MiR-494-3p overexpression promotes megakaryocytopoiesis in primary myelofibrosis hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells by targeting SOCS6.
ABSTRACT: Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a chronic Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by hematopoietic stem cell-derived clonal myeloproliferation, involving especially the megakaryocyte lineage. To better characterize how the altered expression of microRNAs might contribute to PMF pathogenesis, we have previously performed the integrative analysis of gene and microRNA expression profiles of PMF hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), which allowed us to identify miR-494-3p as the upregulated microRNA predicted to target the highest number of downregulated mRNAs.To elucidate the role of miR-494-3p in hematopoietic differentiation, in the present study we demonstrated that miR-494-3p enforced expression in normal HSPCs promotes megakaryocytopoiesis. Gene expression profiling upon miR-494-3p overexpression allowed the identification of genes commonly downregulated both after microRNA overexpression and in PMF CD34+ cells. Among them, suppressor of cytokine signaling 6 (SOCS6) was confirmed to be a miR-494-3p target by luciferase assay. Western blot analysis showed reduced level of SOCS6 protein as well as STAT3 activation in miR-494-3p overexpressing cells. Furthermore, transient inhibition of SOCS6 expression in HSPCs demonstrated that SOCS6 silencing stimulates megakaryocytopoiesis, mimicking the phenotypic effects observed upon miR-494-3p overexpression. Finally, to disclose the contribution of miR-494-3p upregulation to PMF pathogenesis, we performed inhibition experiments in PMF HSPCs, which showed that miR-494-3p silencing led to SOCS6 upregulation and impaired megakaryocyte differentiation.Taken together, our results describe for the first time the role of miR-494-3p during normal HSPC differentiation and suggest that its increased expression, and the subsequent downregulation of its target SOCS6, might contribute to the megakaryocyte hyperplasia commonly observed in PMF patients.
Project description:As recently reported by our group, we performed miRNA and gene expression profiling of CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) isolated from 42 PMF patient samples compared with 31 healthy controls. Integrative analysis of these profiles by means of Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) allowed the identification of several aberrantly regulated miRNA-mRNA target pairs organized in interaction networks. In particular, our results highlighted the up-regulation of miR-494-3p in CD34+ cells from PMF patients (Norfo R et al, Blood, 2014). Interestingly, among the most upregulated miRNAs, miR-494-3p emerges as being associated to the highest number of downregulated target mRNAs. In order to understand the biological role of miR-494-3p during the hematopoietic commitment and differentiation, we overexpressed this miRNA in cord blood (CB) derived-CD34+ cells. Cells were electroporated with either miR-494-3p miRNA mimic (mimic miR-494) or a negative control mimic (mimic Neg CTR). qRT-PCR confirmed miR-494-3p overexpression 24h and 4 days after transfection (RQ ± SEM, 512.60 ± 137.37, p<.01, and 20.63 ± 3.03, p<.01, respectively). Immunophenotypic analysis of CD41 and CD42b megakaryocyte (MK) lineage differentiation markers, performed on serum-free megakaryocytic ultilineage culture at day 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12, demonstrated that miR-494-3p overexpression induces a significant increase in the MK fraction compared to control samples. Accordingly, morphological analysis of May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained cytospins revealed an expansion of megakaryocytic lineage in samples overexpressing miR-494-3p. These data were further confirmed by collagen-based clonogenic assays which showed a significant increase in the percentage of megakaryocytic colonies in miR-494-3p overexpressing samples compared with controls. In order to better characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of miR-494-3p on HSPCs differentiation, we performed gene expression analysis of miR-494-3p overexpressing cells 24 hours after the last nucleofection. Overall design: Gene expression profile (GEP) was performed on total RNA derived from three independent experiments at 24h after the last nucleofection.
Project description:It is unclear how microRNA (miR)-494 inhibits the proliferation of cervical cancer cells by altering the expression of SOCS6. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying miR-494 regulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling 6 (SOCS6) in human cervical cancer samples and the human cervical cancer HeLa cell line. The expression of miR-494 was determined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, TargetScan was used to predict miR-494 target genes and the luciferase reporter assay was used to determine whether SOCS6 was a direct target of miR-494. The results of the present study demonstrated that compared with the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and normal cervical tissues, the miR-494 expression level in cervical cancer samples was significantly decreased (P<0.01). In addition, compared with normal cervical tissue, miR-494 expression level was significantly decreased in cervical intraepithelial lesions (P<0.05). Furthermore, the expression of miR-494 was associated with patients with or without lymph node metastasis, clinical stage and depth of stromal invasion (P<0.01); however, miR-494 expression was not identified to be associated with age, tumor size and menopausal status (P>0.05). Transfection of a miR-494 mimic significantly increased the expression level of miR-494 in HeLa cells (P<0.01), and anti-miR-494 transfection decreased the expression of miR-494 (P<0.01). An MTT proliferation assay and Boyden chamber invasion ability assay revealed that miR-494 mimic transfection significantly inhibited the proliferation, and invasion ability of HeLa cells (P<0.01), whereas anti-miR-494 transfection significantly increased the proliferation and invasion ability (P<0.05). SOCS6 was predicted, using bioinformatics, to be the target gene of miR-494 and this was validated using a luciferase reporter assay. Western blot analysis revealed that transfection of miR-494 significantly increased the expression of SOCS6 in HeLa cells, and transfection of anti-miR-494 significantly decreased the expression of SOCS6. Therefore, the results of the present study demonstrated that miR-494 expression in cervical cancer was significantly decreased. Exhibiting a decreased expression level of miR-494 may result in enhanced proliferative and invasive abilities of HeLa cell, thus contributing to the occurrence, and development of cervical cancer.
Project description:Posttranscriptional and translational controls mediated by microRNAs (miRNA) regulate diverse biologic processes. We dissected regulatory effects of miRNAs relevant to megakaryocytopoiesis and platelet biology by analyzing expression patterns in 79 subjects with thrombocytosis and controls, and integrated data with transcriptomic and proteomic platforms. We validated a unique 21-miRNA genetic fingerprint associated with thrombocytosis, and demonstrated that a 3-member subset defines essential thrombocythemia (ET). The genetic signature includes functional guide and passenger strands of the previously uncharacterized miR 490 (5p and 3p), which displayed restricted, low-level expression in megakaryocytes/platelets (compared with leukocytes), and aberrant expression during thrombocytosis, most profound in ET. Overexpression of miR 490 in a bilineage differentiation model of megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitor formation was insufficient for hematopoietic colony differentiation and/or lineage specification. Integration of transcriptomic and mass spectrometric datasets with functional reporter assays identified dishevelled associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (DAAM1) as a miR 490 5p protein target demonstrating decreased expression in ET platelets, putatively by translational control (and not by mRNA target degradation). Our data define a dysregulated miRNA fingerprint in thrombocytosis and support a developmentally restricted function of miR 490 (and its putative DAAM1 target) to conditions associated with exaggerated megakaryocytopoiesis and/or proplatelet formation.
Project description:MYOD-induced microRNA-494-3p expression inhibits fast oxidative myotube formation by downregulating myosin heavy chain 2 (MYH2) in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) during skeletal myogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating MYH2 expression via miR-494-3p remain unknown. Here, using bioinformatic analyses, we show that miR-494-3p potentially targets the transcript of the E1A-binding protein p300 at its 3'-untranslated region (UTR). Myogenesis in hiPSCs with the Tet/ON-myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1) gene (MyoD-hiPSCs) was induced by culturing them in doxycycline-supplemented differentiation medium for 7 days. p300 protein expression decreased after transient induction of miR-494-3p during myogenesis. miR-494-3p mimics decreased the levels of p300 and its downstream targets MYOD and MYH2 and myotube formation efficiency. p300 knockdown decreased myotube formation efficiency, MYH2 expression, and basal oxygen consumption rate. The binding of miR-494-3p to the wild type p300 3'-UTR, but not the mutated site, was confirmed using luciferase assay. Overexpression of p300 rescued the miR-494-3p mimic-induced phenotype in MyoD-hiPSCs. Moreover, miR-494-3p mimic reduced the levels of p300, MYOD, and MYH2 in skeletal muscles in mice. Thus, miR-494-3p might modulate MYH2 expression and fast oxidative myotube formation by directly regulating p300 levels during skeletal myogenesis in MyoD-hiPSCs and murine skeletal muscle tissues.
Project description:Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are chronic myeloid cancers thought to arise at the level of CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. They include essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). All can progress to acute leukemia, but PMF carries the worst prognosis. Increasing evidences indicate that deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) might plays an important role in hematologic malignancies, including MPN. To attain deeper knowledge of short RNAs (sRNAs) expression pattern in CD34+ cells and of their possible role in mediating post-transcriptional regulation in PMF, we sequenced with Illumina HiSeq2000 technology CD34+ cells from healthy subjects and PMF patients. We detected the expression of 784 known miRNAs, with a prevalence of miRNA up-regulation in PMF samples, and discovered 34 new miRNAs and 99 new miRNA-offset RNAs (moRNAs), in CD34+ cells. Thirty-seven small RNAs were differentially expressed in PMF patients compared with healthy subjects, according to microRNA sequencing data. Five miRNAs (miR-10b-5p, miR-19b-3p, miR-29a-3p, miR-379-5p, and miR-543) were deregulated also in PMF granulocytes. Moreover, 3'-moR-128-2 resulted consistently downregulated in PMF according to RNA-seq and qRT-PCR data both in CD34+ cells and granulocytes. Target predictions of these validated small RNAs de-regulated in PMF and functional enrichment analyses highlighted many interesting pathways involved in tumor development and progression, such as signaling by FGFR and DAP12 and Oncogene Induced Senescence. As a whole, data obtained in this study deepened the knowledge of miRNAs and moRNAs altered expression in PMF CD34+ cells and allowed to identify and validate a specific small RNA profile that distinguishes PMF granulocytes from those of normal subjects. We thus provided new information regarding the possible role of miRNAs and, specifically, of new moRNAs in this disease.
Project description:Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF) is a chronic Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by a skewed megakaryopoiesis and an overproduction of proinflammatory and profibrotic mediators that lead to the development of bone marrow (BM) fibrosis. Since we recently uncovered the upregulation of miR-34a-5p in PMF CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), in order to elucidate its role in PMF pathogenesis here we unravelled the effects of miR-34a-5p overexpression in HPCs. We showed that enforced expression of miR-34a-5p partially constrains proliferation and favours the megakaryocyte and monocyte/macrophage commitment of HPCs. Interestingly, we identified lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) and nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2 (NR4A2) transcripts as miR-34a-5p-targets downregulated after miR-34a-5p overexpression in HPCs as well as in PMF CD34+ cells. Remarkably, the knockdown of NR4A2 in HPCs mimicked the antiproliferative effects of miR-34a-5p overexpression, while the silencing of LEF1 phenocopied the effects of miR-34a-5p overexpression on HPCs lineage choice, by favouring the megakaryocyte and monocyte/macrophage commitment. Collectively our data unravel the role of miR-34a-5p in HPCs fate decision and suggest that the increased expression of miR-34a-5p in PMF HPCs could be important for the skewing of megakaryopoiesis and the production of monocytes, that are key players in BM fibrosis in PMF patients.
Project description:Post-transcriptional and translational controls mediated by microRNAs (miRNA) regulate diverse biological processes and disease. We systematically dissected regulatory effects of miRNAs relevant to megakaryocytopoiesis and platelet biology by analyzing expression patterns in 79 subjects with thrombocytosis and healthy controls, and integrated these data with transcriptomic and proteomic platforms. We identified and validated a unique 21-miRNA genetic fingerprint associated with thrombocytosis, and demonstrated that a discrete 3-member subset effectively defines ET phenotypes. The genetic signature includes functional guide and passenger strands of the previously-uncharacterized miR 490 (5p and 3p), both of which displayed restricted, low-level expression in megakaryocytes/platelets (compared to leukocytes), and aberrant expression during thrombocytosis, most profound in essential thrombocythemia (ET). Overexpression of miR 490 in a bilineage differentiation model of megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitor formation was insufficient for hematopoietic stem cell colony differentiation and/or lineage specification. Systematic integration of transcriptomic and mass spectrometric datasets with functional reporter assays identified dishevelled associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (DAAM1) as a unique miR 490 5p protein target demonstrating decreased expression in ET platelets, putatively modulated by translational control (and not by mRNA target degradation). Our data define a dysregulated miRNA fingerprint in thrombocytosis, and collectively support a developmentally-restricted function of miR 490 (and its putative DAAM1 target) to conditions associated with exaggerated megakaryocytopoiesis and/or proplatelet formation. Human platelets from a total of 79 samples in 3 phenotypic groups: essential thrombocythemia (ET, N =27), reactive thrombocytosis (RT, N=22) and healthy controls (NO, N=30) were measured on array platform
Project description:Thrombosis leads to platelet activation and subsequent degradation; therefore, replenishment of platelets from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) is needed to maintain the physiological level of circulating platelets. Platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) are protein- and RNA-containing vesicles released from activated platelets. We hypothesized that factors carried by PMPs might influence the production of platelets from HSPCs, in a positive feedback fashion. Here we show that, during mouse acute liver injury, the density of megakaryocyte in the bone marrow increases following an increase in circulating PMPs, but without thrombopoietin (TPO) upregulation. In vitro, PMPs are internalized by HSPCs and drive them toward a megakaryocytic fate. Mechanistically, miR-1915-3p, a miRNA highly enriched in PMPs, is transported to target cells and suppresses the expression levels of Rho GTPase family member B, thereby inducing megakaryopoiesis. In addition, direct injection of PMPs into irradiated mice increases the number of megakaryocytes and platelets without affecting TPO levels. In conclusion, our data reveal that PMPs have a role in promoting megakaryocytic differentiation and platelet production.
Project description:Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle cell growth and proliferation. Furthermore, myostatin directly affects the expression of 14q32 microRNAs by binding the 14q32 locus. Direct inhibition of 14q32 microRNA miR-495-3p decreased postinterventional restenosis via inhibition of both vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and local inflammation. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of myostatin in a mouse model for postinterventional restenosis. In VSMCs in vitro, myostatin led to the dose-specific downregulation of 14q32 microRNAs miR-433-3p, miR-494-3p, and miR-495-3p. VSMC proliferation was inhibited, where cell migration and viability remained unaffected. In a murine postinterventional restenosis model, myostatin infusion did not decrease restenosis, neointimal area, or lumen stenosis. Myostatin inhibited expression of both proliferation marker PCNA and of 14q32 microRNAs miR-433-3p, miR-494-3p, and miR-495-3p dose-specifically in cuffed femoral arteries. However, 14q32 microRNA expression remained unaffected in macrophages and macrophage activation as well as macrophage influx into lesions were not decreased. In conclusion, myostatin did not affect postinterventional restenosis. Although myostatin inhibits 14q32 microRNA expression and proliferation in VSMCs, myostatin had no effect on macrophage activation and infiltration. Our findings underline that restenosis is driven by both VSMC proliferation and local inflammation. Targeting only one of these components is insufficient to prevent restenosis.
Project description:The transcription factor MYB has a key role in hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) lineage choice, by enhancing erythropoiesis at the expense of megakaryopoiesis. We previously demonstrated that MYB controls erythroid versus megakaryocyte lineage decision by transactivating KLF1 and LMO2 expression. To further unravel the molecular mechanisms through which MYB affects lineage fate decision, we performed the integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA changes in MYB-silenced human primary CD34+ HPCs. Among the miRNAs with the highest number of predicted targets, we focused our studies on hsa-miR-486-3p by demonstrating that MYB controls miR-486-3p expression through the transactivation of its host gene, ankyrin-1 (ANK1) and that miR-486-3p affects HPCs commitment. Indeed, overexpression and knockdown experiments demonstrated that miR-486-3p supports the erythropoiesis while restraining the megakaryopoiesis. Of note, miR-486-3p also favors granulocyte differentiation while repressing the macrophage differentiation. To shed some light on the molecular mechanisms through which miR-486-3p affects HPCs lineage commitment, we profiled the gene expression changes upon miR-486-3p overexpression in CD34+ cells. Among the genes downregulated in miR-486-3p-overexpressing HPCs and computationally predicted to be miR-486-3p targets, we identified MAF as a miR-486-3p target by 3'UTR luciferase reporter assay. Noteworthy, MAF overexpression was able to partially reverse the effects of miR-486-3p overexpression on erythroid versus megakaryocyte lineage choice. Moreover, the MYB/MAF co-silencing constrained the skewing of erythroid versus megakaryocyte lineage commitment in MYB-silenced CD34+ cells, by restraining the expansion of megakaryocyte lineage while partially rescuing the impairment of erythropoiesis. Therefore, our data collectively demonstrate that MYB favors erythropoiesis and restrains megakaryopoiesis through the transactivation of miR-486-3p expression and the subsequent downregulation of MAF. As a whole, our study uncovers the MYB/miR-486-3p/MAF axis as a new mechanism underlying the MYB-driven control of erythroid versus megakaryocyte lineage fate decision.