Single haplotype analysis demonstrates rapid evolution of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) loci in primates.
ABSTRACT: The human killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are encoded within the Leukocyte Receptor Complex (LRC) on chromosome 19q13.4. Here we report the comparative genomic analysis of single KIR haplotypes in two other primates. In the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), seven KIR genes (ptKIRnewI, ptKIRnewII, ptKIR2DL5, ptKIRnewIII, ptKIR3DP1, ptKIR2DL4, ptKIR3DL1/2) have been identified, and five KIR genes (mmKIRnewI, mmKIR1D, mmKIR2DL4, mmKIR3DL10, mmKIR3DL1) are present in the haplotype sequenced for the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Additional cDNA analysis confirms the genes predicted from the genomic sequence and reveals the presence of a fifth novel KIR gene (mmKIRnewII) in the second haplotype of the rhesus macaque. While all known human haplotypes contain both activating and inhibitory KIR genes, only inhibitory KIR genes (characterized by long cytoplasmic tails) were found by in silico and cDNA analyses in the two primate haplotypes studied here. Comparison of the two human and the two non-human primate haplotypes demonstrates rapid diversification of the KIR gene family members, many of which have diverged in a species-specific manner. An analysis of the intronic regions of the two non-human primates reveals the presence of ancient repeat elements, which are indicative of the duplication events that have taken place since the last common ancestor.
Project description:Killer Ig-like receptors (KIRs) are implicated in protection from multiple pathogens including HIV, human papillomavirus, and malaria. Nonhuman primates such as rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are important models for the study of human pathogens; however, KIR genetics in nonhuman primates are poorly defined. Understanding KIR allelic diversity and genomic organization are essential prerequisites to evaluate NK cell responses in macaques. In this study, we present a complete characterization of KIRs in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques, a geographically isolated population. In this study we demonstrate that only eight KIR haplotypes are present in the entire population and characterize the gene content of each. Using the simplified genetics of this population, we construct a model for macaque KIR genomic organization, defining four putative KIR3DL loci, one KIR3DH, two KIR2DL, and one KIR1D. We further demonstrate that loci defined in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques can be applied to rhesus macaques. The findings from this study fundamentally advance our understanding of KIR genetics in nonhuman primates and establish a foundation from which to study KIR signaling in disease pathogenesis.
Project description:Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) modulate disease progression of pathogens including HIV, malaria, and hepatitis C. Cynomolgus and rhesus macaques are widely used as nonhuman primate models to study human pathogens, and so, considerable effort has been put into characterizing their KIR genetics. However, previous studies have relied on cDNA cloning and Sanger sequencing that lack the throughput of current sequencing platforms. In this study, we present a high throughput, full-length allele discovery method utilizing Pacific Biosciences circular consensus sequencing (CCS). We also describe a new approach to Macaque Exome Sequencing (MES) and the development of the Rhexome1.0, an adapted target capture reagent that includes macaque-specific capture probe sets. By using sequence reads generated by whole genome sequencing (WGS) and MES to inform primer design, we were able to increase the sensitivity of KIR allele discovery. We demonstrate this increased sensitivity by defining nine novel alleles within a cohort of Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCM), a geographically isolated population with restricted KIR genetics that was thought to be completely characterized. Finally, we describe an approach to genotyping KIRs directly from sequence reads generated using WGS/MES reads. The findings presented here expand our understanding of KIR genetics in MCM by associating new genes with all eight KIR haplotypes and demonstrating the existence of at least one KIR3DS gene associated with every haplotype.
Project description:Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) are essential immuno-surveillance molecules. They are expressed on natural killer and T cells, and interact with human leukocyte antigens. KIR genes are highly polymorphic and contribute vital variability to our immune system. Numerous KIR genes, belonging to five distinct lineages, have been identified in all primates examined thus far and shown to be rapidly evolving. Since few KIR remain orthologous between species, with only one of them, KIR2DL4, shown to be common to human, apes and monkeys, the evolution of the KIR gene family in primates remains unclear.Using comparative analyses, we have identified the ancestral KIR lineage (provisionally named KIR3DL0) in primates. We show KIR3DL0 to be highly conserved with the identification of orthologues in human (Homo sapiens), common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) and common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). We predict KIR3DL0 to encode a functional molecule in all primates by demonstrating expression in human, chimpanzee and rhesus monkey. Using the rhesus monkey as a model, we further show the expression profile to be typical of KIR by quantitative measurement of KIR3DL0 from an enriched population of natural killer cells.One reason why KIR3DL0 may have escaped discovery for so long is that, in human, it maps in between two related leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor clusters outside the known KIR gene cluster on Chromosome 19. Based on genomic, cDNA, expression and phylogenetic data, we report a novel lineage of immunoglobulin receptors belonging to the KIR family, which is highly conserved throughout 50 million years of primate evolution.
Project description:The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is comprised of the class I, class II, and class III regions, including the MHC class I and class II genes that play a primary role in the immune response and serve as an important model in studies of primate evolution. Although nonhuman primates contribute significantly to comparative human studies, relatively little is known about the genetic diversity and genomics underlying nonhuman primate immunity. To address this issue, we sequenced a complete rhesus macaque MHC spanning over 5.3 Mb, and obtained an additional 2.3 Mb from a second haplotype, including class II and portions of class I and class III. A major expansion of from six class I genes in humans to as many as 22 active MHC class I genes in rhesus and levels of sequence divergence some 10-fold higher than a similar human comparison were found, averaging from 2% to 6% throughout extended portions of class I and class II. These data pose new interpretations of the evolutionary constraints operating between MHC diversity and T-cell selection by contrasting with models predicting an optimal number of antigen presenting genes. For the clinical model, these data and derivative genetic tools can be implemented in ongoing genetic and disease studies that involve the rhesus macaque.
Project description:Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) represent a highly polymorphic and diverse gene family in rhesus macaques. Analyses of the respective gene products have been hampered until now due to non-availability of specific monoclonal antibodies and failure of cross-reactivity of anti-human KIR antibodies. We utilised one activating (KIR3DSW08) and two inhibitory (KIR3DLW03 and KIR3DL05) rhesus macaque KIR-Fc fusion proteins for generation of monoclonal antibodies in mice. Besides broadly reacting ones, we obtained anti-rhesus macaque KIR antibodies with intermediate and with single specificity. These monoclonal antibodies were tested for binding to a panel of rhesus macaque KIR proteins after heterologous expression on transiently transfected cells. Epitope mapping identified two polymorphic regions that are located next to each other in the mature KIR proteins. The availability of monoclonal antibodies against rhesus macaque KIR proteins will enable future studies on KIR at the protein level in rhesus macaques as important animal models of human infectious diseases.
Project description:Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are encoded by one of the most polymorphic families in the human genome. KIRs are expressed on natural killer (NK) cells, which have dual roles: (1) in fighting infection and (2) in reproduction, regulating hemochorial placentation. Uniquely among primates, human KIR genes are arranged into two haplotypic combinations: KIR A and KIR B. It has been proposed that KIR A is specialized to fight infection, whilst KIR B evolved to help ensure successful reproduction. Here we demonstrate that a combination of infectious disease selection and reproductive selection can drive the evolution of KIR B-like haplotypes from a KIR A-like founder haplotype. Continued selection to survive and to reproduce maintains a balance between KIR A and KIR B.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In addition to genome sequencing, accurate functional annotation of genomes is required in order to carry out comparative and evolutionary analyses between species. Among primates, the human genome is the most extensively annotated. Human miRNA gene annotation is based on multiple lines of evidence including evidence for expression as well as prediction of the characteristic hairpin structure. In contrast, most miRNA genes in non-human primates are annotated based on homology without any expression evidence. We have sequenced small-RNA libraries from chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan and rhesus macaque from multiple individuals and tissues. Using patterns of miRNA expression in conjunction with a model of miRNA biogenesis we used these high-throughput sequencing data to identify novel miRNAs in non-human primates. RESULTS: We predicted 47 new miRNAs in chimpanzee, 240 in gorilla, 55 in orangutan and 47 in rhesus macaque. The algorithm we used was able to predict 64% of the previously known miRNAs in chimpanzee, 94% in gorilla, 61% in orangutan and 71% in rhesus macaque. We therefore added evidence for expression in between one and five tissues to miRNAs that were previously annotated based only on homology to human miRNAs. We increased from 60 to 175 the number miRNAs that are located in orthologous regions in humans and the four non-human primate species studied here. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we provide expression evidence for homology-based annotated miRNAs and predict de novo miRNAs in four non-human primate species. We increased the number of annotated miRNA genes and provided evidence for their expression in four non-human primates. Similar approaches using different individuals and tissues would improve annotation in non-human primates and allow for further comparative studies in the future.
Project description:It has been a widely accepted hypothesis that the molecular clock slows down during evolution of higher primates. By molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence comparison of a rhesus macaque alpha-globin gene to its homologs in man, orangutan, olive baboon, and other mammals, we demonstrate a burst of evolution of the baboon alpha-globin gene since its separation from the rhesus macaque. This mutation burst has occurred only at the nonsynonymous sites but not the synonymous sites. Its magnitude is at least 10-fold higher than the synonymous substitution rates in higher primates and as high as the synonymous substitution rates of the rodent lineage. On the contrary, the rate of synonymous site substitutions in the alpha-globin genes of either the rhesus macaque or the olive baboon is several times slower than that of human. Our data demonstrate an anomalous exception to the slow rates of molecular evolution in higher primates and provide strong evidence for a recently accelerated evolution of a primate globin gene under an as yet unknown selective force(s).
Project description:In this study, we aim to establish the means to characterize macaque natural killer (NK) cells, and to investigate whether the CD27/CD11b NK maturation model proposed in human and murine models is applicable to Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus macaque) NK cells. The NK development studies performed in mice models have demonstrated four functionally distinct subsets defined by CD27 and CD11b, however this has not yet been established in nonhuman primates. The expression data of these macaque NK subsets will be associated with the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and missing-self responses produce by each subset. Overall design: Unstimulated NK cell subsets were profiled for gene expression after 10-colour flow cytometry cell sorting, based on CD27 and CD11b surface expression. The expression profile of selected mafa-KIR genes based on published cynomolgus macaque KIR haplotypes will be studied for a subset of cynomolgus macaque NK cells using this customized microarray.
Project description:To further refine and improve biomedical research in rhesus macaques, it is necessary to increase our knowledge concerning both the degree of allelic variation (polymorphism) and diversity (gene copy number variation) in the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene cluster. Pedigreed animals in particular should be studied, as segregation data will provide clues to the linkage of particular KIR genes/alleles segregating on a haplotype and to its gene content as well. A dual strategy allowed us to screen the presence and absence of genes and the corresponding transcripts, as well as to track differences in transcription levels. On the basis of this approach, 14 diverse KIR haplotypes have been described. These haplotypes consist of multiple inhibitory and activating Mamu-KIR genes, and any gene present on one haplotype may be absent on another. This suggests that the cost of accelerated evolution by recombination may be the loss of certain framework genes on a haplotype.