Trichoderma reesei xylanase 5 is defective in the reference strain QM6a but functional alleles are present in other wild-type strains.
ABSTRACT: Trichoderma reesei is a paradigm for the regulation and industrial production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. Among these, five xylanases, including the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11 XYN1 and XYN2, the GH10 XYN3, and the GH30 XYN4 and XYN6, were described. By genome mining and transcriptome analysis, a further putative xylanase, encoded by xyn5, was identified. Analysis of xyn5 from the genome-sequenced reference strain T. reesei QM6a shows that it encodes a non-functional, truncated form of XYN5. However, non-truncated orthologues are present in other genome sequenced Trichoderma spp., and sequencing of xyn5 in other T. reesei wild-type isolates shows that they harbor a putative functional xyn5 allele. In silico analysis and 3D modeling revealed that the encoded XYN5 has significant structural similarities to xylanases of the GH11 family, including a GH-typical substrate binding groove and a carboxylate pair in the active site. The xyn5 of wild-type strain TUCIM1282 was recombinantly expressed in a T. reesei strain with a (hemi)cellulase-free background and the corresponding protein purified to apparent homogeneity. The pH and temperature optima and the kinetic parameters of the purified XYN5 were pH 4, 50 °C, and V max = 2646 nkat/mg with a K m of 9.68 mg/ml. This functional xyn5 allele was used to replace the mutated version which led to an overall increase of the xylanolytic activity. These findings are of particular importance as GH11 xylanases are of high biotechnological relevance, and T. reesei is one of the main industrial producers of such lignocellulose-degrading enzymes.
Project description:The ascomycete Trichoderma reesei is a paradigm for the regulation and production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, including xylanases. Four xylanases, including XYN1 and XYN2 of glycosyl hydrolase family 11 (GH11), the GH10 XYN3, and the GH30 XYN4, were already described. By genome mining, we identified a fifth xylanase, XYN5, belonging to GH11. Transcriptional analysis reveals that the expression of all xylanases but xyn3 is induced by D-xylose, dependent on the cellulase and xylanase regulator XYR1 and negatively regulated by the carbon catabolite repressor CRE1. Impairment of D-xylose catabolism at the D-xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase step strongly enhanced induction by D-xylose. Knockout of the L-xylulose reductase-encoding gene lxr3, which connects the D-xylose and L-arabinose catabolic pathways, had no effect on xylanase induction. Besides the induction by D-xylose, the T. reesei xylanases were also induced by L-arabinose, and this induction was also enhanced in knockout mutants in L-arabinose reductase (xyl1), L-arabitol dehydrogenase (lad1), and L-xylulose reductase (lxr3). Induction by L-arabinose was also XYR1 dependent. Analysis of intracellular polyols revealed accumulation of xylitol in all strains only during incubation with D-xylose and accumulation of L-arabitol only during incubation with L-arabinose. Induction by L-arabinose could be further stimulated by addition of D-xylose. We conclude that the expression of the T. reesei xylanases can be induced by both D-xylose and L-arabinose, but independently of each other and by using different inducing metabolites.
Project description:The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is widely utilized in industry for cellulase production, but its xylanase activity must be improved to enhance the accessibility of lignocellulose to cellulases. Several transcription factors play important roles in this progress; however, nearly all the reported transcription factors typically target both cellulase and hemi-cellulase genes. Specific xylanase transcription factor would be useful to regulate xylanase activity directly.In this study, a novel zinc binuclear cluster transcription factor (jgi|Trire2|123881) was found to repress xylanase activity, but not cellulase activity, and was designated as SxlR (specialized xylanase regulator). Further investigations using real-time PCR and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that SxlR might bind the promoters of GH11 xylanase genes (xyn1, xyn2, and xyn5), but not those of GH10 (xyn3) and GH30 (xyn4) xylanase genes, and thus regulate their transcription and expression directly. We also identified the binding consensus sequence of SxlR as 5'- CATCSGSWCWMSA-3'. The deletion of SxlR in T. reesei RUT-C30 to generate the mutant ?sxlr strain resulted in higher xylanase activity as well as higher hydrolytic efficiency on pretreated rice straw.Our study characterizes a novel specific transcriptional repressor of GH11 xylanase genes, which adds to our understanding of the regulatory system for the synthesis and secretion of cellulase and hemi-cellulase in T. reesei. The deletion of SxlR may also help to improve the hydrolytic efficiency of T. reesei for lignocellulose degradation by increasing the xylanase-to-cellulase ratio.
Project description:Xylanases isolated from microorganisms such as the Trichoderma reesei have attracted considerable research interest because of their potential in various industrial applications. However, naturally isolated xylanases cannot withstand harsh conditions such as high temperature and basic pH. In this study, we performed structural analysis of the major T. reesei xylanase (Xyn2), and novel flexible regions of the enzyme were identified based on B-factor, a molecular dynamics (MD) parameter. To improve thermostability of the Xyn2, disulfide bonds were introduced into the unstable flexible region by using site-directed mutagenesis and two recombinant xylanases, XM1 (Xyn2Cys12-52) and XM2 (Xyn2Cys59-149) were successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. Secreted recombinant Xyn2 was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 24 kDa. Interestingly, the half-lives of XM1 and XM2 at 60°C were 2.5- and 1.8- fold higher, respectively than those of native Xyn2. The XM1 also exhibited improved pH stability and maintained more than 60% activity over pH values ranging from 2.0 to 10.0. However, the specific activity and catalytic efficiency of XM1 was decreased as compared to those of XM2 and native Xyn2. Our results will assist not only in elucidating of the interactions between protein structure and function, but also in rational target selection for improving the thermostability of enzymes.
Project description:Paenibacillus sp. W-61 is capable of utilizing water-insoluble xylan for carbon and energy sources and has three xylanase genes, xyn1, xyn3, and xyn5. Xyn1, Xyn3, and Xyn5 are extracellular enzymes of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 11, 30, and 10, respectively. Xyn5 contains several domains including those of carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) similar to a surface-layer homologous (SLH) protein. This study focused on the role of Xyn5, localized on the cell surface, in water-insoluble xylan utilization. Electron microscopy using immunogold staining revealed Xyn5 clusters over the entire cell surface. Xyn5 was bound to cell wall fractions through its SLH domain. A Deltaxyn5 mutant grew poorly and produced minimal amounts of Xyn1 and Xyn3 on water-insoluble xylan. A Xyn5 mutant lacking the SLH domain (Xyn5DeltaSLH) grew poorly, secreting Xyn5DeltaSLH into the medium and producing minimal Xyn1 and Xyn3 on water-insoluble xylan. A mutant with an intact xyn5 produced Xyn5 on the cell surface, grew normally, and actively synthesized Xyn1 and Xyn3 on water-insoluble xylan. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that xylobiose, generated from water-insoluble xylan decomposition by Xyn5, is the most active inducer for xyn1 and xyn3. Luciferase assays using a Xyn5-luciferase fusion protein suggested that xylotriose is the best inducer for xyn5. The cell surface Xyn5 appears to play two essential roles in water-insoluble xylan utilization: (i) generation of the xylo-oligosaccharide inducers of all the xyn genes from water-insoluble xylan and (ii) attachment of the cells to the substrate so that the generated inducers can be immediately taken up by cells to activate expression of the xyn system.
Project description:We have shown that a xylan-degrading bacterium, W-61, excretes multiple xylanases, including xylanase 5 with a molecular mass of 140 kDa. Here, we emend the previously used classification of the bacterium (i.e., Aeromonas caviae W-61) to Paenibacillus sp. strain W-61 on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, and we clone and express the xyn5 gene encoding xylanase 5 (Xyn5) in Escherichia coli and study the subcellular localization of Xyn5. xyn5 encodes 1,326 amino acid residues, including a 27-amino-acid signal sequence. Sequence analysis indicated that Xyn5 comprises two family 22 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM), a family 10 catalytic domain of glycosyl hydrolases, a family 9 CBM, a domain similar to the lysine-rich region of Clostridium thermocellum SdbA, and three S-layer-homologous (SLH) domains. Recombinant Xyn5 bound to a crystalline cellulose, Avicel PH-101, while an N-terminal 90-kDa fragment of Xyn5, which lacks the C-terminal half of the family 9 CBM, did not bind to Avicel PH-101. Xyn5 was cell bound, and the cell-bound protein was digested by exogenous trypsin to produce immunoreactive and xylanolytic fragments with molecular masses of 80 and 60 kDa. Xyn5 was exclusively distributed in the cell envelope fraction consisting of a peptidoglycan-containing layer and an associated S layer. Thus, Paenibacillus sp. strain W-61 Xyn5 is a cell surface-anchored modular xylanase possessing a functional cellulose-binding module and SLH domains. Possible cooperative action of multiple xylanases produced by strain W-61 is discussed on the basis of the modular structure of Xyn5.
Project description:Background:Trichoderma reesei is a saprophytic fungus implicated in the degradation of polysaccharides present in the cell wall of plants. T. reesei has been recognized as the most important industrial fungus that secretes and produces cellulase enzymes that are employed in the production of second generation bioethanol. A few of the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of biomass deconstruction by T. reesei; in particular, the effect of sugar transporters and induction of xylanases and cellulases expression are yet to be known. Results:In our study, we characterized a novel sugar transporter, which was previously identified by our group through in silico analysis of RNA-seq data. The novel T. reesei 69957-sugar transport system (Tr69957) is capable of transporting xylose, mannose, and cellobiose using a T. reesei 69957-sugar transport system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deletion of Tr69957 in T. reesei affected the fungal growth and biomass accumulation, and the sugar uptake in the presence of mannose, cellobiose, and xylose. Molecular docking studies revealed that Tr69957 shows reduced protein-ligand binding energy for interactions towards disaccharides in comparison with monosaccharides. Furthermore, the deletion of Tr69957 affected the gene expression of cellobiohydrolases (cel7a and cel6a), ?-glucosidases (cel3a and cel1a), and xylanases (xyn1 and xyn2) in the cultures of parental and mutant strains in the presence of cellobiose and sugarcane bagasse (SCB). Conclusion:The transporter Tr69957 of T. reesei can transport cellobiose, xylose, and mannose, and can affect the expression of a few genes encoding enzymes, such as cellulases and xylanases, in the presence of SCB. We showed for the first time that a filamentous fungus (T. reesei) contains a potential mannose transporter that may be involved in the degradation of cellulose.
Project description:Background:Trichoderma reesei is considered a candidate fungal enzyme producer for the economic saccharification of cellulosic biomass. However, performance of the saccharifying enzymes produced by T. reesei is insufficient. Therefore, many attempts have been made to improve its performance by heterologous protein expression. In this study, to increase the conversion efficiency of alkaline-pretreated bagasse to sugars, we conducted screening of biomass-degrading enzymes that showed synergistic effects with enzyme preparations produced by recombinant T. reesei. Results:Penicillium sp. strain KSM-F532 produced the most effective enzyme to promote the saccharification of alkaline-pretreated bagasse. Biomass-degrading enzymes from strain KSM-F532 were fractionated and analyzed, and a xylanase, named PspXyn10, was identified. The amino acid sequence of PspXyn10 was determined by cDNA analysis: the enzyme shows a modular structure consisting of glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) and carbohydrate-binding module family 1 (CBM1) domains. Purified PspXyn10 was prepared from the supernatant of a recombinant T. reesei strain. The molecular weight of PspXyn10 was estimated to be 55 kDa, and its optimal temperature and pH for xylanase activity were 75 °C and pH 4.5, respectively. More than 80% of the xylanase activity was maintained at 65 °C for 10 min. With beechwood xylan as the substrate, the enzyme had a Km of 2.2 mg/mL and a Vmax of 332 ?mol/min/mg. PspXyn10?CBM, which lacked the CBM1 domain, was prepared by limited proteolysis. PspXyn10?CBM showed increased activity against soluble xylan, but decreased saccharification efficiency of alkaline-pretreated bagasse. This result indicated that the CBM1 domain of PspXyn10 contributes to the enhancement of the saccharification efficiency of alkaline-pretreated bagasse. A recombinant T. reesei strain, named X2PX10, was constructed from strain X3AB1. X3AB1 is an Aspergillus aculeatus ?-glucosidase-expressing T. reesei PC-3-7. X2PX10 also expressed PspXyn10 under the control of the xyn2 promoter. An enzyme preparation from X2PX10 showed almost the same saccharification efficiency of alkaline-pretreated bagasse at half the enzyme dosage as that used for an enzyme preparation from X3AB1. Conclusions:Our results suggest that PspXyn10 promotes the saccharification of alkaline-pretreated bagasse more efficiently than TrXyn3, a GH10 family xylanase from T. reesei, and that the PspXyn10-expressing strain is suitable for enzyme production for biomass saccharification.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In recent years, xylanases have attracted considerable research interest because of their potential in various industrial applications. The yeast Pichia pastoris can neither utilize nor degrade xylan, but it possesses many attributes that render it an attractive host for the expression and production of industrial enzymes. RESULTS: The Xyn2 gene, which encodes the main Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 endo-beta-1, 4-xylanase was cloned into the pPICZalphaA vector and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The selected P. pastoris strains produced as 4,350 nkat/ml beta-xylanase under the control of the methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. The secreted recombinant Xyn2 was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 21 kDa. The activity of the recombinant Xyn2 was highest at 60 degrees C and it was active over a broad range of pH (3.0-8.0) with maximal activity at pH 6.0. The enzyme was quite stable at 50 degrees C and retained more than 94% of its activity after 30 mins incubation at this temperature. Using Birchwood xylan, the determined apparent Km and kcat values were 2.1 mg/ml and 219.2 S-1, respectively. The enzyme was highly specific towards xylan and analysis of xylan hydrolysis products confirmed as expected that the enzyme functions as endo-xylanase with xylotriose as the main hydrolysis products. The produced xylanase was practically free of cellulolytic activity. CONCLUSION: The P. pastoris expression system allows a high level expression of xylanases. Xylanase was the main protein species in the culture supernatant, and the functional tests indicated that even the non-purified enzyme shows highly specific xylanase activity that is free of cellulolytic side acitivities. Therefore, P pastoris is a very useful expression system when the goal is highly specific and large scale production of glycosyl hydrolases.
Project description:Xyr1 (xylanase regulator 1) of the ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) was recently demonstrated to play an essential role in the transcriptional regulation of the xyn1 (xylanase 1-encoding) gene expression. Consequently, this study reports on the deletion of the xyr1 gene from the H. jecorina genome. Comparative studies of the growth behavior of the different mutant strains (deleted and retransformed xyr1) grown on various carbon sources pointed to the strongly reduced ability of the xyr1 deletion strain to utilize D-xylose and xylan. Transcriptional analysis of the xyl1 (D-xylose reductase 1-encoding) gene as well as measurements of corresponding enzymatic activities gave evidence that Xyr1 takes part in the control of the fungal D-xylose pathway, in particular in the regulation of D-xylose reductase. It could be demonstrated that the uptake of D-xylose into the fungal cell is uninfluenced in the Deltaxyr1 strain. Furthermore, transcriptional regulation of the major hydrolytic enzyme-encoding genes xyn1 and xyn2 (xylanases 1 and 2), cbh1 and cbh2 (cellobiohydrolases 1 and 2), and egl1 (endoglucanase 1) is strictly dependent on Xyr1. Regulation of the respective genes via Xyr1 is not affected by the substances mediating induction (xylose, xylobiose, and sophorose) and is indispensable for all modes of gene expression (basal, derepressed, and induced). Moreover, Xyr1, it was revealed, activated transcriptional regulation of inducer-providing enzymes such as beta-xylosidase BXLI and beta-glucosidase BGLI but was not shown to be involved in the regulation of BGLII.
Project description:Enzymes that cleave polysaccharides in lignocellulose, i. e., cellulases, xylanases, and accessory enzymes, play crucial roles in the natural decomposition of plant-derived biomass and its efficient and sustainable processing into biofuels or other bulk chemicals. The analysis of open reading frame cthe_2195 from the thermophilic, cellulolytic anaerobe Clostridium thermocellum (also known as 'Ruminiclostridium thermocellum') suggested that it encoded a cellulosomal protein comprising a dockerin-I module, a carbohydrate-binding module, and a module of previously unknown function. The biochemical characterisation upon recombinant expression in Escherichia coli revealed that the protein is a thermostable endoxylanase, named Xyn141E with an optimal pH of 6.0-6.5 and a temperature optimum of 67-75 °C. The substrate spectrum of Xyn141E resembles that of GH10 xylanases, because of its side activities on carboxymethyl cellulose, barley β-glucan, and mannan. Conversely, the product spectrum of Xyn141E acting on arabinoxylan is similar to those of GH11, as established by HPAEC-PAD analysis. Xyn141E is weakly related (20.7% amino acid sequence identity) to the founding member of the recently established GH family 141 and is the first xylanase in this new family of biomass-degrading enzymes.