Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Gene Polymorphism and the Risk of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: We aimed to elucidate the association between fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) polymorphism and the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by meta-analysis.We searched PubMed and Embase databases to find the relevant studies. Odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for pooled analysis. Statistical analyses were carried out by using R 3.12 software. Heterogeneity was assessed using I 2 and Q statistics. I 2 >50% or P<0.05 was considered as heterogeneity statistically, and random effects model was used for pooled analysis. Otherwise, fixed-effect model was used.Twelve eligible studies that published from 2008 to 2015 were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled analyses showed that rs9939609 polymorphism of FTO gene was significantly associated with risk of PCOS under A vs. T, AT vs. TT, AA vs. TT, AA vs. AT+TT and AA+AT vs. TT genetic models. However, for rs8050136 and rs1421085, significant association was only found under recessive genetic model.rs9939609 variation of FTO gene is significantly associated with risk of PCOS. However, the association between rs8050136, rs1421085, and PCOS is still unclear and needs further confirmation.
Project description:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex multisystemic genetic disease. Previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PCOS has found several potentially causative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Han Chinese population. The goal of present investigation was to assess the potential association between rs1121980, rs1421085, rs1558902, rs8050136 SNPs and PCOS. In order to make a better elucidation of this disease, further investigations of association between SNPs susceptibility and PCOS become necessary.In the present study, we enrolled 212 patients with PCOS and 198 control subjects. Four polymorphisms of FTO gene (rs1121980, rs1421085, rs1558902, rs8050136) were genotyped by Taqman-MGB method, and their relationship with PCOS was speculated.The allele frequency has no significant difference between the PCOS group and the controls. Genotype frequencies of the four SNPs in the additive, dominant and recessive models showed no significant difference between PCOS cases and controls.Our results demonstrate that FTO gene has little association in PCOS development.
Project description:The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity and insulin resistance are also common features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Therefore, the FTO gene might be a candidate gene for PCOS susceptibility. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of FTO gene variants on PCOS susceptibility and metabolic and reproductive hormonal parameters.We recruited 432 women with PCOS (24±5 years) and 927 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles (27±5 years) and performed a case-control association study. We genotyped the single nucleotide polymorphisms rs1421085, rs17817449, and rs8050136 in the FTO gene and collected metabolic and hormonal measurements.Logistic regression revealed that the G/G genotype (rs1421085, 1.6%), the C/C genotype (rs17817449, 1.6%), and the A/A genotype (rs8050136, 1.6%) were strongly associated with an increased risk of PCOS (odds ratio, 2.551 to 2.559; all P<0.05). The strengths of these associations were attenuated after adjusting for age and BMI. The women with these genotypes were more obese and exhibited higher free androgen indices (P<0.05) and higher free testosterone levels (P=0.053 to 0.063) compared to the other genotypes. However the significant differences disappeared after adjusting for body mass index (BMI). When we analyzed the women with PCOS and the control groups separately, there were no significant differences in the metabolic and reproductive hormonal parameters according to the FTO gene variants.The rs1421085, rs17817449, and rs8050136 variants of the FTO gene were associated with PCOS susceptibility and hyperandrogenemia in young Korean women. These associations may be mediated through an effect of BMI.
Project description:Up to now, numerous case-control studies have reported the associations between fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene rs9939609 A/T polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), however, without a consistent result. Hence we performed current systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the controversial results.Case-control studies reporting the relationship of rs9939609 A/T polymorphism and PCOS published before April 2015 were searched in Pubmed database without language restriction. Data was analyzed by Review Manager 5.2.A total of five studies involving 5010 PCOS patients and 5300 controls were included for further meta-analysis. The results of meta-analysis showed that the FTO gene rs9939609 A/T polymorphism was significantly different between PCOS group and control group in different gene models (For AA + AT vs. TT: OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.28-1.55, P < 0.00001. For AA vs. AT + TT: OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.25-1.89, P < 0.0001. For AA vs. TT: OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.38-2.18, P < 0.00001. For A vs. T: OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.25-1.47, P < 0.00001, respectively) suggesting that A allele was a risk factor for PCOS susceptibility. Furthermore, subgroup analysis in Asian and Caucasian ethnicities also found significant association between rs9939609 A/T polymorphism and PCOS (In Asian subgroup: OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.29-1.59, P < 0.0001. In Caucasian subgroup: OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.08-1.64, P = 0.008) CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that rs9939609 A/T polymorphism of FTO gene is associated with PCOS risk, and that A allele is a risk factor for PCOS susceptibility simultaneously.
Project description:Obesity induced by antipsychotics severely increases the risk of many diseases and significantly reduces quality of life. Genome Wide Association Studies has identified fat-mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with obesity. The relationship between the FTO gene and drug-induced obesity is unclear.Two hundred and fifty drug naïve, Chinese Han patients with first-episode schizophrenia were enrolled in the study, and genotyped for four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs9939609, rs8050136, rs1421085 and rs9930506) by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and direct sequencing. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) were measured at baseline and six months after risperidone treatment.At baseline, body weight and BMI of TT homozygotes were lower than those of A allele carriers in rs9939609; body weight of AA homozygotes was higher than those of G allele carriers in rs9930506 (p's < 0.05). After 6 months of risperidone treatment, body weight and BMI of TT homozygotes were lower than those of A allele carriers in rs9939609 (p's <0.01); body weight and BMI of CC homozygotes were lower than those of A allele carriers in rs8050136 (p's < 0.05); body weight of AA homozygotes was higher than those of G allele carriers in rs9930506 (p's < 0.05). After controlling for age, gender, age of illness onset, disease duration, weight at baseline and education, weight gain of TT homozygotes at 6 months remained to be lower than those of A allele carriers in rs9939609 (p < 0.01); weight gain of CC homozygotes at 6 months was lower than those of A allele carriers in rs8050136 (p = 0.01). Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that, among 4 SNPs, rs9939609 was the strongest predictor of weight gain after 6 months of risperidone treatment (p = 0.001).The FTO gene polymorphisms, especially rs9939609, seem to be related to weight gain after risperidone treatment in Chinese Han patients with first episode schizophrenia.
Project description:<h4>Aims/hypothesis</h4>FTO gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to be associated with obesity-related traits and type 2 diabetes. Several small studies have suggested a greater than expected effect of the FTO rs9939609 SNP on weight in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We therefore aimed to examine the impact of FTO genotype on BMI and weight in PCOS.<h4>Methods</h4>A systematic search of medical databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL) was conducted up to the end of April 2011. Seven studies describing eight distinct PCOS cohorts were retrieved; seven were genotyped for SNP rs9939609 and one for SNP rs1421085. The per allele effect on BMI and body weight increase was calculated and subjected to meta-analysis.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 2,548 women with PCOS were included in the study; 762 were TT homozygotes, 1,253 had an AT/CT genotype, and 533 were AA/CC homozygotes. Each additional copy of the effect allele (A/C) increased the BMI by a mean of 0.19 z score units (95% CI 0.13, 0.24; p = 2.26 × 10(-11)) and body weight by a mean of 0.20 z score units (95% CI 0.14, 0.26; p = 1.02 × 10(-10)). This translated into an approximately 3.3 kg/m(2) increase in BMI and an approximately 9.6 kg gain in body weight between TT and AA/CC homozygotes. The association between FTO genotypes and BMI was stronger in the cohorts with PCOS than in the general female populations from large genome-wide association studies. Deviation from an additive genetic model was observed in heavier populations.<h4>Conclusions/interpretation</h4>The effect of FTO SNPs on obesity-related traits in PCOS seems to be more than two times greater than the effect found in large population-based studies. This suggests an interaction between FTO and the metabolic context or polygenic background of PCOS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:PCOS is a common disorder of women due to genetic, endocrine and environmental effects that manifests from puberty. The rs9939609 variant of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene is linked to metabolic derangement in PCOS. We previously identified FTO (rs9939609) as a susceptibility locus for PCOS among Sri Lankan women and also explored the role of kisspeptin. Associated factors of the FTO candidate gene among South Asians with PCOS are unknown. METHODS:This study aimed to determine the association between FTO (rs9939609) polymorphism with clinical (BMI, acanthosis nigricans, hirsutism) and biochemical (serum kisspeptin and testosterone levels) characteristics of PCOS in a cohort of Sri Lankan women. Genetic and clinical data including serum kisspeptin and testosterone concentrations of our previously reported cases (n?=?55) and controls (n?=?110) were re-analyzed, specifically for an association with rs9939609 variant of FTO gene. RESULTS:Logistic regression analysis (AA - OR?=?5.7, 95% CI?=?2.41-13.63, p?<?0.05) and genetic inheritance analysis (AA - OR?=?5.49, 95%CI?=?2.34-12.88, p?<?0.05) showed that FTO (rs9939609) polymorphism is significantly associated with PCOS and its metabolic manifestations. Serum testosterone was significantly higher in affected women with mutant genotypes (AA+AT) than with the normal allele (TT) (p?<?0.05). Although serum kisspeptin was higher in subjects with PCOS and mutant alleles than controls, this difference was not significant (p?>?0.05). CONCLUSION:FTO gene variant rs9939609 is associated with hyperandrogenemia and metabolic manifestations of PCOS among women of Sri Lankan descent with the well-characterized phenotype. Serum kisspeptin and the FTO genotypes lack a significant association when adjusted for confounders.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global health problem that results from the interaction of environmental factors with genetic variants. Although a number of studies have suggested that genetic polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are associated with T2DM risk, the results have been inconsistent. To investigate whether FTO polymorphisms associate with T2DM risk and whether this association is region-related, we performed this spatial analysis and meta-analysis. More than 60,000 T2DM patients and 90,000 controls from 62 case-control studies were included in this study. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and Moran's I statistic were used to estimate the association between FTO rs9939609, rs8050136, rs1421085, and rs17817499, and T2DM risk in different regions. rs9939609 (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.11-1.19) and rs8050136 (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.10-1.18) conferred a predisposition to T2DM. After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), the association remained statistically significant for rs9939609 (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.05-1.17) and rs8050136 (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.12). In the subgroup analysis of rs9939609 and rs8050136, similar results were observed in East Asia, while no association was found in North America. In South Asia, an association for rs9939609 was revealed but not for rs8050136. In addition, no relationship was found with rs1421085 or rs17817499 regardless of adjustment for BMI. Moran's I statistic showed that significant positive spatial autocorrelations existed in rs9939609 and rs8050136. Studies on rs9939609 and rs8050136 focused on East Asia and South Asia, whereas studies on rs1421085 and rs17817499 were distributed in North America and North Africa. Our data suggest that the associations between FTO rs9939609, rs8050136 and T2DM are region-related, and the two single-nucleotide polymorphisms contribute to an increased risk of T2DM. Future studies should investigate this issue in more regions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the commonest endocrine disorder affecting young women, appears to be a multigenic trait with contributing genes being unclear. Hence, analysis of polymorphisms in multiple candidate genes is required. Currently available genotyping methods are expensive, time-consuming with limited analytical sensitivity. AIM:(i) Develop and validate high resolution melting (HRM) assay and allele-specific real-time quantitative PCR (AS-qPCR) for genotyping selected SNPs associated with PCOS. (ii) Identify selected SNPs and their association with a Sri Lankan cohort of well-characterized PCOS. METHODS:DNA was extracted from women with well-characterized PCOS from adolescence (n = 55) and ethnically matched controls (n = 110). FTO (Fat mass and obesity associated gene; rs9939609), FSHB (Follicle stimulating hormone beta subunit; rs6169), FSHR (Follicle stimulating hormone receptor; rs6165/rs6166), and INSR (Insulin receptor; rs1799817) genes were genotyped using HRM assay. GnRH1 (Gonadotropin releasing hormone; rs6185), LHB (Luteinizing hormone beta subunit; rs1800447/rs34349826) and LHCGR (Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor; rs2293275) genes were genotyped using AS-qPCR method. Genotyping results were validated using Sanger sequencing. RESULTS:A significant association was observed within FTO gene polymorphism (rs9939609) and PCOS. Genotype frequency of FTO gene (rs9939609)-cases versus controls were TT-36.4% vs.65.4% (p<0.05), AT-23.6% vs.20.9%, AA-40% vs.13.6% (p<0.05). Genotype frequencies of the SNPs GnRH1 (rs6185), FSHB (rs6169), FSHR (rs6165 & rs6166), LHB (rs1800447 & rs34349826), LHCGR (rs2293275) and INSR (rs1799817) were not significantly different between cases and controls (p>0.05). Only the mutant alleles were observed for LHB rs1800447 and rs34349826 SNPs in both groups. The HRM and AS-qPCR assay results had 100% concordance with sequencing results. CONCLUSIONS:FTO gene rs9939609 polymorphism is significantly more prevalent among Sri Lankan PCOS subjects while the other selected SNPs of HPG axis genes and INSR gene showed no association. HRM and AS-qPCR assays provide a reliable, fast and user-friendly genotyping method facilitating wider implication in clinical practice.
Project description:BACKGROUND The distribution of fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) genes rs9939609 and rs1421085 in obese and normal ethnic Mongolians was analyzed to investigate the association of FTO gene polymorphisms with obesity and metabolic syndrome in ethnic Mongolians. MATERIAL AND METHODS The genotypes of FTO genes rs9939609 and rs1421085 in 500 subjects were detected by allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR). General characteristics and clinical biochemical indicators were compared between the obesity group and the control group. The correlation between different genotypes and obesity metabolic index was also analyzed. RESULTS Body mass, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), SBP, DBP, FPG, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were higher, while HDL-C was lower in the obesity group compared with controls. The frequencies of TT genotype and T allele in the obesity group were higher than those in the control group. The frequencies of these 3 genotypes and allele frequencies of Rs1421085 were comparable between the 2 groups (P>0.05). The risk of obesity in Mongolian individuals carrying rs9939609 AT genotype was 1.312 times higher and the risk in those carrying AA genotype was 1.896 times higher than in individuals with TT genotype. The body weight, BMI, WC, HC, and WHR in individuals with rs9939609 AA and AT genotypes were significantly higher than in those with TT genotype. CONCLUSIONS The AT/AA genotype and allele A of rs9939609 are associated with an increased risk of obesity.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Previous studies have suggested that fat mass-and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is associated with body mass index (BMI) and the risk of obesity. This study aims to assess the association of five FTO polymorphisms (rs9939609, rs8050136, rs1558902, rs3751812 and rs6499640) with obesity and relative parameters in Han Chinese adolescents.<h4>Methods</h4>We examined a total of 401 adolescents, 223 normal weights (58.7% boys, 41.3% girls), 178 overweight (60.1% boys, 39.9% girls), aging from 14 to 18-years-old, recruited randomly from public schools in the central region of Wuxi, a southern city of China. DNA samples were genotyped for the five polymorphisms by Sequenom Plex MassARRAY. Association of the FTO polymorphisms with BMI, serum fasting plasm glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FIns), triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (TC) were investigated.<h4>Results</h4>1) Serum FPG, FIns, TG and TC were statistically significant higher than that in normal control group. 2) We found that BMI was higher in the rs9939609 TA+AA, rs8050136 AC+AA, rs1558902 TA+AA and rs3751812 GT+TT genotypes than in wild TT genotypes (rs9939609: P = 0.038; rs1558902: P = 0.038;), CC genotypes(rs8050136: P = 0.024) and GG genotypes (rs3751812: P = 0.024), which were not significant on adjusting for multiple testing. 3) In case-control studies, five polymorphisms were not significantly associated with overweight (p>0.05), haplotype analyses showed non-haplotype is significantly associated with a higher risk of being overweight (p>0.05). 4) There existed no significant statistical difference about FPG, FIns, TG and TC in genotype model for any SNP.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our study has conducted a genetic association study of the FTO polymorphisms with BMI, serum fasting plasm glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FIns), triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (TC). Our study found BMI of subjects with A allele of FTO rs9939609 is higher than that with T allele. Further studies on other polymorphisms from FTO and increasing the sample size are needed.