Structural and Functional Aspects of Class A Carbapenemases.
ABSTRACT: The fight against infectious diseases is probably one of the greatest public health challenges faced by our society, especially with the emergence of carbapenem-resistant gram-negatives that are in some cases pan-drug resistant. Currently,β-lactamase-mediated resistance does not spare even the newest and most powerful β-lactams (carbapenems), whose activity is challenged by carbapenemases. The worldwide dissemination of carbapenemases in gram-negative organisms threatens to take medicine back into the pre-antibiotic era since the mortality associated with infections caused by these "superbugs" is very high, due to limited treatment options. Clinically-relevant carbapenemases belong either to metallo-β- lactamases (MBLs) of Ambler class B or to serine-β-lactamases (SBLs) of Ambler class A and D enzymes. Class A carbapenemases may be chromosomally-encoded (SME, NmcA, SFC-1, BIC-1, PenA, FPH-1, SHV-38), plasmid-encoded (KPC, GES, FRI-1) or both (IMI). The plasmid-encoded enzymes are often associated with mobile elements responsible for their mobilization. These enzymes, even though weakly related in terms of sequence identities, share structural features and a common mechanism of action. They variably hydrolyse penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems, and are inhibited by clavulanate and tazobactam. Three-dimensional structures of class A carbapenemases, in the apo form or in complex with substrates/inhibitors, together with site-directed mutagenesis studies, provide essential input for identifying the structural factors and subtle conformational changes that influence the hydrolytic profile and inhibition of these enzymes. Overall, these data represent the building blocks for understanding the structure-function relationships that define the phenotypes of class A carbapenemases and can guide the design of new molecules of therapeutic interest.
Project description:Carbapenems such as imipenem are extended-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics, which are not hydrolyzed by the beta-lactamases commonly found in Enterobacteriaceae. Here we report a gene encoding a carbapenemase, which was cloned from the chromosome of a clinical isolate of Enterobacter cloacae, strain NOR-1, into pACYC184 plasmid in Escherichia coli. Unlike all the sequenced carbapenemases, which are class B metallo-beta-lactamases, the mature protein (NmcA) is a class A serine beta-lactamase. NmcA shares the highest amino acid identity (50%) with the extended-spectrum class A beta-lactamase MEN-1 from E. coli. In the opposite orientation from the nmcA promoter, an overlapping and divergent promoter was detected, along with an open reading frame, which encoded a 33.5-kDa protein (NmcR). The NmcR amino acid sequence displays homology with LysR-type transcriptional regulatory proteins, including the conserved residues near its N terminus within a helix-turn-helix motif. Deletion of nmcR resulted in decreased carbapenem resistance and a loss of beta-lactamase inducibility, demonstrating a positive role of NmcR in NmcA expression.
Project description:Carbapenemases are beta-lactamases with versatile hydrolytic capacities. They have the ability to hydrolyze penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems. Bacteria producing these beta-lactamases may cause serious infections in which the carbapenemase activity renders many beta-lactams ineffective. Carbapenemases are members of the molecular class A, B, and D beta-lactamases. Class A and D enzymes have a serine-based hydrolytic mechanism, while class B enzymes are metallo-beta-lactamases that contain zinc in the active site. The class A carbapenemase group includes members of the SME, IMI, NMC, GES, and KPC families. Of these, the KPC carbapenemases are the most prevalent, found mostly on plasmids in Klebsiella pneumoniae. The class D carbapenemases consist of OXA-type beta-lactamases frequently detected in Acinetobacter baumannii. The metallo-beta-lactamases belong to the IMP, VIM, SPM, GIM, and SIM families and have been detected primarily in Pseudomonas aeruginosa; however, there are increasing numbers of reports worldwide of this group of beta-lactamases in the Enterobacteriaceae. This review updates the characteristics, epidemiology, and detection of the carbapenemases found in pathogenic bacteria.
Project description:Food for human consumption is screened widely for the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to assess the potential for transfer of resistant bacteria to the general population. Here, we describe an Enterobacter cloacae complex isolated from imported seafood that encodes two carbapenemases on two distinct plasmids. Both enzymes belong to Ambler class A ?-lactamases, the previously described IMI-2 and a novel family designated FLC-1. The hydrolytic activity of the novel enzyme against aminopenicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems was determined.
Project description:Some members of the class A β-lactamase family are capable of conferring resistance to the last resort antibiotics, carbapenems. A unique structural feature of these clinically important enzymes, collectively referred to as class A carbapenemases, is a disulfide bridge between invariant Cys69 and Cys238 residues. It was proposed that this conserved disulfide bridge is responsible for their carbapenemase activity, but this has not yet been validated. Here we show that disruption of the disulfide bridge in the GES-5 carbapenemase by the C69G substitution results in only minor decreases in the conferred levels of resistance to the carbapenem imipenem and other β-lactams. Kinetic and circular dichroism experiments with C69G-GES-5 demonstrate that this small drop in antibiotic resistance is due to a decline in the enzyme activity caused by a marginal loss of its thermal stability. The atomic resolution crystal structure of C69G-GES-5 shows that two domains of this disulfide bridge-deficient enzyme are held together by an intensive hydrogen-bonding network. As a result, the protein architecture and imipenem binding mode remain unchanged. In contrast, the corresponding hydrogen-bonding networks in NMCA, SFC-1, and SME-1 carbapenemases are less intensive, and as a consequence, disruption of the disulfide bridge in these enzymes destabilizes them, which causes arrest of bacterial growth. Our results demonstrate that the disulfide bridge is essential for stability but does not play a direct role in the carbapenemase activity of the GES family of β-lactamases. This would likely apply to all other class A carbapenemases given the high degree of their structural similarity.
Project description:A Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate (PF-1) resistant to carbapenems was recovered during an environmental survey performed with water from the Seine River (Paris). It expressed a novel Ambler class A carbapenemase, BIC-1, sharing 68 and 59% amino acid identities with beta-lactamases SFC-1 from Serratia fonticola and the plasmid-encoded KPC-2, respectively. beta-Lactamase BIC-1 hydrolyzed penicillins, carbapenems, and cephalosporins except ceftazidime and monobactams. The bla(BIC-1) gene was chromosomally located and was also identified in two other P. fluorescens strains isolated from the Seine River 3 months later.
Project description:Carbapenemases are ?-lactamases belonging to different Ambler classes (A, B, D) and can be encoded by both chromosomal and plasmid-mediated genes. These enzymes represent the most potent ?-lactamases, which hydrolyze a broad variety of ?-lactams, including carbapenems, cephalosporins, penicillin, and aztreonam. The major issues associated with carbapenemase production are clinical due to compromising the activity of the last resort antibiotics used for treating serious infections, and epidemiological due to their dissemination into various bacteria across almost all geographic regions. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae have received more attention upon their first report in the early 1990s. Currently, there is increased awareness of the impact of nonfermenting bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as other Gram-negative bacteria that are carbapenemase-producers. Outside the scope of clinical importance, carbapenemases are also detected in bacteria from environmental and zoonotic niches, which raises greater concerns over their prevalence, and the need for public health measures to control consequences of their propagation. The aims of the current review are to define and categorize the different families of carbapenemases, and to overview the main lines of their spread across different bacterial groups.
Project description:Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are an important and increasing threat to global health. Both clonal spread and plasmid-mediated transmission contribute to the ongoing rise in incidence of these bacteria. Among the 4 classes of β-lactamases defined by the Ambler classification system, the carbapenemases that confer carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae belong to 3 of them: Class A (K. pneumoniae carbapenemases, KPC), Class B (metallo-β-lactamases, MBL including New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases, NDM) and Class D (OXA-48-like carbapenemases). KPC-producing CPE are the most commonly occurring CPE in the United States. MBL-producing CPE have been most commonly associated with the Indian Subcontinent as well as with specific countries in Europe, including Romania, Denmark, Spain, and Hungary. The epicenter of OXA-48-like-producing is in Turkey and surrounding countries. Detailed knowledge of the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of CPE is essential to stem the spread of these pathogens.
Project description:Empedobacter brevis (formerly designated Flavobacterium breve) is a gram-negative aerobe involved in nosocomial infections. The Ambler class B beta-lactamase gene bla(EBR-1) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli from E. brevis clinical strain ASS-1, which had reduced susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems. Purified beta-lactamase EBR-1 hydrolyzed penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems efficiently but not aztreonam. Kinetic parameters of EBR-1 were similar to those of class B enzymes such as BlaB, IND-2, and GOB-1 identified from other Flavobacteriaceae species, except for meropenem, which was more hydrolyzed by beta-lactamase GOB-1. EBR-1, with a pI of 8.0 and a relative molecular mass of ca. 25 kDa, was classified in functional subgroup 3a, which includes most of the class B beta-lactamases. EBR-1, which belongs to molecular subclass B1 of metalloenzymes, shares 58, 57, and 42% amino acid identity with the most closely related beta-lactamases, IND-1/IND-2 from Chryseobacterium indologenes, CGB-1 from Chryseobacterium gleum, and BlaB from Chryseobacterium meningosepticum, respectively.
Project description:As shifts in the epidemiology of ?-lactamase-mediated resistance continue, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) are the most urgent threats. Although approved ?-lactam (BL)-?-lactamase inhibitor (BLI) combinations address widespread serine ?-lactamases (SBLs), such as CTX-M-15, none provide broad coverage against either clinically important serine-?-lactamases (KPC, OXA-48) or clinically important metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs; e.g., NDM-1). VNRX-5133 (taniborbactam) is a new cyclic boronate BLI that is in clinical development combined with cefepime for the treatment of infections caused by ?-lactamase-producing CRE and CRPA. Taniborbactam is the first BLI with direct inhibitory activity against Ambler class A, B, C, and D enzymes. From biochemical and structural analyses, taniborbactam exploits substrate mimicry while employing distinct mechanisms to inhibit both SBLs and MBLs. It is a reversible covalent inhibitor of SBLs with slow dissociation and a prolonged active-site residence time (half-life, 30 to 105?min), while in MBLs, it behaves as a competitive inhibitor, with inhibitor constant (Ki ) values ranging from 0.019 to 0.081??M. Inhibition is achieved by mimicking the transition state structure and exploiting interactions with highly conserved active-site residues. In microbiological testing, taniborbactam restored cefepime activity in 33/34 engineered Escherichia coli strains overproducing individual enzymes covering Ambler classes A, B, C, and D, providing up to a 1,024-fold shift in the MIC. Addition of taniborbactam restored the antibacterial activity of cefepime against all 102 Enterobacterales clinical isolates tested and 38/41 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates tested with MIC90s of 1 and 4??g/ml, respectively, representing ?256- and ?32-fold improvements, respectively, in antibacterial activity over that of cefepime alone. The data demonstrate the potent, broad-spectrum rescue of cefepime activity by taniborbactam against clinical isolates of CRE and CRPA.
Project description:Beta-lactamases inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics and are a major cause of antibiotic resistance. The recent outbreaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenem resistant (KPC) infections mediated by KPC type beta-lactamases are creating a serious threat to our "last resort" antibiotics, the carbapenems. KPC beta-lactamases are serine carbapenemases and are a subclass of class A beta-lactamases that have evolved to efficiently hydrolyze carbapenems and cephamycins which contain substitutions at the alpha-position proximal to the carbonyl group that normally render these beta-lactams resistant to hydrolysis. To investigate the molecular basis of this carbapenemase activity, we have determined the structure of KPC-2 at 1.85 A resolution. The active site of KPC-2 reveals the presence of a bicine buffer molecule which interacts via its carboxyl group with conserved active site residues S130, K234, T235, and T237; these likely resemble the interactions the beta-lactam carboxyl moiety makes in the Michaelis-Menten complex. Comparison of the KPC-2 structure with non-carbapenemases and previously determined NMC-A and SME-1 carbapenemase structures shows several active site alterations that are unique among carbapenemases. An outward shift of the catalytic S70 residue renders the active sites of the carbapenemases more shallow, likely allowing easier access of the bulkier substrates. Further space for the alpha-substituents is potentially provided by shifts in N132 and N170 in addition to concerted movements in the postulated carboxyl binding pocket that might allow the substrates to bind at a slightly different angle to accommodate these alpha-substituents. The structure of KPC-2 provides key insights into the carbapenemase activity of emerging class A beta-lactamases.