus the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Helsinki) had a higher likelihood of MRSP in both analyses.Resistance to antimicrobials among S. pseudintermedius in Finland is high, emphasizing the importance of infection control measures and susceptibility testing prior to therapy. The diverse MRSP population indicates non-clonal spread.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) constitutes an emerging health problem for companion animals in veterinary medicine. Therefore, discovery of novel antimicrobial agents for treatment of Staphylococcus-associated canine infections is urgently needed to reduce use of human antibiotics in veterinary medicine. In the present work, we characterized the antimicrobial activity of the peptoid D2 against S. pseudintermedius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is another common integumentary pathogen in dogs. Furthermore, we performed a structure?activity relationship study of D2, which included 19 peptide/peptoid analogs. Our best compound D2D, an all d-peptide analogue, showed potent minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against canine S. pseudintermedius (2?4 µg/mL) and P. aeruginosa (4 µg/mL) isolates as well as other selected dog pathogens (2?16 µg/mL). Time?kill assays demonstrated that D2D was able to inhibit MRSP in 30 min at 1× MIC, significantly faster than D2. Our results suggest that at high concentrations D2D is rapidly lysing the bacterial membrane while D2 is inhibiting macromolecular synthesis. We probed the mechanism of action at sub-MIC concentrations of D2, D2D, the l-peptide analog and its retro analog by a macromolecular biosynthesis assay and fluorescence spectroscopy. Our data suggest that at sub-MIC concentrations D2D is membrane inactive and primarily works by cell wall inhibition, while the other compounds mainly act on the bacterial membrane.
Project description:Background and rationale: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is a major cause of infections in dogs, also posing a zoonotic risk to humans. This systematic review aimed to determine the global epidemiology of MRSP and provide new insights into the population structure of this important veterinary pathogen. Methodology: Web of Science was searched systematically for articles reporting data on multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of S. pseudintermedius isolates from dogs or other animal or human patients and carriers. Data from the eligible studies were then integrated with data from the MLST database for this species. Analysis of MLST data was performed with eBURST and ClonalFrame, and the proportion of MRSP isolates resistant to selected antimicrobial drugs was determined for the most predominant clonal complexes. Results: Fifty-eight studies published over the last 10 years were included in the review. MRSP represented 76% of the 1428 isolates characterized by the current MLST scheme. The population of S. pseudintermedius was highly diverse and included five major MRSP clonal complexes (CCs). CC71, previously described as the epidemic European clone, is now widespread worldwide. In Europe, CC258, which is more frequently susceptible to enrofloxacin and aminoglycosides, and more frequently resistant to sulphonamides/trimethoprim than CC71, is increasingly reported in various countries. CC68, previously described as the epidemic North American clone, is frequently reported in this region but also in Europe, while CC45 (associated with chloramphenicol resistance) and CC112 are prevalent in Asia. It was estimated that clonal diversification in this species is primarily driven by homologous recombination (r/m = 7.52). Conclusion: This study provides evidence that S. pseudintermedius has an epidemic population structure, in which five successful MRSP lineages with specific traits regarding antimicrobial resistance, genetic diversity and geographical distribution have emerged upon a weakly clonal background through acquisition of SCCmec and other mobile genetic elements.
Project description:Integumentary infections like pyoderma represent the main reason for antimicrobial prescription in dogs. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently identified in these infections, and both bacteria are challenging to combat due to resistance. To avoid use of important human antibiotics for treatment of animal infections there is a pressing need for novel narrow-spectrum antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine. Herein, we characterize the in vitro activity of the novel peptide-peptoid hybrid B1 against canine isolates of S. pseudintermedius and P. aeruginosa. B1 showed potent minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against canine S. pseudintermedius and P. aeruginosa isolates as well rapid killing kinetics. B1 was found to disrupt the membrane integrity and affect cell-wall synthesis in methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP). We generated 28 analogues of B1, showing comparable haemolysis and MICs against MRSP and P. aeruginosa. The most active analogues (23, 26) and B1 were tested against a collection of clinical isolates from canine, of which only B1 showed potent activity. Our best compound 26, displayed activity against P. aeruginosa and S. pseudintermedius, but not the closely related S. aureus. This work shows that design of target-specific veterinary antimicrobial agents is possible, even species within a genus, and deserves further exploration.