Pulmonary adenocarcinoma with mucin production modulates phenotype according to common genetic traits: a reappraisal of mucinous adenocarcinoma and colloid adenocarcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Whether invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) and colloid adenocarcinoma (ICA) of the lung represent separate tumour entities, or simply lie within a spectrum of phenotypic variability, is worth investigating. Fifteen ICA, 12 IMA, 9 ALK-rearranged adenocarcinomas (ALKA), 8 non-mucinous KRAS-mutated adenocarcinomas (KRASA) and 9 mucinous breast adenocarcinomas (MBA) were assessed by immunohistochemistry for alveolar (TTF1, cytoplasmic MUC1), intestinal (CDX-2, MUC2), gastric (membrane MUC1, MUC6), bronchial (MUC5AC), mesenchymal (vimentin), neuroendocrine (chromogranin A, synaptophysin), sex steroid hormone-related (oestrogen and progesterone receptors), pan-mucinous (HNF4A) and pan-epithelial (keratin 7) lineage biomarkers and by targeted next generation sequencing (TNGS) for 50 recurrently altered cancer genes. Unsupervised clustering analysis using molecular features identified cluster 1 (IMA and ICA), cluster 2 (ALKA and KRASA) and cluster 3 (MBA) (p?KRAS, LKB1, TP53, APC and CDKN2A mutation predominance. In conclusion, IMA and ICA are basket categories, which likely originate from distinct domains of stem/progenitor cells spatially distributed along bronchioles upon common molecular features and genetic alterations.
Project description:Though invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung (IMA) is pathologically distinctive, the molecular mechanism driving IMA is not well understood, which hampers efforts to identify therapeutic targets. Here, by analyzing gene expression profiles of human and mouse IMA, we identified a Mucinous Lung Tumor Signature of 143 genes, which was unexpectedly enriched in mucin-producing gastrointestinal, pancreatic, and breast cancers. The signature genes included transcription factors FOXA3, SPDEF, HNF4A, mucins MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC3, and an inhibitory immune checkpoint VTCN1/B7-H4 (but not PD-L1/B7-H1). Importantly, induction of FOXA3 or SPDEF along with mutant KRAS in lung epithelium was sufficient to develop benign or malignant mucinous lung tumors, respectively, in transgenic mice. FOXA3 and SPDEF induced MUC5AC and MUC5B, while HNF4A induced MUC3 in human mucinous lung cancer cells harboring a KRAS mutation. ChIP-seq combined with CRISPR/Cas9 determined that upstream enhancer regions of the mucin genes MUC5AC and MUC5B, which were bound by SPDEF, were required for the expression of the mucin genes. Here, we report the molecular signature and gene regulatory network driving mucinous lung tumors.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) of the lung is a rare and distinct subtype of adenocarcinoma. At present, people have no idea whether IMA patients can benefit from immunotherapy and target therapy; thus there is an urgent need to clarify the immune microenvironment and genetic characteristics of this cohort.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 31 IMA patients matched with 27 non-mucinous adenocarcinoma (non-IMA) patients were enrolled in this study, and clinical data was collected. The expression of PD-L1, CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and ALK was determined by immunohistochemistry. Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to determine the mutations of EGFR. The Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to explore the correlations between these clinicopathological variables, survival and identify risk factors.<h4>Results</h4>Of the patients with IMA 9.7% (3/31) revealed positive PD-L1 expression and 35.5% (11/31) showed CD8+ TIL infiltration, which were markedly lower than that of non-IMA group [PD-L1: 48.1% (13/27); CD8: 81.5% (22/27)]. Moreover, five (16.1%) patients in IMA group and 10 (37.0%) patients in non-IMA group had EGFR mutations, and nine (29.0%) patients in IMA group and zero (0.0%) patient in non-IMA group had ALK rearrangements. Additionally, we observed that IMA patients with CD8+ TIL infiltration had a worse prognosis than CD8-negative group (P = 0.024). Multivariate analyses showed that CD8 was an independent prognostic factor for patient's survival (HR = 5.60, 95% CI: 1.35-23.22, P = 0.017).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Patients with IMA have down-regulated expression of PD-L1 and less CD8+ TIL infiltration in tumor microenvironment. Besides, a lower frequency of EGFR mutations was detected in patients with IMA than non-IMA patients while a higher rate of ALK rearrangements was found. Our results provide important reference for therapy of lung IMA.
Project description:In order to identify genes that are highly expressed in human IMA, we performed mRNA-seq analysis using RNAs extracted from 6 human invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung (IMA) and adjacent normal lung tissues and determined genes differentially expressed in human IMA. Overall design: RNA samples from invasive mucinous adnocarcinoma of the lung and adjacent normal lung tissues from the 6 patients were obtained, sequenced, and compared.
Project description:Germline pathogenic variants in the ATM serine/threonine kinase (ATM) gene are associated with an increased risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. It is important to identify germline ATM pathogenic variants in pancreatic cancer patients because these alterations are potentially targetable with chemotherapeutic drugs and/or radiation and have implications for other family members. As germline pathogenic variants in other genes have been associated with distinct histologic subtypes of pancreatic cancer, we studied the histomorphology of pancreatic cancer in 23 patients with germline ATM pathogenic variants. The histologic subtype was ductal adenocarcinoma in 19/23 (83%) of the patients, adenosquamous carcinoma in 1/23 (4%), and colloid (mucinous non-cystic) carcinoma in 3/23 (13%). The percentage of colloid (mucinous non-cystic) carcinomas is higher than we have previously observed in patients with familial and sporadic pancreatic cancer (1 and 2% in prior reports, p?<?0.01 and p?<?0.01, respectively). Three carcinomas (2 colloid carcinomas, 1 ductal adenocarcinoma) arose in association with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. Among the resected pancreata, non-invasive precursor lesions, including pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and incipient intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, were identified in 83%. We conclude that pancreatic cancers in patients with germline ATM pathogenic variants are more frequently of colloid (mucinous non-cystic) morphology but are overall morphologically diverse supporting the utility of universal germline genetic testing for patients with pancreatic cancer.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) of the lung is a distinct histological subtype with unique clinical and pathological features. Despite previous genomic studies on lung IMA, the genetic characteristics and the prognosis-related biomarkers in Chinese surgically resected lung IMA remain unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>We collected 76 surgically resected primary tumors of invasive lung adenocarcinoma, including 51 IMA and 25 non-mucinous adenocarcinomas (non-IMA). IMA was further divided into pure-IMA (mucinous features?90%) and mixed-IMA subgroups. Comprehensive genomic profiling based on targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 425 genes was explored and genomic characteristics were evaluated for the correlation with postoperative disease-free survival (DFS).<h4>Results</h4>IMA had a unique genetic profile, with more diverse driver mutations and more tumor drivers/suppressors co-occurrence than that of non-IMA. The frequency of <i>EGFR</i> (72.0% vs. 40.0% vs. 23.1%, p=0.002) and <i>ALK</i> (undetected vs. 20.0% vs. 26.9%, p=0.015) alterations showed a trend of gradual decrease and increase from non-IMA to mixed-IMA to pure-IMA, respectively. The frequency of <i>KRAS</i> mutations in pure-IMA was higher than that in mixed-IMA, albeit statistically insignificant (23.1% vs. 4.0%, p=0.10). <i>TP53</i> mutation was significantly less in pure-IMA compared to mixed-IMA and non-IMA (23.1% vs. 52.0% vs. 56.0%, p=0.03). Besides, IMA exhibited less arm-level amplifications (p=0.04) and more arm-level deletions (p=0.004) than non-IMA, and the frequency of amplification and deletion also showed a trend of gradual decrease and increase from non-IMA to mixed-IMA to pure-IMA, respectively. Furthermore, prognosis analysis in stage III IMA patients showed that patients harboring alterations in <i>EGFR</i> (mDFS=30.3 vs. 16.0 months, HR=0.19, P=0.027) and PI3K pathway (mDFS=36.0 vs. 16.0 months, HR=0.12, P=0.023) achieved prolonged DFS, while patients with poorly differentiated tumors (mDFS=14.1 vs. 28.0 months, HR=3.75, p=0.037) or with <i>KRAS</i> mutations (mDFS=13.0 vs. 20.0 months, HR=6.95, p=0.027) had shorter DFS. Multivariate analysis showed that <i>KRAS</i> mutations, PI3K pathway alterations, and tumor differentiation status were independent factors that have statistically significant influences on clinical outcomes of IMA patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our study provided genomic insights into Chinese surgically resected lung IMA. We also identified several genomic features that may serve as potential biomarkers on postoperative recurrence in IMA patients with stage III disease.
Project description:NRG1 fusions were recently reported as a new molecular feature of Invasive Mucinous Adenocarcinoma (IMA) of the lung. The NRG1 chimeric ligand acts as a strong inductor of phosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity of the ErbB2/ErbB3 heterodimer, thus enhancing the PI3K-AKT/MAPK pathways. The NRG1 fusions were widely investigated in Asian IMA cohorts, whereas just anecdotal information are available about the occurrence of NRG1 fusions in IMA Caucasian population. Here we firstly explored a large Caucasian cohort of 51 IMAs and 34 non-IMA cases for the occurrence of NRG1 rearrangements by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and RNA target sequencing. FISH results were correlated to the immunohistochemical expression of phosphorylated-ErbB3 (pErbB3) receptor and the mutational status of KRAS, EGFR and ALK genes. The NRG1 rearrangements were detected in 31% IMAs and 3% non-IMAs and the CD74-NRG1 fusion transcript variant was characterized in 4 NRG1-positive IMAs. Moreover, pErbB3 expression was found to be strictly associated to the mucinous pattern (p = 0.012, Chi-square test) and all IMA cases showing aberrant expression of pErbB3 demonstrated NRG1 rearrangements. No significant correlation between NRG1 rearrangements and EGFR, KRAS or ALK mutations respectively, was observed. We report for the first time that NRG1 fusions are driver alterations clearly associated with mucinous lung adenocarcinoma subtype of Caucasian patients and not exclusive of Asiatic population. pErbB3 immunostaining may represent a strong predictor of NRG1 fusions, pointing out the detection of pErbB3 by IHC as a rapid and effective pre-screening method to select the NRG1-positive patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the efficacy of the morphologic-metabolic (M-M) dissociation sign based on computed tomography (CT) and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in discriminating invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) from invasive non-mucinous adenocarcinomas (ADCs) of the lung. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study. Among surgically resected solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN)-type ADCs (< 3 cm in diameter), 35 patients with IMAs and 329 with invasive non-mucinous ADCs were included. Morphologic malignancy was established if the tumor with lobulated or spiculated margin on CT presented a tumor shadow disappearance rate of < 0.5. The M-M dissociation sign was determined when a malignant-morphologic nodule on CT showed maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) < 3.5 on PET/CT. RESULTS:Among 35 IMAs (size: 21 ± 7 mm, SUVmax: 1.8 ± 2.0) and 329 invasive non-mucinous ADCs (size: 21 ± 6 mm, SUVmax: 4.6 ± 4.2), the M-M dissociation sign was observed in 54% of IMAs (19/35) and 10% of invasive non-mucinous ADCs (34/329) (p < 0.001). The diagnostic performance of the sign in discriminating IMA from invasive non-mucinous ADCs showed a sensitivity of 54.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36.7-71.2), specificity 89.7% (95% CI, 85.9-92.7), positive predictive value 35.8% (95% CI, 26.5-46.5), and negative predictive value 94.9% (95% CI, 92.8-96.4). Multivariate analyses revealed metabolic benignity (odds ratio [OR] 2.99; 95% CI, 1.01-8.93; p = 0.047) and M-M dissociation sign (OR 6.35; 95% CI, 2.76-14.62; p < 0.001) to be significant predictors of SPN-type IMAs. CONCLUSION:Identification of the absence of M-M dissociation sign is an accurate indicator for excluding IMA from SPN-type lung ADCs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) displays a typical mucin expression pattern which is characterized by MUC1 positive, MUC2 negative, and MUC5AC positive. More and more evidences show that mucins are involved in the development of pancreatic diseases. However, the relationship between mucin expression and prognosis of PDAC patients has been controversial in the past decades; therefore, we aim to figure out the association of mucin expression with survival in PDAC patients who underwent radical resection. <h4>Methods</h4> We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect the expression of MUC1, MUC2, and MUC5AC in resected PDAC specimens from Shanghai Cancer Center, Fudan University (FUSCC, n = 427) and obtained the corresponding clinical statistical data for retrospective study. Kaplan-Meier methods and Mantel-Cox tests were used to compare the survival curves, and the Cox regression model was employed for multivariate analyses to determine the independent risk factors. Survival analysis was also performed in the Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics (QCMG, n = 70) PDAC cohort to verify the conclusion. <h4>Results</h4> Both the FUSCC cohort and the QCMG cohort demonstrated that MUC1 absence was significantly correlated with worse overall survival (OS). The presence of MUC2 showed marginal significance in predicting shorter OS of PDAC patients, while MUC5AC had no prognostic value. In the FUSCC cohort, MUC1 absence was associated with increased proportion of stage III PDAC (p = 0.011), and MUC1 absence and MUC2 presence were associated with tumour perineural aggression (p = 0.011 and p = 0.030, respectively). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality of MUC1 and MUC2 were 0.492 (95% CI: 0.274-0.883, p = 0.017) and 1.596 (95% CI: 1.061-2.401, p = 0.025), respectively. <h4>Conclusions</h4> MUC1 absence or MUC2 presence is independently associated with poor OS among patients with resectable PDAC. MUC5AC absence tended to be associated with short-term death.
Project description:Many theories mention hypersensitive, promiscuous, outlaw or bypass signalling pathways to explain the acquisition of hormone independence in prostate cancer. Hormonal escape of prostate tumours is marked by many biological changes, including mucinous and neuroendocrine differentiation. Since expression of several mucins has been linked to carcinoma tumour progression, we have characterised the expression of mucins at both RNA and protein levels in an in vivo model of prostate cancer in hormonal escape. Using PAC120, a xenograft of a human hormone-dependent prostate tumour, and its hormone-independent variants, we analysed the expression of mucins (MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6) by immunohistochemistry or reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. While the parental PAC120 tumour was a compact poorly-differentiated tumour of Gleason score 9 (5+4), hormone-independent variants displayed mucinous, neuroendocrine-like or mixed histological changes; these changes were stable through serial transplantations or after testosterone supply. MUC1 mRNA was expressed in both PAC120 and the hormone-independent variants, although at variable levels. All tumours displayed a high and constant expression of MUC2 and no expression of MUC4 mRNA. While MUC1 was expressed in all xenografts whatever their hormone dependence status, MUC2, MUC5B and MUC6 were preferentially expressed in hormone-independent variants. The loss of hormone dependence in this prostate cancer xenograft model is therefore marked by irreversible histological alterations, mucinous or neuro-endocrine, associated with an expression of secretory MUC2, MUC5B and MUC6, independent of the histological differentiation subtype. These data point to mucinous differentiation as an important step in the acquisition of hormone independence in this cancer, and suggest that secretory mucins might participate in an unknown pathway of hormonal escape in prostate cancer.
Project description:Growing evidence supports that LKB1-deficient KRAS-driven lung tumor represents a unique therapeutic challenge, displaying strong cancer plasticity which promotes lineage conversion and drug resistance. Here we find that murine lung tumors from KrasLSL-G12D/+; Lkb1flox/flox (KL) model show strong plasticity which links to up-regulation of stem cell pluripotency genes such as Nanog. Deletion of Nanog in KL model initiates gastric differentiation program and promotes mucinous lung tumor growth. We find that NANOG is not expressed at a meaningful level in human lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) as well as human lung invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA). The gastric differentiation involves the activation of Notch signaling and perturbation of Notch pathway by the ?-secretase inhibitor LY-411575 remarkably impairs mucinous tumor formation. In contrast to non-mucinous tumors, these mucinous tumors are resistant to phenformin treatment. Such therapeutic resistance could be overcome through combined treatments with LY-411575 and phenformin. Overall, we uncover a previously unappreciated plasticity of LKB1-deficient tumors and identify the Nanog-Notch axis in regulating gastric differentiation, which holds important therapeutic implication against mucinous lung cancer.