Biomolecular engineering for nanobio/bionanotechnology.
ABSTRACT: Biomolecular engineering can be used to purposefully manipulate biomolecules, such as peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, within the framework of the relations among their structures, functions and properties, as well as their applicability to such areas as developing novel biomaterials, biosensing, bioimaging, and clinical diagnostics and therapeutics. Nanotechnology can also be used to design and tune the sizes, shapes, properties and functionality of nanomaterials. As such, there are considerable overlaps between nanotechnology and biomolecular engineering, in that both are concerned with the structure and behavior of materials on the nanometer scale or smaller. Therefore, in combination with nanotechnology, biomolecular engineering is expected to open up new fields of nanobio/bionanotechnology and to contribute to the development of novel nanobiomaterials, nanobiodevices and nanobiosystems. This review highlights recent studies using engineered biological molecules (e.g., oligonucleotides, peptides, proteins, enzymes, polysaccharides, lipids, biological cofactors and ligands) combined with functional nanomaterials in nanobio/bionanotechnology applications, including therapeutics, diagnostics, biosensing, bioanalysis and biocatalysts. Furthermore, this review focuses on five areas of recent advances in biomolecular engineering: (a) nucleic acid engineering, (b) gene engineering, (c) protein engineering, (d) chemical and enzymatic conjugation technologies, and (e) linker engineering. Precisely engineered nanobiomaterials, nanobiodevices and nanobiosystems are anticipated to emerge as next-generation platforms for bioelectronics, biosensors, biocatalysts, molecular imaging modalities, biological actuators, and biomedical applications.
Project description:Although nanotechnology has provided a rich variety of nanomaterials (1-100 nm) for in vivo medical applications, the blood compatibility of all these nanobiomaterials is still largely unexamined. Here, we report the preparation of blood-compatible carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that potentially represent the building blocks for nanodevices having in vivo applications. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thromboelastography (TEG) studies prove that heparinization can significantly enhance the blood compatibility of nanomaterials.
Project description:Zero-dimensional (0D) nanomaterials, including graphene quantum dots (GQDs), carbon quantum dots (CQDs), fullerenes, inorganic quantum dots (QDs), magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), noble metal nanoparticles, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and polymer dots (Pdots), have attracted extensive research interest in the field of biosensing in recent years. Benefiting from the ultra-small size, quantum confinement effect, excellent physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility, 0D nanomaterials have shown great potential in ion detection, biomolecular recognition, disease diagnosis and pathogen detection. Here we first introduce the structures and properties of different 0D nanomaterials. On this basis, recent progress and application examples of 0D nanomaterials in the field of biosensing are discussed. In the last part, we summarize the research status of 0D nanomaterials in the field of biosensing and anticipate the development prospects and future challenges in this field.
Project description:In the last fifteen years, the nucleic acid biosensors and delivery area has seen a breakthrough due to the interrelation between the recognition of nucleic acid's high specificity, the great sensitivity of electrochemical and optical transduction and the unprecedented opportunities imparted by nanotechnology. Advances in this area have demonstrated that the assembly of nanoscaled materials allows the performance enhancement, particularly in terms of sensitivity and response time, of functional nucleic acids' biosensing and delivery to a level suitable for the construction of point-of-care diagnostic tools. Consequently, this has propelled detection methods using nanomaterials to the vanguard of the biosensing and delivery research fields. This review overviews the striking advancement in functional nanomaterials' assisted biosensing and delivery of nucleic acids. We highlight the advantages demonstrated by selected well-known and rising star functional nanomaterials (metallic, magnetic and Janus nanomaterials) focusing on the literature produced in the past five years.
Project description:The physicochemical properties of nanobiomaterials, such as their small size and high surface area ratio, make them attractive, novel drug-carriers, with increased cellular interaction and increased permeation through several biological barriers. However, these same properties hinder any extrapolation of knowledge from the toxicity of their raw material. Though, as suggested by the Safe-by-Design (SbD) concept, the hazard assessment should be the starting point for the formulation development. This may enable us to select the most promising candidates of polymeric nanobiomaterials for safe drug-delivery in an early phase of innovation. Nowadays the majority of reports on polymeric nanomaterials are focused in optimizing the nanocarrier features, such as size, physical stability and drug loading efficacy, and in performing preliminary cytocompatibility testing and proving effectiveness of the drug loaded formulation, using the most diverse cell lines. Toxicological studies exploring the biological effects of the polymeric nanomaterials, particularly regarding immune system interaction are often disregarded. The objective of this review is to illustrate what is known about the biological effects of polymeric nanomaterials and to see if trends in toxicity and general links between physicochemical properties of nanobiomaterials and their effects may be derived. For that, data on chitosan, polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and policaprolactone (PCL) nanomaterials will be evaluated regarding acute and repeated dose toxicity, inflammation, oxidative stress, genotoxicity, toxicity on reproduction and hemocompatibility. We further intend to identify the analytical and biological tests described in the literature used to assess polymeric nanomaterials toxicity, to evaluate and interpret the available results and to expose the obstacles and challenges related to the nanomaterial testing. At the present time, considering all the information collected, the hazard assessment and thus also the SbD of polymeric nanomaterials is still dependent on a case-by-case evaluation. The identified obstacles prevent the identification of toxicity trends and the generation of an assertive toxicity database. In the future, in vitro and in vivo harmonized toxicity studies using unloaded polymeric nanomaterials, extensively characterized regarding their intrinsic and extrinsic properties should allow to generate such database. Such a database would enable us to apply the SbD approach more efficiently.
Project description:Toxin detection is an important issue in numerous fields, such as agriculture/food safety, environmental monitoring, and homeland security. During the past two decades, nanotechnology has been extensively used to develop various biosensors for achieving fast, sensitive, selective and on-site analysis of toxins. In particular, the two dimensional layered (2D) nanomaterials (such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs)) and their nanocomposites have been employed as label and/or biosensing transducers to construct electrochemical biosensors for cost-effective detection of toxins with high sensitivity and specificity. This is because the 2D nanomaterials have good electrical conductivity and a large surface area with plenty of active groups for conjugating 2D nanomaterials with the antibodies and/or aptamers of the targeted toxins. Herein, we summarize recent developments in the application of 2D nanomaterial-based electrochemical biosensors for detecting toxins with a particular focus on microbial toxins including bacterial toxins, fungal toxins and algal toxins. The integration of 2D nanomaterials with some existing antibody/aptamer technologies into electrochemical biosensors has led to an unprecedented impact on improving the assaying performance of microbial toxins, and has shown great promise in public health and environmental protection.
Project description:In the last decade, the control of avian influenza virus has experienced many difficulties, which have caused major global agricultural problems that have also led to public health consequences. Conventional biochemical methods are not sufficient to detect and control agricultural pathogens in the field due to the growing demand for food and subsidiary products; thus, studies aiming to develop potent alternatives to conventional biochemical methods are urgently needed. In this review, emerging detection systems, their applicability to diagnostics, and their therapeutic possibilities in view of nanotechnology are discussed. Nanotechnology-based sensors are used for rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostics of agricultural pathogens. The application of different nanomaterials promotes interactions between these materials and the virus, which enables researchers to construct portable electroanalytical biosensing analyser that should effectively detect the influenza virus. The present review will provide insights into the guidelines for future experiments to develop better techniques to detect and control influenza viruses.
Project description:In recent years, regenerative medicine is gaining momentum and is giving hopes for restoring function of diseased, damaged, and aged tissues and organs and nanotechnology is serving as a catalyst. In the ophthalmology field, various types of allogenic and autologous stem cells have been investigated to treat some ocular diseases due to age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, diabetic retinopathy, and corneal and lens traumas. Nanomaterials have been utilized directly as nanoscaffolds for these stem cells to promote their adhesion, proliferation and differentiation or indirectly as vectors for various genes, tissue growth factors, cytokines and immunosuppressants to facilitate cell reprogramming or ocular tissue regeneration. In this review, we reviewed various nanomaterials used for retina, cornea, and lens regenerations, and discussed the current status and future perspectives of nanotechnology in tracking cells in the eye and personalized regenerative ophthalmology. The purpose of this review is to provide comprehensive and timely insights on the emerging field of nanotechnology for ocular tissue engineering and regeneration.
Project description:The integration of acoustics and microfluidics (termed acoustofluidics) presents a frontier in the engineering of functional micro-/nanomaterials. Acoustofluidic techniques enable active and precise spatiotemporal control of matter, providing great potential for the design of advanced nanosystems with tunable material properties. In this work, we introduce an acoustofluidic approach for engineering multifunctional three-dimensional nanostructure arrays and demonstrate their potential in enrichment and biosensing applications. In particular, our acoustofluidic device integrates an acoustic transducer with a sharp-edge-based acoustofluidic reactor that enables uniform patterning of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoarrays with customizable lengths, densities, diameters, and other properties. The resulting ZnO nanoarray-coated glass capillaries can rapidly and efficiently capture and enrich biomolecules with sizes ranging from a few nanometers to several hundred nanometers. In order to enable the detection of these biomolecules, silver (Ag) nanoparticles are deposited onto the ZnO nanoarrays, and the integrated ZnO-Ag capillary device functions as a label-free plasmonic biosensing system for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based detection of exosomes, DNA oligonucleotides, and E. coli bacteria. The optical sensing enhancement of ZnO-Ag capillary is further validated through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. These findings not only provide insights into the engineering of functional micro/nanomaterials using acoustofluidics but also shed light onto the development of portable microanalytical devices for point-of-care applications.
Project description:Using and engineering amyloid as nanomaterials are blossoming trends in bionanotechnology. Here, we show our discovery of an amyloid structure, termed "amyloid-like nanosheet," formed by a key amyloid-forming segment of Alzheimer's A?. Combining multiple biophysical and computational approaches, we proposed a structural model for the nanosheet that is formed by stacking the amyloid fibril spines perpendicular to the fibril axis. We further used the nanosheet for laboratorial retroviral transduction enhancement and directly visualized the presence of virus on the nanosheet surface by electron microscopy. Furthermore, based on our structural model, we designed nanosheet-forming peptides with different functionalities, elucidating the potential of rational design for amyloid-based materials with novel architecture and function.
Project description:Engineering plasmonic nanostructures that simultaneously achieve high colloidal stability, high photothermal stability, low non-specific binding to biological specimens, and low toxicity is of significant interest to research in bionanotechnology. Using gold nanorods, we solved this problem by encapsulating them with a multilayer structure, silica, hydrophobic ligands, and amphiphilic-polymers. In comparison with nanorods covered with the conventional surface chemistries, such as surfactants, polyelectrolytes, thiolated polymers, and silica shells alone, the new nanorods remain single in various solutions and show remarkable stability against laser irradiation. We further demonstrated specific targeting and effective treatment of prostate tumor cells using nanorod-aptamer bioconjugates. This exquisitely formulated nanoencapsulation technology could potentially help stabilize other plasmonic nanostructures that are not in the most thermodynamically or chemically stable states, and should open exciting opportunities in nanotechnology-based imaging and therapeutics.