Genome-wide analysis of gynecologic cancer: The Cancer Genome Atlas in ovarian and endometrial cancer.
ABSTRACT: Cancer typically develops due to genetic abnormalities, but a single gene abnormality cannot completely account for the onset of cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (CGA) project was conducted for the cross-sectional genome-wide analysis of numerous genetic abnormalities in various types of cancer. This approach has facilitated the identification of novel AT-rich interaction domain 1A gene mutations in ovarian clear cell carcinoma, frequent tumor protein 53 (TP53) gene mutations in high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma, and Kirsten rat sarcoma and B-rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase gene mutations in low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. Genome-wide analysis of endometrial cancers has led to the establishment of four subgroups: Polymerase ultramutated, microsatellite instability hypermutated, genome copy-number low and genome copy-number high. These results may facilitate the improvement of the prediction of patient prognosis and therapeutic sensitivity in various types of gynecologic cancer. The enhanced use of currently available therapeutic agents and the development of novel drugs may be facilitated by the novel classification of ovarian cancer based on TP53 mutations, the efficacy of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors for tumors with breast cancer 1/2 mutations and the effect of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors for tumors with mutations in the PI3K/protein kinase B signaling pathway. Important results have been revealed by genome-wide analyses; however, the pathogenic underlying mechanisms of gynecologic cancer will require further studies and multilateral evaluation using epigenetic, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses, in addition to genomic analysis.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Pap tests hold promise as a molecular diagnostic for serous ovarian cancer, but previous studies reported limited sensitivity. Furthermore, the presence of somatic mutations in normal tissue is increasingly recognized as a challenge to the specificity of mutation-based cancer diagnostics. We applied an ultra-deep sequencing method with the goal of improving sensitivity and characterizing the landscape of low-frequency somatic TP53 mutations in Pap tests.<h4>Methods</h4>We used CRISPR-DS to deeply sequence (mean Duplex depth ~3000×) the TP53 gene in 30 Pap tests from 21 women without cancer and 9 women with serous ovarian carcinoma with known TP53 driver mutations. Mutations were annotated and compared to those in the TP53 cancer database.<h4>Results</h4>The tumor-derived mutation was identified in 3 of 8 Pap tests from women with ovarian cancer and intact tubes. In addition, 221 low-frequency (?0.001) exonic TP53 mutations were identified in Pap tests from women with ovarian cancer (94 mutations) and without ovarian cancer (127 mutations). Many of these mutations resembled TP53 mutations found in cancer: they impaired protein activity, were predicted to be pathogenic, and clustered in exons 5 to 8 and hotspot codons. Cancer-like mutations were identified in all women but at higher frequency in women with ovarian cancer.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Pap tests have low sensitivity for ovarian cancer detection and carry abundant low-frequency TP53 mutations. These mutations are more frequently pathogenic in women with ovarian cancer. Determining whether low-frequency TP53 mutations in normal gynecologic tissues are associated with an increased cancer risk warrants further study.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High grade serous ovarian cancer is one of the poorly characterized malignancies. This study aimed to elucidate the mutational events in Malaysian patients with high grade serous ovarian cancer by performing targeted sequencing on 50 cancer hotspot genes. RESULTS:Nine high grade serous ovarian carcinoma samples and ten normal ovarian tissues were obtained from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC) and the Kajang Hospital. The Ion AmpliSeq™ Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 targeting "mutation-hotspot region" in 50 most common cancer-associated genes was utilized. A total of 20 variants were identified in 12 genes. Eleven (55%) were silent alterations and nine (45%) were missense mutations. Six of the nine missense mutations were predicted to be deleterious while the other three have low or neutral protein impact. Eight genes were altered in both the tumor and normal groups (APC, EGFR, FGFR3, KDR, MET, PDGFRA, RET and SMO) while four genes (TP53, PIK3CA, STK11 and KIT) were exclusively altered in the tumor group. TP53 alterations were present in all the tumors but not in the normal group. Six deleterious mutations in TP53 (p.R175H, p.H193R, p.Y220C, p.Y163C, p.R282G and p.Y234H) were identified in eight serous ovarian carcinoma samples and none in the normal group. CONCLUSION:TP53 remains as the most frequently altered gene in high grade serous ovarian cancer and Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) in combination with Ion Ampliseq™ Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 were proven to be instrumental in identifying a wide range of genetic alterations simultaneously from a minute amount of DNA. However, larger series of validation targeting more genes are necessary in order to shed a light on the molecular events underlying pathogenesis of this cancer.
Project description:Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is not recognized as part of any defined hereditary cancer syndrome, and its association with hereditary breast and ovarian carcinoma and Lynch syndrome are uncertain.Using targeted capture and massively parallel genomic sequencing, 151 subjects with USC were assessed for germline mutations in 30 tumor suppressor genes, including BRCA1 (breast cancer 1, early onset), BRCA2, the DNA mismatch repair genes (MLH1 [mutL homolog 1], MSH2 [mutS homolog 2], MSH6, PMS2 [postmeiotic segregation increased 2]), TP53 (tumor protein p53), and 10 other genes in the Fanconi anemia-BRCA pathway. Ten cases with < 10% serous histology were also assessed.Seven subjects (4.6%) carried germline loss-of-function mutations: 3 subjects (2.0%) with mutations in BRCA1, 2 subjects (1.3%) with mutations in TP53, and 2 subjects (1.3%) with mutations in CHEK2 (checkpoint kinase 2). One subject with < 10% serous histology had an MSH6 mutation. Subjects with MSH6 and TP53 mutations had neither personal nor family histories suggestive of Lynch or Li-Fraumeni syndromes. Of the 22 women with USC and a personal history of breast carcinoma, the frequency of BRCA1 mutations was 9%, compared to 0.9% in 119 women with no such history.Approximately 5% of women with USC have germline mutations in 3 different tumor suppressor genes: BRCA1, CHEK2, and TP53. Mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes that cause Lynch syndrome are rare in USC. The germline BRCA1 mutation rate in USC subjects of 2% is higher than expected in a nonfounder population, suggesting that USC is associated with hereditary breast and ovarian carcinoma in a small proportion of cases. Women with USC and breast cancer should be offered genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.
Project description:Statins are among the most frequently prescribed drugs because of their efficacy and low toxicity in treating hypercholesterolemia. Recently, statins have been reported to inhibit the proliferative activity of cancer cells, especially those with TP53 mutations. Because TP53 mutations occur in almost all ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), we determined whether statins suppressed tumor growth in animal models of ovarian cancer.Two ovarian cancer mouse models were used. The first one was a genetically engineered model, mogp-TAg, in which the promoter of oviduct glycoprotein-1 was used to drive the expression of SV40 T-antigen in gynecologic tissues. These mice spontaneously developed serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs), which are known as ovarian cancer precursor lesions. The second model was a xenograft tumor model in which human ovarian cancer cells were inoculated into immunocompromised mice. Mice in both models were treated with lovastatin, and effects on tumor growth were monitored. The molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor effects of lovastatin were also investigated.Lovastatin significantly reduced the development of STICs in mogp-TAg mice and inhibited ovarian tumor growth in the mouse xenograft model. Knockdown of prenylation enzymes in the mevalonate pathway recapitulated the lovastatin-induced antiproliferative phenotype. Transcriptome analysis indicated that lovastatin affected the expression of genes associated with DNA replication, Rho/PLC signaling, glycolysis, and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways, suggesting that statins have pleiotropic effects on tumor cells.The above results suggest that repurposing statin drugs for ovarian cancer may provide a promising strategy to prevent and manage this devastating disease.
Project description:Statins are among the most frequently prescribed drugs because of their efficacy and low toxicity in treating hypercholesterolemia. Recently, statins have been reported to inhibit the proliferative activity of cancer cells, especially those with *TP53* mutations. Since *TP53* mutations occur in almost all of the ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma, we determined if statins suppressed tumor growth in animal models of ovarian cancer. Two ovarian cancer mouse models were employed. The first one was a genetically engineered model, mogp-TAg, in which the promoter of oviduct glycoprotein-1 was used to drive the expression of SV40 T-antigen in gynecologic tissues. These mice spontaneously develop serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs), which are known as ovarian cancer precursor lesions. The second model was a xenograft tumor model in which human ovarian cancer cells were inoculated into immunocompromised mice. Mice in both models were treated with lovastatin, and effects on tumor growth were monitored. The molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor effects of lovastatin were also investigated. Lovastatin significantly reduced the development of STICs in mogp-TAg mice and inhibited ovarian tumor growth in the mouse xenograft model. Knockdown of prenylation enzymes in the mevalonate pathway recapitulated the lovastatin-induced anti-proliferative phenotype. Transcriptome analysis indicated that lovastatin affected the expression of genes associated with DNA replication, Rho/PLC signaling, glycolysis, and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways, suggesting that statins have pleiotropic effects on tumor cells. The above results suggest that repurposing statin drugs for ovarian cancer may provide a promising strategy to prevent and manage this devastating disease. SKOV3 and OVCAR5 cells were treated with either 10uM Lovastatin or DMSO for 48 hours before harvested for gene expression array.
Project description:Mucinous ovarian cancer (MOC) is a rare type of epithelial ovarian cancer resistant to standard chemotherapy regimens. We sought to characterize the repertoire of somatic mutations in MOCs and to define the contribution of massively parallel sequencing to the classification of tumors diagnosed as primary MOCs.Following gynecologic pathology and chart review, DNA samples obtained from primary MOCs and matched normal tissues/blood were subjected to whole-exome (n?=?9) or massively parallel sequencing targeting 341 cancer genes (n?=?15). Immunohistochemical analysis of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, PTEN, ARID1A/BAF250a, and the DNA mismatch (MMR) proteins MSH6 and PMS2 was performed for all cases. Mutational frequencies of MOCs were compared to those of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs) and mucinous tumors from other sites.MOCs were heterogeneous at the genetic level, frequently harboring TP53 (75%) mutations, KRAS (71%) mutations and/or CDKN2A/B homozygous deletions/mutations (33%). Although established criteria for diagnosis were employed, four cases harbored mutational and immunohistochemical profiles similar to those of endometrioid carcinomas, and one case for colorectal or endometrioid carcinoma. Significant differences in the frequencies of KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, FBXW7, PIK3CA and/or APC mutations between the confirmed primary MOCs (n?=?19) and HGSOCs, mucinous gastric and/or mucinous colorectal carcinomas were found, whereas no differences in the 341 genes studied between MOCs and mucinous pancreatic carcinomas were identified.Our findings suggest that the assessment of mutations affecting TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, ARID1A and POLE, and DNA MMR protein expression may be used to further aid the diagnosis and treatment decision-making of primary MOC.
Project description:The objective of this study is to investigate whether wild-type TP53 status in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma is associated with poorer survival.Clinical and genomic data of 316 sequenced samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma study were downloaded from TCGA data portal. Association between wild-type TP53 and survival was analyzed with Kaplan Meier method and Cox regression. The diagnosis of high-grade serous carcinomas was evaluated by reviewing pathological reports and high-resolution hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) images from frozen sections. The authenticity of wild-type TP53 in these tumor samples was assessed by analyzing SNP array data with ASCAT algorithm, reverse phase protein array (RPPA) data and RNAseq data.Fifteen patients with high grade serous ovarian carcinomas were identified to have wild-type TP53, which had significantly shorter survival and higher chemoresistance than those with mutated TP53. The authenticity of wild-type TP53 status in these fifteen patients was supported by SNP array, RPPA, and RNAseq data. Except four cases with mixed histology, the classification as high grade serous carcinomas was supported by pathological reports and H&E images. Using RNAseq data, it was found that EDA2R gene, a direct target of wild-type TP53, was highly up-regulated in samples with wild-type TP53 in comparison to samples with either nonsense or missense TP53 mutations.Although patients with wild-type TP53 ovarian cancer were rare in the TCGA high grade ovarian serous carcinomas cohort, these patients appeared to have a poorer survival and were more chemoresistant than those with mutated TP53. Differentially expressed genes in these TP53 wild-type tumors may provide insight in the molecular mechanism in chemotherapy resistance.
Project description:Circulating cell-free tumor DNA (cfDNA) is the DNA released by apoptotic and necrotic cells of the primary tumor into the blood during the period of tumor development. The cfDNA reflects the genetic and epigenetic alterations of the original tumor. TP53 mutations are a defining feature of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. We optimized the methods for detecting TP53 mutations in cfDNA from blood samples. We confirmed the correlation of TP53 mutation in primary ovarian cancer tissue and it in cfDNA using digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR).We found 12 frequent mutation sites in TP53 using The Cancer Genome Atlas and Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer data and manufactured 12 primers. The mutations in tissues were evaluated in fresh-frozen tissue (FFT) and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET). We performed a prospective analysis of serial plasma samples collected from 4 patients before debulking surgery. We extracted cfDNA and calculated its concentration in blood. dPCR was used to analyze TP53 mutations in cfDNA, and we compared TP53 mutations in ovarian cancer tissue with those in cfDNA.Ten primers out of 12 detected the presence of TP53 mutations in FFT, FFPET, and cfDNA. In FFT and FFPET tissue, there were no significant differences. The average cfDNA concentration was 2.12±0.59 ng/mL. We also confirmed that mutations of cfDNA and those of FFT were all in R282W site.This study developed detection methods for TP53 mutations in cfDNA in ovarian cancer patients using dPCR. The results demonstrated that there are the same TP53 mutations in both ovarian cancer tissue and cfDNA.
Project description:Numerous studies have tested the association between TP53 mutations in ovarian cancer and prognosis but these have been consistently confounded by limitations in study design, methodology, and/or heterogeneity in the sample cohort. High-grade serous (HGS) carcinoma is the most clinically important histological subtype of ovarian cancer. As these tumours may arise from the ovary, Fallopian tube or peritoneum, they are collectively referred to as high-grade pelvic serous carcinoma (HGPSC). To identify the true prevalence of TP53 mutations in HGPSC, we sequenced exons 2-11 and intron-exon boundaries in tumour DNA from 145 patients. HGPSC cases were defined as having histological grade 2 or 3 and FIGO stage III or IV. Surprisingly, pathogenic TP53 mutations were identified in 96.7% (n = 119/123) of HGPSC cases. Molecular and pathological review of mutation-negative cases showed evidence of p53 dysfunction associated with copy number gain of MDM2 or MDM4, or indicated the exclusion of samples as being low-grade serous tumours or carcinoma of uncertain primary site. Overall, p53 dysfunction rate approached 100% of confirmed HGPSCs. No association between TP53 mutation and progression-free or overall survival was found. From this first comprehensive mapping of TP53 mutation rate in a homogeneous group of HGPSC patients, we conclude that mutant TP53 is a driver mutation in the pathogenesis of HGPSC cancers. Because TP53 mutation is almost invariably present in HGPSC, it is not of substantial prognostic or predictive significance.
Project description:Ovarian serous carcinoma, the most common and lethal type of ovarian cancer, is thought to develop from two distinct molecular pathways. High-grade (HG) serous carcinomas contain frequent TP53 mutations, whereas low-grade (LG) carcinomas arise from serous borderline tumors (SBT) and harbor mutations in KRAS/BRAF/ERBB2 pathway. However, the molecular alterations involved in the progression from SBT to LG carcinoma remain unknown. In addition, the extent of deletion of tumor suppressors in ovarian serous carcinomas has not been well studied. To further address these two issues, we assessed DNA copy number changes among affinity-purified tumor cells from 37 ovarian serous neoplasms including SBT, LG, and HG tumors using high-density 250K single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Chromosomal instability index as measured by changes in DNA copy number was significantly higher in HG than in LG serous carcinomas. Hemizygous ch1p36 deletion was common in LG serous carcinomas but was rarely seen in SBT. This region contains several candidate tumor suppressors including miR-34a. In contrast, in HG serous carcinomas, significant numbers of amplifications and deletions, including homozygous deletions, were identified. Among homozygous deletions, loci containing Rb1, CDKN2A/B, CSMD1, and DOCK4 were most common, being present in 10.6%, 6.4%, 6.4%, and 4.3%, respectively, in independent 47 affinity-purified HG serous carcinomas. Except for the CDKN2A/B region, these homozygous deletions were not present in either SBT or LG tumors. Our study provides a genome-wide homozygous deletion profile in HG serous carcinomas, which can serve as a molecular foundation to study tumor suppressors in ovarian cancer.